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Viewing 1 to 30 of 290
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1712
Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau
This study looks at the impact of TEGs have on different types of light duty vehicles. UDDS, Highway and Combined 2 cycle procedures are used to evaluate the fuel economy benefits in these vehicles. These fuel economy benefits are then translated to gasoline savings and net present value of the monetary benefits. Previous studies had used TEG models that depend on exhaust flow traces recorded from the test bench. A better TEG model is developed which can estimate exhaust mass flow, and respond to variations in the exhaust flow. This model can also predict the temperature variations on the hot and cold side of the TEG modules. Better TEG modules are also modelled based on the published data from General Motors (GM). The heat dissipation through the TEG between the source and sink is modelled, but various other losses like contact losses or thermal losses within the TEG are not modelled.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0874
Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner
Recent developments in advanced combustion engines have showed increases in efficiency and lower emissions through low temperature combustion (LTC) modes such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC), and Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI). These combustion modes often rely on high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), advanced fuel injection, and in the case of RCCI a combination of fuels with different reactivities. Despite the advantages of LTC, such operations are highly sensitive to the in-cylinder pre-combustion conditions and face significant challenges in multi-cylinder operation due to cylinder-to-cylinder variations of the combustion process. The overall engine efficiency is constrained by the variations in factors such as combustion duration, combustion phasing, peak pressure, and heat release.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0374
Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Sibendu Som, Luis Bravo, Seong-Young Lee
A wide variety of spray models and their associated sub-models exist to assist with numerical spray development studies in the many applicable areas viz., turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The accuracy of a simulation when compared to the experiments varies, as these models chosen are varied. Also, the computational grid plays a crucial role in model correctness; a grid-converged CFD study is more valuable and assists in proper validation at later stages. Of primary relevance to this paper are the combustion models for a grid-converged Lagrangian spray modeling scenario. CONVERGE CFD code is used for simulation of split injection diesel (n-heptane) sprays and a structured methodology, using RNG k-ε turbulence model, is followed to obtain a grid-converged solution for the key Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) parameters viz., grid size, injected parcels and spray break-up time constant.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
James M. Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott Miers, Jeff Wasil
There is a need to understand the effects of increased alcohol concentration on the marine recreational industry. Unique to this market segment is a large number of two-stroke engines, which are susceptible to enleanment under normal operating conditions, due to their inability to compensate for an increase in oxygen concentrations in the fuel. Enleanment due to increased alcohol concentration can lead to catastrophic engine failure. In 1990, Roy Douglas developed a method to calculate the air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method is considered an advancement for its time, there is a current need to expand upon this method to incorporate oxygenated fuels. This study serves as a means to modify the Roy Douglas method to be applicable for oxygenated fuels. A modified Spindt method, Brettschneider method, as well as the ISO #16183 standard were used to evaluate the modified Roy Douglas method.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0768
Louis Sileghem, Andrew Ickes, Thomas Wallner, Sebastian Verhelst
Stricter CO2 and emissions regulations are pushing spark ignition engines more and more towards downsizing, enabled through direct injection and turbocharging. The advantages such as increased charge density and an elevated knock resistance, which come with direct injection, are even more pronounced when using low carbon number alcohols instead of gasoline. This is mainly due to the higher heat of vaporization and the lower air-to-fuel ratio of light alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. These alcohols are also attractive alternatives to gasoline because they can be produced from renewable resources. Because they are liquid, they are also largely compatible with the current fuel storage and distribution infrastructure and easily stored in a vehicle. In this respect, the performance and engine-out emissions (NOx, CO, HC and PM) of methanol, ethanol and butanol were examined on a 4 cylinder 2.4 DI production engine and are compared with those on neat gasoline.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0342
Forrest Jehlik, Eric Wood, Jeffrey Gonder, Sean Lopp
It is widely understood that cold-temperature powertrain operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (high viscosity engine oil), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). In addition, various drive cycle characteristics significantly impact overall consumption. However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental vehicle data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on energy consumption over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0978
Lori Lemazurier, Neeraj Shidore, Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau, Phillip Bonkoski, Jeremy Delhom
Near term advances in SI engine technology (VVL, GDI, cylinder deactivation, turbo downsizing) for passenger vehicles hold promise of significant fuel savings in the vehicles of the immediate future. Similarly, trends in transmissions indicate higher gear numbers (8 speed, 9 speed), higher spans and a focus on down-speeding to improve engine efficiency. Dual clutch transmissions exhibit higher efficiency than the traditional automatics, and are being introduced in the light duty vehicle segment worldwide. Another development with low investment and immediate benefits has been the adaptation of start-stop (idle engine stop) technology in vehicles today. This paper evaluates the impact of each of these technologies (engines, transmissions, start stop) on the fuel economy and performance of a compact car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0485
Mehdi Modares, Joshua Bergerson
