Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Tech Briefs

May 2002
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Valeo and Ricardo ready the i-MoGen


Valeo's integrated starter-alternator system will be mounted on the crankshaft of a C category car between the engine and transmission.

The 42-V mild hybrid-diesel technology demonstrator vehicle being developed by Valeo and Ricardo will be ready soon in a C category car. Valeo and Ricardo announced at last year's Frankfurt Motor Show that they had established a technical and strategic partnership that combined Valeo's electrical energy and thermal management systems with Ricardo's diesel powertrain and vehicle engineering expertise in systems integration and control (see AEI, November 2001).

Called i-MoGen (Intelligent Motor Generator), the demonstrator vehicle will integrate a range of Valeo's 42-V systems, including the company's integrated starter-alternator, its HVAC system, intelligent engine cooling, and other electrical systems. A high-output, downsized 1.2-L diesel engine will constitute the core of the powertrain, together with a supervisory controller to coordinate system operation, both developed by Ricardo. The demonstration vehicle is expected to achieve its main technology targets of a fuel economy of less than 4 L/100 km; exhaust emissions of 50% of current Euro IV levels; acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h (0 to 62 mph) in 10 s; and "production vehicle refinement and driveability," according to the company.

The high-output, 1.2-L, four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine will produce 74 kW (100 hp). Both companies claim that the engine will reduce fuel consumption by 20% compared with a 2.0-L conventional diesel engine and offer possible total weight savings of up to 30%, which compensates for the additional weight normally expected in mild hybridization. Valeo's high-efficiency, integrated starter-alternator system, which will be mounted on the crankshaft between the engine and the transmission, will perform a number of key functions including stop-and-go. As frequent readers know, this entails stopping the engine when it is not required and automatically restarting it when it is, so that when a driver waits at a traffic light, the engine is automatically stopped. When the driver re-engages a gear, the engine restarts.

Quiet starting is realized through the use of the integrated starter-alternator in motor mode. Since this unit is fully integrated into the powertrain and replaces the traditional starter motor, engaging of the starter's gear on the ring gear—a violent and noisy operation—is no longer needed, and noise is therefore significantly reduced. The starting time is only 0.3 s as opposed to one full second with a conventional starter motor, leading to further reduction in emissions.

During acceleration, the integrated starter-alternator is used as an electric motor to give an extra boost to the engine so that despite the smaller power unit size, the i-MoGen powertrain can supply similar torque to that of a much larger and heavier 2.0-L diesel engine. The system also includes regenerative braking.

Valeo's starter-alternator, HVAC, engine cooling, and other electrical systems will be integrated with a 1.2-L Ricardo diesel engine with a supervisory controller to coordinate system operation.

Maximum electrical output power from the Valeo integrated starter-alternator unit when running in alternator mode is 6 kW, or about three times higher than conventional alternators. This output is necessary to allow the operation of high-power electrical components such as the electrical HVAC compressor, or the electrically heated diesel particulate filter, a Ricardo solution.

A Valeo-developed dc/dc converter will be integrated to supply 14 V to the low-power electrical components that are not converted to 42 V. Valeo is collaborating with a battery specialist to develop and integrate fault-tolerant batteries with a battery state-of-charge function guaranteeing the reliability of all its 42-V systems.

THEMIS, a Valeo system capable of managing and optimizing engine temperature according to the driving conditions, will be central to i-MoGen's engine cooling system. It features an electrical variable water pump, electronically controlled variable speed fans, and an electronic coolant valve, replacing the conventional thermostat. Engine warm-up time is reduced by up to 50%. As an additional benefit, the THEMIS system enhances cabin comfort, continuing to provide heat even after the engine has been switched off.

Valeo's 42-V electrical HVAC system, based on an electrical compressor, will be integrated into the demonstration vehicle. It only uses energy "on demand." Because HVAC systems are notorious power consumers, the new system is set to bring "significant" fuel-economy benefits, claims Valeo. The system is also equipped with a 42-V, 1.3-kW cabin air heater that helps to compensate for the low heat rejection of a downsized diesel engine under warm-up conditions from a cold start.

- Stuart Birch


Advanced propulsion system from UQM


UQM's Integrated Electronic Traction System (INTETS) is shown without its electronic housing cover. It offers regenerative braking and full power at 25-400 V dc input.

UQM Technologies, Inc. unveiled at last year's SAE World Congress its Integrated Electric Traction System (INTETS) advanced propulsion system for hybrid, electric, and fuel-cell vehicles. The INTETS can be used as a sole propulsion system for small- to midsize vehicles or as an axle-drive system for larger vehicles. An intelligent electronic controller allows tailoring the system for many different applications. Applicability to a variety of vehicle configurations was an important design consideration during its development.

"Its highly integrated design offers a very compact footprint, an important edge in a highly competitive arena where the size and weight of virtually every automotive component is crucial to achieving maximum efficiency and economy," said William G. Rankin, President and Chief Executive Officer of UQM Technologies. "This is especially true in the case of next-generation advanced technology vehicles where increasing fuel economy or range is an absolute imperative, or where additional space is needed for passengers or energy storage."

