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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lennert Sterken, Lennart Lofdahl, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker
Abstract Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results. To decrease the dependency of other effects within the engine bay and underbody, the SUV has been investigated in a closed-cooling configuration with upper and lower grille closed and with a smoothened underbody.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl
Abstract The work investigates the integration between tools for analysis and simulation of cooling systems at Volvo Group Trucks Technology. At the same time it is a consequent step in evaluating GT-SUITE for the purposes of analysis and simulation of such systems. The focus is on 1D simulation tools, which are generally preferred in the context of transient simulations of engine and power train installation systems. The Cooling Analysis and Simulations group at Volvo Group Trucks Technology use a variety of 1D simulation tools for analysis of cooling performance. Volvo Power Train, on the other hand, use among others GT-SUITE for engine simulations. It is expected to improve the quality of the simulation, (i.e the accuracy of the results) and improve system integration by using one tool for both areas of simulation. This work delivers two transient models of FH 13L cooling system integrated with a predictive model of the engine and a detailed model of the main coolant circuit. Average coefficient of determination (indicator of the consistency between test and simulation) achieved by the models is R2 >0.8, which for most of the parameters is higher than the results given by the currently available internal program for transient simulations.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sofie Koitrand, Lennart Lofdahl, Sven Rehnberg, Adrian Gaylard
Automotive aerodynamics measurements and simulations now routinely use a moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), which is more representative of on-road conditions than the fixed ground-fixed wheel (FG&FW) alternative. This can be understood as a combination of three elements: (a) moving ground (MVG), (b) rotating front wheels (RWF) and (c) rotating rear wheels (RWR). The interaction of these elements with the flow field has been explored to date by mainly experimental means. This paper presents a mainly computational (CFD) investigation of the effect of RWF and RWR, in combination with MVG, on the flow field around a saloon vehicle. The influence of MVG&RW is presented both in terms of a combined change from a FG&FW baseline and the incremental effects seen by the addition of each element separately. For this vehicle, noticeable decrease in both drag and rear lift is shown when adding MVG&RW, whereas front lift shows little change. The same trends are seen in both CFD and experimental data.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Anders N. Johansson, Stina Hemdal, Petter Dahlander
Forthcoming reductions in legal limits for emissions of particle matter (PM) from direct injection engines have increased the need for understanding particle distributions in the engines and the factors affecting them. Therefore, in the presented study the influence on PM-emissions of potentially important factors (fuel injection pressure, load, speed and 50% mass fraction burned phasing) on particle mass, number and size distributions were experimentally investigated. The experimental system was a spray-guided, direct injection, single-cylinder research engine operated in stratified charge mode (using gasoline with 10% ethanol as fuel), under five load and speed settings that are appropriate for stratified combustion. The particle distributions obtained from operating the engine in homogeneous combustion and stratified combustion modes were also compared. The particle distributions were measured using a Cambustion DMS500 fast particle analyzer in combination with a Dekati FPS4000 fine particle sampler and a thermodenuder in all tests except the comparison of distributions under stratified and homogeneous combustion conditions.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Lennert Sterken, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker, Lennart Lofdahl
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag. With the recent upgrade of wind tunnels with a moving belt system, the opportunity has emerged to investigate the flow field in the wake behind vehicles, matching closer the real on-road driving conditions.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Teddy Hobeika, Simone Sebben, Christoffer Landstrom
It is well known that wheels are responsible for a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. Tyres, and mostly rims, have been the subject of research in the automotive industry for the past years, but their effect and interaction with each other and with the car exterior is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on the use of CFD to study the effects of tyre geometry (tyre profile and tyre tread) on road vehicle aerodynamics. Whenever possible, results of the numerical computations are compared with experiments. More than sixty configurations were simulated. These simulations combined different tyre profiles, treads, rim designs and spoke orientation on two car types: a sedan and a sports wagon. Two tyre geometries were obtained directly from the tyre manufacturer, while a third geometry was obtained from our database and represents a generic tyre which covers different profiles of a given tyre size. All geometries were deformed based on measured wind tunnel data under a defined load and rotating conditions of 100 kph.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Lars Christian Riis Johansen, Eugenio de Benito Sienes, Petter Dahlander
Transient compressible gas jets, as encountered in direct injection gas fuel engines, have been examined using Schlieren visualization. Helium has been injected into air in a pressure chamber to create the jets examined. The structure of the jets is studied from the mean and coefficient of variation of the penetration length, jet width and jet angle. The quantities are calculated by digital image processing of Schlieren images captured with a high-speed camera. Injection pressure and chamber pressure have been varied to determine whether they have an effect on the response variables. Design of experiments methods have been used to develop the scheme employed in performing the experiments. The mean normalized penetration length of the jets is found to scale with injection to chamber pressure ratio and is in agreement with a momentum conserving relation given in the literature. The dispersion of the penetration length has been found to be in agreement with a normal distribution. The Turner model for a jet has been found to be in agreement with the observed jets.
