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Viewing 1 to 30 of 274
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2694
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
Abstract Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
2014-09-22
Article
Internal combustion engines are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in improving efficiency with lower emissions, due in part to low-temperature combustion regimes. Such regimes show great efficiency and emissions potential, but they present optimization and control challenges.
2014-05-14
Article
Michael Duoba (SAE Member, 1993), Vehicle Test Engineer and team leader for the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, discuss his career progression and the type of work conducted at his lab.
2014-04-28
Article
3-D catalytic activity of new open-frame nanoparticles is twenty times that of existing formulations.
2014-04-14
Article
Backed by the world’s fifth-fastest computer, Argonne’s new VERIFI service combines unique test facilities along with focused expertise to help engine developers.
2014-04-09
Article
Argonne National Laboratory used the first day of the SAE 2014 World Congress in Detroit on April 8 to launch a new program designed to help automakers design more efficient engines via optimized combustion.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1426
Michele Battistoni, Qingluan Xue, Sibendu Som, Eric Pomraning
The internal structure of Diesel fuel injectors is known to have a significant impact on the nozzle flow and the resulting spray emerging from each hole. In this paper the three-dimensional transient flow structures inside a Diesel injector is studied under nominal (in-axis) and realistic (including off-axis lateral motion) operating conditions of the needle. Numerical simulations are performed in the commercial CFD code CONVERGE, using a two-phase flow representation based on a mixture model with Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Moving boundaries are easily handled in the code, which uses a cut-cell Cartesian method for grid generation at run time. First, a grid sensitivity study has been performed and mesh requirements are discussed. Then the results of moving needle calculations are discussed. Realistic radial perturbations (wobbles) of the needle motion have been applied to analyze their impact on the nozzle flow characteristics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0818
Forrest Jehlik, Tim Laclair
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0417
M. Ray Fairchild, Ralph Taylor, Carl Berlin, Celine Wong, Beihai Ma, U. (Balu) Balachandran
Abstract The propulsion system in most Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) requires an internal combustion engine in combination with an alternating current (AC) electric motor. An electronic device called a power inverter converts battery DC voltage into AC power for the motor. The inverter must be decoupled from the DC source, so a large DC-link capacitor is placed between the battery and the inverter. The DC-link capacitors in these inverters negatively affect the inverters size, weight and assembly cost. To reduce the design/cost impact of the DC-link capacitors, low loss, high dielectric constant (κ) ferroelectric materials are being developed. Ceramic ferroelectrics, such as (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 [PLZT], offer high dielectric constants and high breakdown strength. Argonne National Laboratory and Delphi Electronics & Safety have been developing thin-film capacitors utilizing PLZT.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1082
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1084
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Some of the most promising technologies are related to vehicle electrification. To evaluate the benefits of vehicle electrification to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the most common electric drive powertrains currently available on the market: 12V Micro Hybrid Vehicle (start/stop systems), Belt-integrated starter generator (BISG), Crank-integrated starter generator (CISG), Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), PHEV with 20-mile all-electric range (AER) (PHEV20), PHEV with 40-mile AER (PHEV40), Fuel-cell HEV and Battery Electric vehicle with 100-mile AER (EV100). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each powertrain across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1922
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1784
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Daeheung Lee, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract This paper introduces control strategy analysis and performance degradation for the 2010 Toyota Prius under different thermal conditions. The goal was to understand, in as much detail as possible, the impact of thermal conditions on component and vehicle performances by analyzing a number of test data obtained under different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory. A previous study analyzed the control behavior and performance under a normal ambient temperature; thus the first step in this study was to focus on the impact when the ambient temperature is cold or hot. Based on the analyzed results, thermal component models were developed in which the vehicle controller in the simulation was designed to mimic the control behavior when temperatures of the components are cold or hot. Further, the performance degradation of the components was applied to the mathematical models based on analysis of the test data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1778
Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1818
Namwook Kim, Eric Rask, Aymeric Rousseau
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1814
Abhijit Nitin Khare, Henning Lohse-Busch, Douglas Nelson
Abstract Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1809
Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Abstract This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1805
Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley, Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0184
Daniel S. Dobrzynski, Jason D. Harper
