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Viewing 1 to 30 of 355
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0671
Christopher P. Kolodziej, Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott W. Wagnon, William J. Pitz
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution, despite fuel heat of vaporization changing at the same time. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability was examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed with fixed heat of vaporization at each level. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0859
Adrian Pandal, Jose M. Pastor, Raul Payri, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Katarzyna Matusik, Jhoan S. Giraldo, Christopher Powell, David Schmidt
The dense spray region in the near-field of diesel fuel injection remains an enigma. This region is difficult to interrogate with light in the visible range and difficult to model due to the rapid interaction between liquid and gas. In particular, modeling strategies that rely on Lagrangian particle tracking of droplets have struggled in this area. To better represent the strong interaction between phases, Eulerian modeling has proven particularly useful. Models built on the concept of surface area density are advantageous where primary and secondary atomization have not yet produced droplets, but rather appear to be more complicated liquid structures. Surface area density, a more general concept than Lagrangian droplets, naturally represents liquid structures, no matter how complex. These surface area density models, however, have not been experimentally validated directly in the past due to the inability of optical methods to elucidate such a quantity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0575
Zhiyan Wang, Muhsin M. Ameen, Sibendu Som, John Abraham
The basic idea behind large eddy simulation (LES) is to accurately resolve the large energy-containing scales and to use subgrid-scale (SGS) models for the smaller scales. The accuracy of LES can be significantly impacted by the numerical discretization schemes and the choice of the SGS model. With the availability of large-scale computing resources, LES is being increasingly employed for engineering application like internal combustion engines and gas turbine engines. However, the commercial engine codes employed for these applications typically employ low-order discretization schemes. The accuracy of these codes is worth investigating. This work conducts this investigation by studying the simulation of a turbulent round jet which is representative of fuel jets in engines. The turbulent jet studied is isothermal with a Reynolds number of 6800.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0550
Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Michael Traver, David Cleary, Muhsin Ameen, Sibendu Som, Daniel Probst, Tristan Burton, Eric Pomraning, P. K. Senecal
Fuels originating from the gasoline production stream with high volatility and low aromatic content have shown great potential to reduce cradle-to-grave greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants under mixing-controlled combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. As global demand for diesel rises and CO2 emission targets fall, an incentive for methods of burning gasoline and other light end fuels as efficiently as possible emerges. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a model year 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine with a higher reactivity fuel in mind. The primary goal was to utilize the higher volatility and lower sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within production levels. The gasoline-like fuel used in this study has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58, and the model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software package, CONVERGE.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0834
Kaushik Saha, Shaoping Quan, Michele Battistoni, Sibendu Som, P. K. Senecal, Eric Pomraning PhD
An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1174
Vincent Freyermuth, Aymeric Rousseau
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, further improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. Over the next decades, the weight of midsize passenger cars will decrease significantly leading to a decrease in energy consumption and power requirements with the biggest reduction expected for highly electrified vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0854
Le Zhao, Roberto Torelli, Xiucheng Zhu, Riccardo Scarcelli, Sibendu Som, Henry Schmidt, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Combustion systems with advanced injection strategies have been studied extensively, but there exists a significant fundamental knowledge gap on fuel spray interactions with the piston surface and chamber walls. This paper aims to present the results of experimental studies and numerical simulations of high pressure fuel spray impinging on the wall. The experimental work of spray-wall impingement, including non-vaporizing and vaporizing spray characterization, was carried out in a constant-volume high pressure-temperature pre-burn type combustion vessel (CV). The simultaneous Mie scattering of liquid spray and Schlieren of liquid and vapor spray were used. Diesel fuel was injected at a pressure of 1500 bar with ambient charge gases at a density of 22.8 kg/m3 with isothermal (ambient and plate temperatures of 423 K) and non-isothermal (ambient temperature of 900 K and plate temperature of 423 K) conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0578
Pinaki Pal, Daniel Probst, Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver, David Cleary, Sibendu Som