Technical Paper
2012-09-24
Hoda Yarmohamadi, Viktor Berbyuk
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption. In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass. Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics. Simulations are performed in the time domain with realistic road-induced excitations, namely random road and single/double-sided bump inputs, applied on the wheel road contact points.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level. The engine used in the experiments was a single-cylinder heavy-duty direct injection diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injector with variable needle opening pressure.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Markus Grahn, Krister Johansson, Christian Vartia, Tomas McKelvey
The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models. The approach possibly also enables for the model to handle the main differences between steady-state engine operation and transient engine operation, thus possibly being able to use steady-state engine measurement data to calibrate the model, but still achieve acceptable performance for transient engine operation.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Mikael Thor, Bo Egardt, Tomas McKelvey, Ingemar Andersson
Combustion model structures based on Vibe functions are outlined and investigated in this work. The focus of the study is the use of such model structures for estimation of diesel combustion properties by reconstructing in-cylinder pressure from measurements of crankshaft torque. Investigated combustion properties include the start and phasing of the combustion as well as maximum values of the in-cylinder pressure and its derivative. The accuracy associated with the proposed estimation method is evaluated using ideal torque data, i.e. torque calculated from in-cylinder pressure, that is generated using both simulations and experiments. The results indicate that the uncertainty associated with the estimation of a selected combustion property tends to increase if that property is located close to TDC, where the signal-to-noise ratio is low for a torque signal. The results also show that the ideal torque based estimation of combustion phasing and maximum in-cylinder pressure generally is very accurate while the estimation of start of combustion and the maximum in-cylinder pressure derivative suffers more from disturbances and model imperfections.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Mitra Pourabdollah, Viktor Larsson, Lars johannesson, Bo Egardt
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have rechargeable energy storage which can be used to run the vehicle on shorter range on electricity from the grid. In the absence of a priori information about the trip, a straightforward strategy is to first deplete the battery down to a minimum level and then keep the state of charge (SoC) around this level. However, largely due to the battery losses, the overall fuel economy can be improved if the battery is discharged gradually. This requires some a priori knowledge about the trip. This paper investigates the tradeoff between improved fuel economy and the need for a priori information. This investigation is done using a variant of telemetry equivalent consumption minimization strategy (T-ECMS) which is modified to be used for a PHEV. To implement this strategy, several parameters need to be tuned based on an assumption of the future trip. By studying two different levels of details, the tradeoff between fuel economy and a priori information is evaluated.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Niklas Dyverfors, Kristoffer Borre, Christian Arnell, Jonathan Rice
This study reflects on two areas of vehicle aerodynamics, optimising cooling performance and features that will improve the handling of the car. Both areas will have a significant impact on the overall performance of the car and at the same time these areas are linked to each other. The considered vehicle in this study was the Chalmers Formula Student 2011 Formula SAE car and the flow field was analysed using both numerical simulations as well as performing wind tunnel experiments on a 1:3-scale model of the car. The focus on increasing downforce without increasing the aerodynamic drag is particularly good in Formula SAE since fuel economy is an event at the competition. Therefore, the intention of this work is to present a study on how undertrays with different design such as added foot plates, diffuser and strakes can improve the downforce and reduce the drag. Apart from this focus has been towards a common issue among open wheeled race cars with the radiator placed behind the front wheels and how changes in this area will influence the handling of the car.
