Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Global Vehicles

October 2002
More 1 2

Rollover safety in Volvo's XC90


Volvo's first SUV, the XC90, is based on the S80/S60/V70 chassis.

The newly introduced Volvo XC90 is an SUV that makes a powerful safety statement. Yes, the company's safety concept car, exhibited earlier this year, has more safety features, but the XC-90 is something you can buy now. Volvo believes the XC90 shows that a production SUV can protect so well that, even in a rollover, the Swedish automaker assumes the passengers survive and is taking a close look at what is needed post-accident.

Hans Olov Olsson, President of Volvo Car Corp., inspects the XC90 set at a 24° angle on the rollover test trolley. The body panels are different colors to aid evaluation of crash dynamics images taken by high-speed cameras.

The XC90 is an all-wheel-drive vehicle with 218-mm (8.6-in) ground clearance and a seating position 165 mm (6.5 in) higher than the XC-70 wagon. The XC90's center-of-gravity has been kept low by careful underbody design, but still is 89 mm (3.5 in) higher than the XC70.

SUV-type rollover behavior was a key safety focus. To prevent rollover in the first place, a gyroscopic sensor detects roll speed and angle, and a computer operates ABS and electronic throttle to apply specific wheel brakes and reduce power (to produce understeer). However, driver error on bad roads and/or a collision with another car can cause even the XC90 to roll over.


The trolley is accelerated to 48kph (30mph), and at the end of the track, the XC90 is released into a rollover.

The safety cage construction and a sophisticated air curtain system provide advanced protection. Boron steel, which is over four times stronger than conventional steel, is used for the A- and B-pillars as well as the roof bars. The B-pillars are engineered to tie into and reinforce the roof and platform, yet the top halves are thin enough for good rear visibility.

Volvo demonstrated structural safety with a rollover test: an XC90 set at an angle of 24° on a test track trolley, accelerated laterally to 48 km/h (30 mph), and released. It rolled more than three times, landing on its side. The body suffered only "crease" denting (although so much that it was beyond repair), doors could be opened and closed, and windows, windshield, and backlight were cracked, but none shattered. The right front control arm sheared only as the vehicle came to rest on its side. Results were typical of what Volvo had seen in earlier testing.

Inside, pretensioners locked to hold the test dummies. Side airbags and air curtains deployed. The curtains extend from front through to the third seat and are installed so they inflate to follow the windows. As intended, they slipped between the glass and a passenger dummy's head, protecting the head. Because the rollover was detected, deflating of the curtains slowed, protecting until the rollover ended. The XC90 seats have an anti-whiplash system introduced on the S80, and although the findings look promising, Volvo says it doesn't have enough data to show conclusive results.

Creasing of the XC90 body results from the rollover test, but doors can be opened and closed. The backlight was intentionally broken after vehicle came to rest to permit interior inspection.

However, Volvo has seen enough to increase its post-accident focus, according to Dr. Poul Konstad, a Volvo medical consultant who is a neurosurgeon with emergency room experience. Whether an accident is reported by a witness, occupant, or automatically when the airbags deploy, Dr. Konstad said an emergency service needs to know:

• If anyone is alive—Many bio-sensors have been developed, and if they serve non-accident functions they may be more cost-effective. A body temperature sensor would have limited value, even in conjunction with climate-control systems. Cameras are useful for external safety, but separate ones would be needed for the interior, and they might not identify an unconscious passenger. However, the heartbeat sensor developed by Volvo's parent Ford also could indicate if a child or animal is left in a vehicle, detect a hidden occupant (mugger), or even unlock doors when the driver (carrying a separate identification device in a purse or pocket) touches a door handle.

The XC90 features boron steel A- and B-pillars as well as roof beams (in red) to help maintain cabin integrity in a rollover.

• Severity of the accident: vehicle speed at impact or rollover, vehicle orientation (on its side or roof, for example), and were passengers belted—Dr. Konstad said these data points are usually enough to tell if the occupants survived (even with nobody to talk to), what type of injuries they were likely to have received, and what kind of extraction equipment may be needed to get them safely out of the vehicle. With that information, the emergency service also can set priorities for its equipment. It would go first to accidents with severely injured occupants in the 1-3 h "golden window" for the best chance at saving lives, next to those less-severely injured but whose recovery would be enhanced.

- Paul Weissler


More 1 2

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.