Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Focus on Electronics

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Siemens starter/generator for 2002

The first of its kind to reach production, Siemens Automotive's Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system will be a supplemental powerplant application on a European small car platform beginning in the next model year, according to the company. ISG technology was developed to enable SUV makers to reach state fuel economy improvement goals of up to 25% by 2005.

"In real-world driving conditions, Siemens ISG-equipped test vehicles have demonstrated significant fuel economy gains," said Kregg Wiggins, Siemens Automotive Vice President of Powertrain, North America. "Siemens ISG represents a substantial leap toward realizing our customer's fuel economy gains with technology that soon will be introduced into the market place."


The Siemens ISG replaces the conventional starter, generator, and flywheel of the engine and provides an auxiliary function as an automatic vehicle start-stop system for improved fuel efficiency.

The Siemens ISG system replaces the conventional starter, generator, and flywheel of the engine and provides an auxiliary function as a convenient automatic vehicle start-stop system for further improved fuel efficiency. The system switches off the combustion engine at zero load--such as when standing at a traffic light--and automatically restarts it in less than 100 ms when the gas pedal is pressed. The pulse-start technology accelerates the combustion engine to the required cranking speed (idle speed) and only then initiates the combustion process for instant ignition, a feature that helps reduce both fuel consumption and emissions. ISG also optimizes the use of electric energy.

The ISG's compact dimensions allow it to be placed directly on the crankshaft between the engine and the transmission. High electric power output, even at low speeds, enhances the performance of comfort and convenience features. These include the air conditioner, seat heater, or rear-window defroster.

Siemens claims that the ISG is also versatile when it comes to other disciplines. In the boost mode, the starter briefly serves as a second engine to drive the vehicle or provide acceleration in the low-speed range. The boost mode provides a short-term power increase of 15 kW (20 hp), depending on the configuration of the ISG and battery. In the retarder mode, the ISG has the ability to convert kinetic energy to storable electric energy.

Driveability is enhanced by the ISG's torsional-vibration damping. Without active damping, load reversals and/or abrupt acceleration could cause low-frequency vibration in the powertrain that, in turn, might cause the vehicle to jerk.

The introduction of the ISG will also provide the transition from a 14-V to a 42-V vehicle electrical system. "With the advent of starter-generator and a supporting 42-V vehicle architecture, power struggles will soon become a thing of the past," said Ted Vartabedian, Siemens Automotive System Engineer for Electronic/Electrical Distribution Systems. "The increasing demand for electrical power during low engine speed or cold starting will no longer overburden a vehicle's power supply with ISG."

An increasing number of energy consuming technologies such as electronically assisted steering and electromechanical valve train require generator outputs from 4 to 8 kW (5 to 10 hp) across the entire engine range--more power than conventional generators can provide. The Siemens ISG reaches a peak generator output of 8 kW (10 hp) with an efficiency of more than 80% across the entire speed range. In comparison, a conventional generator puts out 1.5 kW (2 hp) with a maximum efficiency of 70%, which drops to 30% at high speeds.

- Jean L. Broge


IRC resistors for intelligent airbag ignitor


IRC's thin film resistor chips are designed for ignitors in vehicle airbag and seatbelt pretensioning systems.

Resistor manufacturer IRC has developed a series of advanced thin film resistors specifically designed for the latest generation of "intelligent ignitors" in vehicle airbag and seatbelt pretensioning systems. The surface mount resistor chips provide automotive systems engineers with a precise and reliable electronic means of initiating airbag ignition within 100 ms using a low-power capacitor-driven circuit.

According to Steve Wade, Director of Sales & Marketing at IRC's Corpus Christi, TX, Advanced Film Division, the company combined the stability of self-passivating TaNFilm tantalum nitride thin-film technology with the precision of fine-line photolithography techniques to provide the fast ignition required for the airbag application. "Our process creates an extremely small resistor 'bridge' that places the source of ignition in intimate contact with the pyrotechnic material used to initiate the airbag inflation," said Wade. "These devices achieve ignition temperature 10 times faster and with less input energy than conventional wire ignitors." The TaNfilm elements exhibit a melting point of 3000°C (5430°F).

Previous airbag ignition systems typically employed a platinum-wire ignition source. "With a wire ignitor, it is more difficult to control the precise point of ignition, and they typically require significantly more energy for their operation," said Wade. The IRC ignitor chip achieves ignition temperature using less than 100 µJ (74 µftlb) of energy, which is supplied by an onboard capacitor, enabling design engineers to further miniaturize the airbag actuation system.

The IRC ignitor chip exhibits enhanced performance in Bruceton testing, a statistical test method designed to measure the device's performance from a "no-fire" condition (the maximum threshold at which the device will not activate) to an "all-fire" condition (the minimum threshold where virtually all the devices will activate).

The ignitor resistors are available in two standard chip sizes--0603 and 0805--on high-grade alumina ceramic substrates with wrap-around gold-plated solder terminations, or as silicon die designed for high reliability wire bond terminations. The device's industry-standard packages are compatible with automated assembly equipment and reflow soldering methods. The resistors feature resistance values from 2 to 10 ohms, with tolerances to ±10%.

- Jean L. Broge


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Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.