A fuel in the gasoline autoignition range (RON > 60) can be effectively used as an alternative to diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine. Such fuels allow more time for the mixing of fuel and oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid an excessive heat release rate. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost, and can be achieved with fuels such as straight run gasoline with low octane numbers, which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0532
Hoon Lee, Byungho Lee, Sejun Kim, Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau
Many leading companies in automotive industry have been putting tremendous amount of efforts in developing new designs and technologies to make their products more energy efficient. It is straightforward to evaluate the benefit of individual technology in specific system and component. However, when multiple technologies are combined and integrated into a whole vehicle, it becomes complex to estimate the impact without building and testing actual vehicle since the efficiency gains from individual components do not simply add up. In an early concept phase, the projection on fuel efficiency benefit from new technologies will be extremely useful; but in many cases, the outlook has to rely on engineers’ insight because it is impractical to run tests for all possible technology combinations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0853
Roberto Torelli, Sibendu Som, Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Alexander Voice, Michael Traver, David Cleary
It is well known that in-nozzle flow behavior can significantly influence the near-nozzle spray formation and mixing that in turn affect engine performance and emissions. This in-nozzle flow behavior can, in turn, be significantly influenced by fuel properties. The goal of this study is to characterize the behavior of two different fuels, namely, a straight-run naphtha that has an anti-knock index of 58 (denoted as “Full-Range Naphtha”) and n-dodecane, in a simulated multi-hole common-rail diesel fuel injector. Simulations were carried out using a fully compressible multi-phase flow representation based on the mixture model assumption with the Volume of Fluid method. Our previous studies have shown that the characteristics of internal and near-nozzle flow are strongly related to needle motion in both the along- and off-axis directions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1273
Qiang Dai, Jarod C. Kelly, Amgad Elgowainy
Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and the greenhouse gas (GHG) standards for MY 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal capital cost. In this paper we consider the environmental impacts incurred by some of the lightweighting technology options. The materials generally used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0157
Forrest Jehlik, Simeon Iliev, Eric Wood, Jeff Gonder
It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures negatively impact vehicle system efficiency. This is due to increased friction (engine oil, transmission, and driveline viscous effects), cold start enrichment, heat transfer, and air density variations. Although the science of quantifying steady-state vehicle component efficiency is mature, transient component efficiency over dynamic ambient real-world conditions is less understood and quantified. This work characterizes transmission efficiency utilizing transmission heating technologies over various drive cycles and ambient conditions. Dynamometer testing over hot and cold ambient temperatures was conducted for two vehicles utilizing transmission warming technologies, and one vehicle using pads to pre-heat the transmission. For the vehicles with transmission heating technologies, tests were conducted with the systems both on and off to compare gains in efficiency.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0824
Daniel J. Duke, Charles E.A. Finney, Alan Kastengren, Katarzyna Matusik, Nicolas Sovis, Louis Santodonato, Hassina Bilheux, David Schmidt, Christopher Powell, Todd Toops
Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. The pressure losses and transients which occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offs in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0564
Prithwish Kundu, Muhsin Ameen, Umesh Unnikrishnan, Sibendu Som
CFD modeling of practical engines have been limited in terms of predictability due to stiff chemical kinetics, small length and time scales and turbulence chemistry interaction. Tabulation of chemistry has shown promising results in speeding up high fidelity CFD simulations of standardized experiments. In this work a novel flamelet tabulation technique (TFM: tabulated flamelet model) is extended to model combustion in an optical engine with methyl decanoate (MD) as fuel. Previous experimental investigations have suggested significantly lower soot formation while using MD as a fuel. These experimental results have been used to validate the flamelet model for a range of engine operating conditions. The results are also compared to the homogeneous reactor (well-mixed) model and the multi-flamelet RIF model. Quantitative and qualitative differences in flame development have been presented for the different modeling approaches.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0892
Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder, Forrest Jehlik