Video
2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper
2011-09-13
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Nilsson
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay. Pressure and flow measurements are monitored over the entire system.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Mats Andersson, Jonas Wärnberg, Stina Hemdal, Petter Dahlander, Ingemar Denbratt
The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Chen Huang, Andrei Lipatnikov
Over the past few years, an open-source code called OpenFOAM has been becoming a promising CFD tool for multi-dimensional numerical simulations of internal combustion engines. The primary goal of the present study is to assess the feasibility of the code for computations of hollow-cone sprays discharged by an outward-opening pintle-type injector by simulating the experiments performed recently by Hemdal et al., (SAE 2009-01-1496) with gasoline and ethanol sprays under the following conditions: air temperature T a i r = 295 or 350 K, air pressure p a i r = 6 bar, fuel temperature T f u e l = 243, or 295, or 320 K, and fuel injection pressure p i ⁿ j = 50, or 125, or 200 bar. To simulate the experiments, a pintle injector model and the physical properties of gasoline were implemented in OpenFOAM. The flow field calculated using the pintle injector model is more realistic than that yielded by the default unit injector model normally used in OpenFOAM. Moreover, a number of modifications were made to the standard implementation of several spray models in OpenFOAM, with modifications in the implementation of the KHRT model having noticeable effects on the accuracy of the simulated liquid penetration and Sauter mean diameter (SMD).
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
J. Yang, V. I. Golovitchev, P. Redon, J. Javier López Sánchez
The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines results in increased NO x emissions; this presents a barrier to the widespread use of biodiesel. The origins of this phenomenon were investigated using the CFD KIVA3V code, which was modified to account for the physical properties of biodiesel and to incorporate semi-detailed mechanisms for its combustion and the formation of emissions. Parametric φ-T maps and 3D engine simulations were used to assess the impact of using oxygen-containing fuels on the rate of NO formation. It was found that using oxygen-containing fuels allows more O₂ molecules to present in the engine cylinder during the combustion of biodiesel, and this may be the cause of the observed increase in NO emissions.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Christoffer Landström, Tim Walker, Lasse Christoffersen, Lennart Löfdahl
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics. The actual force on the wheels is typically not a full quarter of the overall drag, but as the wheels strongly interact with several other key flow features such as cooling air flow, underbody flow and the base wake, the wheels have a large influence on the overall aerodynamic performance of the vehicle.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Peter Gullberg, Raja Sengupta
Underhood Thermal Management has become an important topic for the majority of automotive OEM's. To keep combustion engines cool and manage waste heat efficiently is an important part in the design of vehicles with low fuel consumption. To be able to predict cooling performance and underhood airflow with good precision within a virtual design process, it is of utmost importance to model and simulate the cooling fan efficiently and accurately, and this has turned out to be challenging. Simulating the cooling fan in a vehicle installation involves capturing complex fluid dynamic interaction between rotating blades and stationary objects in the vicinity of the fan. This interaction is a function of fan rotation rate, fan blade profile, upstream and downstream installation components. The flow is usually highly turbulent and small geometry details, like the distance between the blade tip and the fan shroud, have strong impact on the fan performance characteristics. Fan installations therefore have a large influence on cooling performance which the fan data from the supplier cannot capture.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
When increasing EGR from low levels to a level that corresponds to low temperature combustion, soot emissions initially increase due to lower soot oxidation before decreasing to almost zero due to very low soot formation. At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are low, but not sufficiently low to comply with future emission standards and at the EGR level where low temperature combustion occurs CO and HC emissions are too high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities for shifting the so-called soot bump (where soot levels are increased) to higher EGR levels, or to reduce the magnitude of the soot bump using very high injection pressures (up to 240 MPa) while reducing the NOx emissions using EGR. The possibility of reducing the CO and HC emissions at high EGR levels due to the increased mixing caused by higher injection pressure was also investigated and the flame was visualized using an endoscope at chosen EGR values. In addition, flame temperatures and soot volume fractions were determined using two-color pyrometry.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Jan Eismark, Michael Balthasar, Anders Karlsson, Timothy Benham, Magnus Christensen, Ingemar Denbratt
Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation. A particular objective of the present study was to investigate the importance of enhancing soot oxidation after End of Injection (EOI) when temperature and NOx formation rapidly decreases.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Monica AC Johansson, Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased. In contrast to the effects of CAP, as the EGR level rose from 0% to around 50% the soot emissions increased and the NOx emissions decreased.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Xiaoqi Cui, Arjan Helmantel, Valeri Golovichev, Ingemar Denbratt
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to compare the effects of fuel composition on combustion parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in engine tests and simulations with five fuels: a Diesel-water emulsion, a Diesel-ethanol blend, a Diesel-ethanol blend with EHN (cetane number improver), a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and an ultra-low sulfur content Diesel. The engine used in the experiments was a light duty, single cylinder, direct injection, common rail Diesel engine equipped with a cylinder head and piston from a Volvo NED5 engine. In tests with each fuel the engine was operated at two load points (3 bar IMEP and 10 bar IMEP), and a pilot-main fuel injection strategy was applied under both load conditions. Data were also obtained from 3-D CFD simulations, using the KIVA code, to compare to the experimental results and to further analyze the effects of water and ethanol on combustion. The experimental data indicated that the lower aromatic content of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel fuel resulted in reduced soot emissions compared to conventional Diesel.