The purpose of this paper is to outline the development and implementation of SAE J2953. SAE J2953 contains the requirements and procedures of interoperability testing. Within SAE J2953 interoperability test articles are defined as an Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) paired with a Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV). SAE J2953 requires the development and application of test fixtures with the ability to monitor mechanical forces and electrical signals of a charge system without modification or disassembly of the EVSE and PEV under test. Electrical signal monitoring includes pilot, proximity, and line conductors of the SAE J1772 TM AC coupler. This paper will outline the requirements of the fixtures as well as a specific build. Data will be presented showing full implementation of the SAE J2953 procedures including root-cause analysis and standards gap discovery.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1404
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Zak Tilocco, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Kshitij Neroorkar, Maryam Moulai, Christopher Powell, David Schmidt
Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1412
Lyle M. Pickett, Julien Manin, Alan Kastengren, Christopher Powell
A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1423
Shaoping Quan, Meizhong Dai, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal, Keith Richards, Sibendu Som, Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett
Shock waves have been recently observed in high-pressure diesel sprays. In this paper, three-dimensional numerical simulations of supersonic diesel spray injection have been performed to investigate the underlying dynamics of the induced shock waves and their interactions with the spray. A Volume-of-Fluid based method in the CFD software (CONVERGE) is used to model this multiphase phenomena. An adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) scheme is employed to capture the front of the spray and the shock waves with high fidelity. Simulation results are compared to the available experimental observations to validate the numerical procedure. Parametric studies with different injection and ambient conditions are conducted to examine the effect of these factors on the generation of shock waves and their dynamics.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1425
Qingluan Xue, Michele Battistoni, Sibendu Som, Shaoping Quan, P. K. Senecal, Eric Pomraning, David Schmidt
Abstract This paper implements a coupled approach to integrate the internal nozzle flow and the ensuing fuel spray using a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method in the CONVERGE CFD software. A VOF method was used to model the internal nozzle two-phase flow with a cavitation description closed by the homogeneous relaxation model of Bilicki and Kestin [1]. An Eulerian single velocity field approach by Vallet et al. [2] was implemented for near-nozzle spray modeling. This Eulerian approach considers the liquid and gas phases as a complex mixture with a highly variable density to describe near nozzle dense sprays. The mean density is obtained from the Favreaveraged liquid mass fraction. The liquid mass fraction is transported with a model for the turbulent liquid diffusion flux into the gas.
2014-01-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9092
Matthew Langholtz, Mark Downing, Robin Graham, Fred Baker, Alicia Compere, William Griffith, Raymond Boeman, Martin Keller
Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg−1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2612
Thomas Wallner, Andrew Ickes, Kristina Lawyer, Scott Miers, Jeffrey Naber, David Ertl, Rodney Williamson
This paper evaluates the potential of adding higher alcohols to gasoline blendstock in an attempt to improve overall fuel performance. The alcohols considered include ethanol, normal- and iso-structures of propanol, butanol and pentanol as well as normal-hexanol (C2-C6). Fuel performance is quantified based on energy content, knock resistance as well as petroleum displacement and promising multi-component blends are systematically identified based on property prediction methods. These promising multi-component blends, as well as their respective reference fuels, are subsequently tested for efficiency and emissions performance utilizing a gasoline direct injection, spark ignition engine. The engine test results confirm that combustion and efficiency of tailored multi-component blends closely match those of the reference fuels. Regulated emissions stemming from combustion of these blends are equal or lower compared to the reference fuels across the tested engine speed and load regime.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2574
HeeJe Seong, Kyeong Lee, Seungmok Choi
Detailed characteristics of particulate matter (PM) from a gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of primary and aggregate particle sizes, morphology, and nanostructures. For the work, PM was collected from exhaust streams of the engine on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids by using a thermophoretic sampler. To evaluate the effects of engine load and speed on the properties of PM, the engine was operated at loads of 25, 50, and 75% at 1500 and 3000 rpm. In addition, the effects of fuel injection timing on the PM were examined for samples subjected to injection timings of 190, 230, 260, 300 and 330° bTDC at the constant engine load (50% load) and speed (1500 rpm). The results showed that with advancing injection timing, average primary and aggregate particle sizes gradually increased, which implies that fuel-air mixing is a crucial factor influencing particle size.
2013-09-24
Journal Article
2013-01-2422
Yu Zhang, Ilya Sagalovich, William De Ojeda, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, David D. Wickman
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0185
Kyeong O. Lee, HeeJe Seong, Stephen Sakai, Mitchell Hageman, David Rothamer
Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0134
Shashi Aithal
Development of computationally fast, numerically robust, and physically accurate models to compute engine-out emissions can play an important role in the design, development, and optimization of automotive engines powered by alternative fuels (such as natural gas and H2) and fuel blends (such as ethanol-blended fuels and biodiesel-blended fuels). Detailed multidimensional models that couple fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics place stringent demands on the computational resources and time, precluding their use in design and parametric studies. This work describes the development of an integrated design tool that couples a fast, robust, physics-based, two-zone quasi-dimensional engine model with modified reaction-rate-controlled models to compute engine-out NO and CO for a wide variety of fuel-additive blends.
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