In order to ensure the safety of a structure, adequate strength for structural elements must be provided. Moreover, the catastrophic deformations such as buckling must be prevented. In most buckling analyses, structural properties and applied loads are considered certain. Using the linear finite element method, the deterministic buckling analysis is done in two main steps. First, static analysis is performed using an arbitrary ordinate applied load. Using the obtained element axial forces, the geometric stiffness of the structure is assembled. Second, performing an eigenvalue problem between structure’s elastic and geometric stiffness matrices yields the structure’s critical buckling loads. However, these deterministic approaches do not consider uncertainty the structure’s material and geometric properties. In this work, a new method for finite element based buckling analysis of a structure with uncertainty is developed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0481
Joshua Bergerson, Ralph Muehleisen
When utilizing large models containing numerous uncertain parameters, model calibration becomes a critical step in the analysis. Traditional methods of calibration involve tweaking uncertain parameters based on expert opinion or best estimates. While this traditional calibration may lead to better model predictions, it usually only yields better estimates for certain specific conditions. This drastically reduces the functionality of the model in question. Bayesian calibration is an alternative to traditional calibration methods which utilizes available information (simulation results and/or real world measured values) to iteratively refine uncertain parameters (either assumed or measured uncertainty) while considering not only parametric uncertainty, but also model, observational, and residual uncertainties at every step of the calibration process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0832
Christopher Kolodziej, Janardhan Kodavasal, Stephen Ciatti, Sibendu Som, Neeraj Shidore, Jeremy Delhom
For several years there has been a great deal of effort made in researching ways to run a compression ignition engine with simultaneously high efficiency and low emissions. Recently much of this work has been dedicated to using fuels that are more volatile and less reactive then conventional diesel fuel to allow the combustion to be more premixed. One of the key challenges to using fuels with such properties in a compression ignition engine is stable engine operation at low loads. This has especially been a challenge when using gasoline fuels which are already widely available. This paper provides an overview of how stable engine operation was achieved in gasoline compression ignition (GCI) on a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine using only 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1157
Namwook Kim, Jongryeol Jeong, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Argonne has analyzed control behaviors of advanced vehicles such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) to develop simulation models and reproduce vehicle performances with simulation technique. Many of novel studies about transportation technologies conducted at Argonne utilize the simulation techniques, so well validated models are really necessary to conduct and support the advanced studies. In order to improve the research ability, Argonne has built a new testing facility, which is able to test vehicles under different thermal conditions such as -7C or 35C and has analyzed controls and performances of several advanced vehicles under the different thermal conditions. Further, the analyzed results were used to develop thermal component models that reproduce the thermal behaviors of the vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1160
Namdoo Kim, Ayman Moawad, Neeraj Shidore, Aymeric Rousseau
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have demonstrated the potential to provide significant fuel displacement across a wide range of driving cycles. Companies and research organizations are involved in numerous research activities related to PHEVs. One of the current unknowns is the impact of driving conditions and standard test procedures on the true benefits of PHEVs from a worldwide perspective. To address this issue, five different PHEV powertrain configurations (Input split, Parallel, Series, Series-output split and Series-parallel) with four all electric range will be analyzed under different standards (i.e., UDDS, HWET, NEDC) and real world drive cycles on the component sizes, manufacturing cost, and fuel consumption of a midsize car in the year 2020 through the use of vehicle system simulation. These configurations can be seen in current mass-production vehicles such as Toyota Prius PHEV, Chevrolet Volt and Honda Accord PHEV.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0931
Zihan Wang, Andrew Swantek, Riccardo Scarcelli, Daniel Duke, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Ronald Reese, Kevin Freeman, York Zhu
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0918
Daniel Duke, Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher Powell
Cavitation plays an important role in fuel injection systems. It alters the nozzle’s internal flow structure and discharge coefficient, and also contributes to injector wear. Quantitatively measuring and mapping the cavitation vapor distribution in a fuel injector is difficult, as cavitation occurs on very short time and length scales. Optical measurements of transparent model nozzles can indicate the morphology of large-scale cavitation, but are generally limited by the substantial amount of scattering that occurs due to large changes in refractive index between vapor and liquid phases. These limitations can be overcome with x-ray diagnostics, as x-rays refract, scatter and absorb much more weakly. Here, we present an overview of some recent developments in quantitative x-ray diagnostics for cavitating flows. Measurements were conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, using a submerged plastic test nozzle 500µm in diameter.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0936
Andrew Swantek, Alan Kastengren, Daniel Duke, Zak Tilocco, Nicolas Sovis, Christopher F. Powell
Abstract Recent advancements in x-ray radiography diagnostics for direct injection sprays at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source have allowed absorption measurements of individual spray events, in addition to ensemble-averaged measurements. These measurements offer insight into the shot-to-shot variation of these sprays in the near-nozzle, spray formation region. Three single hole diesel injectors are studied across various injection and ambient pressures, spanning 14 different conditions. We calculated two dimensional maps of the standard deviation in line of sight mass distribution between individual spray events. These illuminated the spatial and temporal extent of variability between spray events. Regions of large fluctuations were observed to move downstream during the initial spray period and reached a steady state location after this initial transient.