Externally there have been no modifications to the system since it was unveiled in 2001, with only minor internal modifications, according to Jon Lutz, Director of Engineering at UQM. During the testing phase of the system completed at the end of March 2002, Lutz claims that the system achieved a peak efficiency that exceeded 91% for the complete system (including the motor, inverter/controller, and gearing) and a peak power of 75 kW (100 hp), surpassing the company's goal of 70 kW (94 hp). It also achieved a peak torque of 1700 N•m (1255 lb•ft), surpassing the goal of 1650 N•m (1215 lb•ft).

The INTETS has a length of 380 mm (15 in) and a 280-mm (11-in) diameter without the system's optional inverter. It integrates a 30-kW (40-hp) continuous power brushless permanent magnet motor using neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets for quick off-the-line acceleration and greater than 161-km/h (100-mph) top speed, depending upon tire size. The system incorporates epicyclic single-stage gearing, off-the-shelf differential componentry, and parking pawl. Components are used for multiple purposes to reduce part count and cost, and feature geometry specifically designed to minimize noise. Components are designed to meet FMVSS standards and a 240,000-km (150,000-mi) life.

- Jean L. Broge


HT machine uses body lean

Gravity laws and innovative technology make the Segway Human Transporter (HT) an intuitive machine that provides a lone driver a unique mobility mode. "The further you lean forward, the faster it goes. If you want to back up, you just lean backwards," said Dan Runkle, Executive Vice President of Delphi Corp., the Troy, MI-headquartered company that provides the Segway HT with control unit circuit boards and the handlebar-located user-interface components. As the "world's first" dynamic self-balancing, electric-powered transportation vehicle, the Segway HT is a compact unit designed for stand-up travel and takes up "no more space than a human."

According to Dean Kamen, Chairman and CEO of the Manchester, NH-based Segway LLC, "If the Segway HT is widely adopted, it could help solve major urban problems, such as pollution, congestion, and livability." The Segway HT will be produced in three models: the i-series (an all-terrain version), the p-series (a 530-mm (21-in) wheelbase unit intended for use in dense pedestrian-populated areas), and the e-series (a saddlebag model designed for driver and 34 kg (75 lb) of cargo), according to Tobe Cohen, Director of Brand Strategy and Marketing for Segway.

The zero-turning radius e-series model has a top speed of 20 km/h (12.5 mph) and a single charge range up to 27 km (17 mi). The e-series version has a mass of 36 kg (80 lb) and has a 203-mm (8-in) platform height and a 483- x 635-mm (19- x 25-in) footprint. (Among the initial fleet customers, the e-series will be used and evaluated by the U.S. Postal Service.)

HT models use an array of components from various suppliers. High-speed brushless dc motors, designed and built by Pacific Scientific, independently drive each wheel. Each motor is wound as two separate electrical circuits. "The system is redundant," said Cohen. Because of reverse torque braking, the motors convert the energy motion into battery power. "Most regenerative braking on other electric vehicles only applies to light deceleration; friction brakes provide final stopping power. Our closed-loop servo control allows us to stop within the limits of traction using only the motors," he said. Motors, batteries, transmissions, and electronics are located within a die-cast aluminum chassis that the driver stands atop.

British Aerospace Enterprises, a supplier of guidance systems and navigation electronics, provides the HT's five gyroscopes and two tilt sensors, which determine the machine's orientation relative to the direction of gravity. The gyroscopes are configured in such a way that any angular machine motion is sensed by at least two of the five gyroscopes. Silicon Sensing Systems collaborated with Segway to develop the HT's gyroscopes and tilt sensors contained within the commercial sensor assembly, a crucial aspect of the machine's self-balancing capability.

French company Saft worked with Segway on battery development. The Segway HT uses either nickel cadium (NiCd) or nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. The p-series has 48 cells per battery pack, while the i-/e-series has 60 cells per pack. There are two battery packs per machine. Voltage is 58 V for the p-series and 72 V for the i-/e-series. "The battery pack connector terminates as two separate packs at half that voltage," said Cohen. Segway HT's onboard charge port uses 110-220 V, 50-60 Hz ac.

For NiCd, a full charge—including charging, top-off, and equalization—is approximately four to five hours. For NiMH, full charge time is about six to seven hours. "Ninety percent of full charge can be reached in substantially less time though," said Cohen.

Segway HT is the first commercial application of GE Plastics' SOLLX polymer, a weather and chemical resistant film (a paint alternative). Michelin North America, Inc. developed the unique tread tires with low rolling resistance as well as the wheel assembly. According to Kamen, first year production is expected to be 100,000 units. Initial commercial applications include manufacturing and warehousing plants as well as mail, package, and product delivery. Commercial models are expected to range in price from $8000 to $10,000, depending on how equipped. Consumer sales are anticipated in late 2002.

- Kami Buchholz


More 1 2 3

Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.