Increased access to large datasets of real-world drive cycles is driving demand for vehicle powertrain models capable of rapidly estimating real-world fuel economy. Whether for component design tradeoff studies or regulatory analysis, the need for powertrain models to achieve high levels of accuracy with low runtimes is critical. One approach is to develop simplified models that can be calibrated to controlled laboratory testing. However, many of the factors impacting real-world fuel economy are often left unexplored in the controlled laboratory setting. This paper seeks to quantify the ability of a simplified vehicle model, calibrated to laboratory test data, to accurately estimate real-world fuel economy in an uncontrolled, on-road environment. Model validation results from over 2,500 miles of on-road testing are presented for a representative, conventional gasoline, mid-size sedan equipped with laboratory-grade instrumentation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1152
Jongryeol JEONG, Wonbin Lee, Namdoo Kim, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
For many years, we have tested, analyzed and validated the models for convention, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles including thermal aspects. In this study, the control analysis and model validation of BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data. The vehicle test was performed on a chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber at Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Lab. BMW i3-REX is a series type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of 0.65L in-line 2-cylinders range extending engine with 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor and 18.8 kWh lithium-Ion battery. First, the components and vehicle models were developed based on the test data including thermal aspects. For example, engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1144
Jongryeol JEONG, Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau
Building a vehicle model with an accuracy sufficient for fuel economy analysis is a time consuming job even with the modern day simulation tools. Getting the right kind of data for modelling a vehicle can itself be challenging. While OEMs advertise the power and torque capability of their engines, the efficiency data for the components or the control algorithms are not usually made available for independent verification. US DOE funds the testing of vehicles at Argonne national lab and this test data is publicly available. Argonne is also the premier DOE laboratory for modelling and simulation of vehicles. By combining these two unique capabilities, a process is developed to automatically develop a model for any conventional vehicle that is tested at Argonne. This paper explain the process of analyzing the publicly available test data and computing the various component parameters from that.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0661
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Carrie Hall
Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2235
Prithwish Kundu, Riccardo Scarcelli, Sibendu Som, Andrew Ickes, Yan Wang, John Kiedaisch, M Rajkumar
Abstract Heat loss through wall boundaries play a dominant role in the overall performance and efficiency of internal combustion engines. Typical engine simulations use constant temperature wall boundary conditions [1, 2, 3]. These boundary conditions cannot be estimated accurately from experiments due to the complexities involved with engine combustion. As a result, they introduce a large uncertainty in engine simulations and serve as a tuning parameter. Modeling the process of heat transfer through the solid walls in an unsteady engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation can lead to the development of higher fidelity engine models. These models can be used to study the impact of heat loss on engine efficiency and explore new design methodologies that can reduce heat losses. In this work, a single cylinder diesel engine is modeled along with the solid piston coupled to the fluid domain.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2271
John Cuthbert, Arup Gangopadhyay, Larry Elie, Z. Liu, Douglas Mcwatt, Ellen D. Hock, Ali Erdemir
Abstract The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. All formulations except one have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils was evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40°C-120°C and in the speed range of 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in a motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40°C-100°C over GF-5 oil. The paper will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy, Sequence IVA wear, and Sequence VG sludge and varnish tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2312
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Abstract This study examines the dynamics and control of an engine operated with late intake valve closure (LIVC) timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode. The engine features a fuel delivery system in which diesel is direct-injected and natural gas is port-injected. Despite the benefits of LIVC and dual-fuel strategy, combining these two techniques resulted in efficiency losses due to the variability of the combustion process across cylinders. The difference in power production across cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC* to 38% at an IVC of 620 °ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution as the intake valve remains open longer in the compression stroke. This paper describes an approach for controlling the amount of fuel injected into each cylinders’ port of an inline six- cylinder heavy-duty dual-fuel engine to minimize the variations in fuel distribution across cylinder.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2169
Carrie M. Hall, James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner
Abstract The high octane rating and more plentiful domestic supply of natural gas make it an excellent alternative to gasoline. Recent studies have shown that using natural gas in dual fuel engines provides one possible strategy for leveraging the advantages of both natural gas and gasoline. In particular, such engines been able to improve overall engine efficiencies and load capacity when they leverage direct injection of the natural gas fuel. While the benefits of these engine concepts are still being explored, differences in fuel composition, combustion process and in-cylinder mixing could lead to dramatically different emissions which can substantially impact the effectiveness of the engine’s exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to explore this topic, this study examined the variations in speciated hydrocarbon emissions which occur for different fuel blends of E10 and compressed natural gas and for different fuel injection strategies on a spark-ignition engine.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2194
Muhsin M. Ameen, Prithwish Kundu, Sibendu Som
Abstract In this work, a turbulent combustion model is developed for large eddy simulation (LES) using a novel flamelet tabulation technique based on the framework of the multi-flamelet representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model. The overall aim is to develop a detailed model with elaborate chemistry mechanisms, LES turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of a tabulated model. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries by using the residence time instead of the progress variables is proposed. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using the tabulated turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. This model is then validated against igniting n-dodecane sprays under diesel engine conditions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2293
Michael Pamminger, James Sevik, Riccardo Scarcelli, Thomas Wallner, Steven Wooldridge, Brad Boyer, Carrie M. Hall
Abstract The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2364
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2287
Huifang Shao, William Lam, Joseph Remias, Joseph Roos, Seungmok Choi, HeeJe Seong
Abstract Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2208
Zifeng Lu, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Hao Cai, Pingping Sun, David Dieffenthaler, Victor Gordillo, Jean-Christophe Monfort, Xin He, Steven Przesmitzki
Abstract Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines using a low octane gasoline-like fuel (LOF) have good potential to achieve lower NOx and lower particulate matter emissions with higher fuel efficiency compared to the modern diesel compression ignition (CI) engines. In this work, we conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of the potential LOF GCI vehicle technology. A detailed linear programming (LP) model of the US Petroleum Administration for Defense District Region (PADD) III refinery system - which produces more than 50% of the US refined products - is modified to simulate the production of the LOF in petroleum refineries and provide product-specific energy efficiencies. Results show that the introduction of the LOF production in refineries reduces the throughput of the catalytic reforming unit and thus increases the refinery profit margins.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2209
Uisung Lee, Jeongwoo Han, Michael Wang, Jacob Ward, Elliot Hicks, Dan Goodwin, Rebecca Boudreaux, Per Hanarp, Henrik Salsing, Parthav Desai, Emmanuel Varenne, Patrik Klintbom, Werner Willems, Sandra L. Winkler, Heiko Maas, Robert De Kleine, John Hansen, Tine Shim, Erik Furusjö
Abstract Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8082
Kaushik Saha, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Anita Ramirez, Sibendu Som, Munidhar Biruduganti, Michael Bima, Patrick Powell
Abstract The medium and heavy duty vehicle industry has fostered an increase in emissions research with the aim of reducing NOx while maintaining power output and thermal efficiency. This research describes a proof-of-concept numerical study conducted on a Caterpillar single-cylinder research engine. The target of the study is to reduce NOx by taking a unique approach to combustion air handling and utilizing enriched nitrogen and oxygen gas streams provided by Air Separation Membranes. A large set of test cases were initially carried out for closed-cycle situations to determine an appropriate set of operating conditions that are conducive for NOx reduction and gas diffusion properties. Several parameters - experimental and numerical, were considered. Experimental aspects, such as engine RPM, fuel injection pressure, start of injection, spray inclusion angle, and valve timings were considered for the parametric study.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8070
Prasad Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Mahesh Madurai Kumar, Long-Kung Hwang, Steven Dowding
Abstract Fan and fan-shroud design is critical for underhood air flow management. The objective of this work is to demonstrate a method to optimize fan-shroud shape in order to maximize cooling air mass flow rates through the heat exchangers using the Adjoint Solver in STAR-CCM+®. Such techniques using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis enables the automotive/transport industry to reduce the number of costly experiments that they perform. This work presents the use of CFD as a simulation tool to investigate and assess the various factors that can affect the vehicle thermal performance. In heavy-duty trucks, the cooling package includes heat exchangers, fan-shroud, and fan. In this work, the STAR-CCM+® solver was selected and a java macro built to run the primal flow and the Adjoint solutions sequentially in an automated fashion.
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