2014-12-10
Article
Using advanced supercomputers and the largest X-ray imaging system in the western hemisphere, the team of researchers developed and validated software models for fuel injectors. One the most difficult to understand engine phenomenon, these validated models are useful for simulating fuel injectors and are now available to engine developers.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0087
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Abstract Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to increase biofuel quantities beyond the current ethanol blend wall. When blended at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on two open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke and four-stroke designs using indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified using Sohxlet extraction to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Data indicates a reduction in overall total particulate matter relative to indolene certification fuel with similar trends between iB16 and E10. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16, relative to E10, could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2694
Jay Anderson, Scott Miers, Thomas Wallner, Kevin Stutenberg, Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba
Abstract Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
2014-09-22
Article
Internal combustion engines are poised for dramatic breakthroughs in improving efficiency with lower emissions, due in part to low-temperature combustion regimes. Such regimes show great efficiency and emissions potential, but they present optimization and control challenges.
2014-05-14
Article
Michael Duoba (SAE Member, 1993), Vehicle Test Engineer and team leader for the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, discuss his career progression and the type of work conducted at his lab.
2014-04-28
Article
3-D catalytic activity of new open-frame nanoparticles is twenty times that of existing formulations.
2014-04-14
Article
Backed by the world’s fifth-fastest computer, Argonne’s new VERIFI service combines unique test facilities along with focused expertise to help engine developers.
2014-04-09
Article
Argonne National Laboratory used the first day of the SAE 2014 World Congress in Detroit on April 8 to launch a new program designed to help automakers design more efficient engines via optimized combustion.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1784
Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Daeheung Lee, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract This paper introduces control strategy analysis and performance degradation for the 2010 Toyota Prius under different thermal conditions. The goal was to understand, in as much detail as possible, the impact of thermal conditions on component and vehicle performances by analyzing a number of test data obtained under different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory. A previous study analyzed the control behavior and performance under a normal ambient temperature; thus the first step in this study was to focus on the impact when the ambient temperature is cold or hot. Based on the analyzed results, thermal component models were developed in which the vehicle controller in the simulation was designed to mimic the control behavior when temperatures of the components are cold or hot. Further, the performance degradation of the components was applied to the mathematical models based on analysis of the test data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1778
Namdoo Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Henning Lohse-Busch
Abstract As a result of increasingly stringent regulations and higher customer expectations, auto manufacturers have been considering numerous technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. Transmissions have been shown to be one of the most cost-effective technologies for improving fuel economy. Over the past couple of years, transmissions have significantly evolved and impacted both performance and fuel efficiency. This study validates the shifting control of advanced automatic transmission technologies in vehicle systems by using Argonne National Laboratory's model-based vehicle simulation tool, Autonomie. Different midsize vehicles, including several with automatic transmission (6-speeds, 7-speeds, and 8-speeds), were tested at Argonne's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). For the vehicles, a novel process was used to import test data.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1814
Abhijit Nitin Khare, Henning Lohse-Busch, Douglas Nelson
Abstract Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1809
Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Abstract This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1922
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1082
Ayman Moawad, Aymeric Rousseau
Abstract Manufacturers have been considering various technology options to improve vehicle fuel economy. One of the most cost effective technology is related to advanced transmissions. To evaluate the benefits of transmission technologies and control to support the 2017-2025 CAFE regulations, a study was conducted to simulate many of the many types of transmissions: Automatic transmissions, Manual Transmission as well as Dual Clutch Transmissions including the most commonly used number of gears in each of the technologies (5-speeds, 6-speeds, and 8-speeds). Different vehicle classes were also analyzed in the study process: Compact, Midsize, Small SUV, Midsize SUV and Pickup. This paper will show the fuel displacement benefit of each advanced transmission across vehicle classes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0417
M. Ray Fairchild, Ralph Taylor, Carl Berlin, Celine Wong, Beihai Ma, U. (Balu) Balachandran
Abstract The propulsion system in most Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs) requires an internal combustion engine in combination with an alternating current (AC) electric motor. An electronic device called a power inverter converts battery DC voltage into AC power for the motor. The inverter must be decoupled from the DC source, so a large DC-link capacitor is placed between the battery and the inverter. The DC-link capacitors in these inverters negatively affect the inverters size, weight and assembly cost. To reduce the design/cost impact of the DC-link capacitors, low loss, high dielectric constant (κ) ferroelectric materials are being developed. Ceramic ferroelectrics, such as (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 [PLZT], offer high dielectric constants and high breakdown strength. Argonne National Laboratory and Delphi Electronics & Safety have been developing thin-film capacitors utilizing PLZT.
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