Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Focus on Electronics

September 2002
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BMW unveils F1 headup display


The headup display unit was integrated into the chin cup of a modified racing helmet for testing.

In August, BMW took the wraps off a miniature headup display integrated in Ralf Schumacher's helmet to enable a range of messages and information to be relayed to the driver. The "visual information window" means that racing drivers can register visual information while still paying full attention to their driving.

The driver can be alerted, for example, to an accident on a certain stretch of the track or a patch of oil in a particular turn, an important step forward on the safety front, according to Schumacher, who drives for the BMW WiliamsF1 Team. It allows the driver to be permanently informed of his position in the race, receive instructions from the pits during racing and training such as "go faster" or "come into the box," and keep up-to-date on flag signals and emergency procedures by means of messages such as "pit traffic" or "oil pump." Information can be sent by a pit instructor to the driver through bi-directional telemetry, or information on the engine management can be sent directly to the driver without having to go through the pits, helping to save precious time.

The 6 x 8 mm (0.2 x 0.3 in) display was devised by the BMW Group's Research and Technology Center (FIZ) in Palo Alto, CA, in collaboration with BMW subsidiary Designworks/USA and German helmet manufacturer Schuberth. Tests are to be completed in 2002, with Schumacher using the mini display in his helmet starting next season.

A module integrated in the helmet stores various messages and images, which can be called up from the pits and displayed to the driver. The display projects the relevant "transparent" image through the visor on a level with the front of the car so that the driver can register the information without being distracted from what is happening on the track. The high-resolution true color unit is based on active-matrix liquid-crystal-display (AMLCD) technology. A key component of the display is a unique lens element known as a free-form prism (FFP), which enables a "pin sharp" picture.

BMW's headup display was designed to provide information to the F1 driver with minimal distraction.

For testing, the miniature display was integrated into the chin cup of a modified Schuberth RF-1 racing helmet. Additional walls and padding were used in accordance with guidelines from the Snell Foundation, the helmet-safety organization. The system is located in the peripheral vision field of the driver's dominant eye, though it doesn't distract. "The eye very quickly gets used to this small spot and ignores it as if it were a tiny insect on the windscreen," explained Jürgen Brügl, Project Engineer at BMW's Palo Alto facility.

Since 1998, 16 IT experts, logisticians, chemists, and engineers from various specialist fields have been working at the FIZ to ensure the fastest possible integration of innovative technologies, such as the headup display, into BMW cars.

- Kevin Jost


Electronics history lesson


The first U.S. application of electronic fuel injection was on the Cosworth Vega, a Chevrolet two-door hatchback powered by a 122-in3 (2.0-L) Cosworth 16-valve DOHC engine that produced 110 hp (82 kW) at 5600 rpm.

For more than 60 years, the automobile and electronics had a rather poor connection. But in the early 1960s, vehicles and electronics bonded to create what is today a $54+ billion global business.

"Today, from the front bumper to the back bumper, every system on a vehicle has electronics on it," Jerry Rivard, President of Global Technology and Business Development, said during a session at the 6th annual Siemens VDO Automotive Electronics University, a one-day media and analysts technology clinic in Beverly Hills, MI.

Consumer radios and military communication devices were the mainstay of electronics usage prior to the late 1950s. When diodes, transistors, analog integrated circuits, and digital integrated circuits gained a vehicle applications foothold in the 1960s and 1970s, the initial development phase of automotive electronic products included the proliferation of electronic fuel ignition, a technology that was sparked by government regulations aimed at reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy.

Engine controls, also an emissions and fuel economy-motivated pursuit, gained momentum in the late 1970s through the 1980s. For example, the 1975 Cadillac Seville used a 7 x 10 x 3 in (180 x 255 x 85 mm) analog engine control unit with 275 components. Its discrete components included 145 resistors, 38 capacitors, 41 transistors, and 36 diodes along with four linear integrated circuits (standard), custom components including five linear integrated circuits and one thick-film signal module, and five thick-film resistor modules.

"As integrated circuit technology evolved, it became possible to design many of the functions into the integrated circuits, thus eliminating a lot of discreet components," said Rivard. Today's digital engine control unit has 90 or fewer components packaged in a box about 4 x 5 x 1 in (100 x 125 x 25 mm), according to Rivard, noting the downward trend in package size and number of components continues.

The second development wave added microprocessors and other enablers to the electronics bin, facilitating the addition of such vehicle features as anti-lock braking, electronic engine controls, and climate control during the 1980s. "Electronic engine controls were representative of how the industry evolved vehicle subsystems," said Rivard, who advises international business executives on technology management.

With the addition of intelligent power, intelligent sensors, and large electrical erasable PROMs (essentially memory technology), integrated systems flourished in the 1990s. Integrated powertrain/traction control, integrated braking, steering and suspension, multiplexing, communication and navigation, as well as onboard diagnostics represent the broad array of smart systems.

The present development phase of automotive electronics includes such enablers as digital signal processing and 32-bit microprocessors. Computing power is now 40 times greater than what is was in 1975, and since that time the industry has experienced 300-fold growth in the number of transistors on a chip.

In retracing the past 42 years of automotive electronics, the 1980s stand apart. "Most of the automotive electronics technologies came about in the 1980s, which was the 'magic' decade of applications. The most progress made on the electronic enablers, primarily due to reliability and quality improvements, was from 1975 through 1985," said Rivard.

- Kami Buchholz


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Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.