Technical Paper
2009-10-01
Peter Gullberg, Lennart Löfdahl, Steven Adelman, Peter Nilsson
A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In a former paper, referenced 2009-01-0178, a simple “speed correction” of the MRF model was proposed by the authors'. The correction was shown to apply across different operating speeds for a specific fan. In this paper the generality and limitation of this correction across fans of different type, design and dimensions are investigated. Investigated in this paper is as well the sensitivity of the MRF model to specific methodology of use. In this paper it is shown that the speed correction of 14% proposed in the former paper applies widely, hence, although the MRF model is erroneous the error is consistent. A 680mm fan of the similar design to the default (750mm) choice was simulated and tested, in addition a different 750mm fan with a more mixed flow design was simulated and tested, and the correction of 14% was shown to apply for these two fans as well.
Technical Paper
2009-09-13
Valeri Golovitchev, Junfeng Yang, Savo Gjirja
A comparative study on engine performance and emissions (NOx, soot) formation has been carried out for the Volvo D12C diesel engine fueled by Rapeseed Methyl Ester, RME and conventional diesel oil. The fuel and combustion models used in this paper are the modifications of those described in [1–3]. The numerical results for different load cases illustrate that for both fuels nearly 100% combustion efficiency was predicted; in the case of RME, the cumulative heat release was compared with the RME LHV, 37.2 kJ/g. To minimize soot and NOx emissions, 25–30% EGR levels depending on the engine loads and different injection timings were analyses. To illustrate the optimal engine performance conditions, a special technique based on the time-transient parametric ϕ-T maps [4] has been used.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Mikael Thor, Ingemar Andersson, Tomas McKelvey
Mathematical models of a torque sensor equipped crankshaft in a light-duty diesel engine are identified, validated, and compared. The models are based on in-cylinder pressure and crankshaft torque data collected from a 5-cylinder common-rail diesel engine running at multiple operating points. The work is motivated by the need of a crankshaft model in a closed-loop combustion control system based on crankshaft torque measurements. In such a system a crankshaft model is used in order to separate the measured crankshaft torque into cylinder individual torque contributions. A method for this is described and used for IMEP estimation. Not surprisingly, the results indicate that higher order models are able to estimate crankshaft torque more accurately than lower order models, even if the differences are small. For IMEP estimation using the cylinder separation method however, these differences have large effects on accuracy. Here, the performance of higher order models is significantly better than for lower order models.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Federica Franzoni, Massimo Milani, Luca Montorsi, Valeri Golovitchev
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen. Furthermore, since the aluminum oxidation is completely GHG free and the alumina produced by the reaction can be recycled back to aluminum, the process has a sustainable environmental management.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Daniel Dahl, Mats Andersson, Andreas Berntsson, Ingemar Denbratt, Lucien Koopmans
Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition). The approach was evaluated in tests with a single-cylinder metal research engine and a single-cylinder optical engine.
Technical Paper
2009-06-09
Annki Falck, Roland Örtengren, Dan Högberg
For cost-beneficial reasons simulations with computer manikins have been increasingly used in the automotive industry for prediction of ergonomics problems before the product and work place exist in physical form. The main purpose of ergonomics simulations is to apply biomechanical models and data to assess the acceptability of the physical work load, e.g. working postures, visibility, clearance etc., which could result in requirements to change the design of the product. The aim is to improve ergonomics conditions in manual assembly and to promote a better product quality through improved assemblability (ease of assembly). Many studies have shown a clear correlation between assembly ergonomics and product quality and that poor assembly ergonomics result in impaired product quality and in decreased productivity. Nevertheless, there are remaining difficulties in achieving acceptance for changes of product and production solutions because of poor assembly ergonomics. A recent study in the Swedish automotive industry showed that huge savings and increased profit margins can be obtained by eliminating ergonomics risk concepts in the very early product development process.
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