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Viewing 1 to 30 of 190
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2197
Chengjun Du, Mats Andersson, Sven Andersson
Effects of nozzle geometry on diesel spray characteristics were studied in a spray chamber using three single-hole nozzles, one cylindrical and two conical, designated N1 (outlet diameter 140 µm, k-factor 0), N2 (outlet diameter 140 µm, k-factor 2) and N3 (outlet diameter 136 µm, k-factor 2). To characterize the hydraulic properties of the nozzles, impingement measurements were carried out under ambient conditions and injection pressures ranging from 800 to 1600 bar. Spray experiments were performed with each of these nozzles at two constant gas densities (15 and 30 kg/m3), one temperature 673 K, at which evaporation occurs. A light absorption scattering technique using visible and UV light was implemented, and the liquid and vapor phase distributions were imaged. The data show that effects of nozzle geometry on the vapor phase penetration and local spray cone angle differ with gas density and injection pressure.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-2110
Ilker Erdem, Peter Helgosson, Ashwin Gomes, Magnus Engstrom
The ability to adapt to rapidly evolving market demands continues to be the one of the key challenges in the automation of assembly processes in the aerospace industry. In order to meet this challenge industry and academia have made efforts to automate flexible fixturing. LOCOMACHS (Low Cost Manufacturing and Assembly of Composite and Hybrid Structures) – a European Union funded project with 31 partners – aims to address various aspects of aero-structure assembly with a special attention is directed to the development of a new build philosophy along with relevant enabling technologies. This paper aims to present the results on the developed wing box build philosophy and the integration of automated flexible tooling solutions into the prospective assembly process.
2016-09-20
Technical Paper
2016-01-1998
Michele Trancossi, Jose Pascoa, Carlos Xisto
Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to a very high thrust to weight ratio and very low cost of manufacturing. This papers presents a multi-chamber cooled pulsejet architecture, which has been specifically designed for reducing the vibrations induced by a single chmber and tube pulsejet architecture. After preliminary design considerations it will take into account the thermal problem of this very simple and unespansive propulsion system. It analyses the heat transfer process through the wall of the combustion chamber of a pulsejet for aeronautic propulsion. The inside wall is exposed to burning gases with an average temperature of 1200 K, which oscillates with an amplitude 500 k and a frequency of 50 hz.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1683
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract Presented are results from numerical investigations of buoyancy driven flow in a simplified representation of an engine bay. A main motivation for this study is the necessity for a valid correlation of results from numerical methods and procedures with physical measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the available numerical tools for prediction of natural convection. This analysis is based on previously performed PIV and temperature measurements in a controlled physical setup, which reproduced thermal soak conditions in the engine compartment as they occur for a vehicle parked in a quiescent ambient after sustaining high thermal loads. Thermal soak is an important phenomenon in the engine bay primarily driven by natural convection and radiation after there had been a high power demand on the engine. With the cooling fan turned off and in quiescent environment, buoyancy driven convection and radiation are the dominating modes of heat transfer.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1606
Charalampos Kounenis, Sabine Bonitz, Emil Ljungskog, David Sims-Williams, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Lars Larsson, Simone Sebben
Abstract The aerodynamic drag, fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions, of a road vehicle depend strongly on its flow structures and the pressure drag generated. The rear end flow which is an area of complex three-dimensional flow structures, contributes to the wake development and the overall aerodynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper seeks to provide improved insight into this flow region to better inform future drag reduction strategies. Using experimental and numerical techniques, two vehicle shapes have been studied; a 30% scale model of a Volvo S60 representing a 2003MY vehicle and a full scale 2010MY S60. First the surface topology of the rear end (rear window and trunk deck) of both configurations is analysed, using paint to visualise the skin friction pattern. By means of critical points, the pattern is characterized and changes are identified studying the location and type of the occurring singularities.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1582
Dirk Wieser, Sabine Bonitz, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz, Christian Nayeri, Christian Paschereit, Lars Larsson
Abstract Flow visualization techniques are widely used in aerodynamics to investigate the surface trace pattern. In this experimental investigation, the surface flow pattern over the rear end of a full-scale passenger car is studied using tufts. The movement of the tufts is recorded with a DSLR still camera, which continuously takes pictures. A novel and efficient tuft image processing algorithm has been developed to extract the tuft orientations in each image. This allows the extraction of the mean tuft angle and other such statistics. From the extracted tuft angles, streamline plots are created to identify points of interest, such as saddle points as well as separation and reattachment lines. Furthermore, the information about the tuft orientation in each time step allows studying steady and unsteady flow phenomena. Hence, the tuft image processing algorithm provides more detailed information about the surface flow than the traditional tuft method.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1586
Sinisa Krajnovic, Guglielmo Minelli, Branislav Basara
Partially-Averaged Navier-Stokes Simulations (PANS) were made of flow around a generic vehicle influenced by side wind at four different yaw angles to investigate the prediction capabilities of PANS. Comparisons with results of LES show clear advantages of PANS in predicting pressure-induced separation resulting in the trailing vortices aligned with the direction of the flow. Poorer agreement was obtained in the near wake when the boundary layer separates at the end of the surface at the rear end. A possible explanation for the lack of accuracy at the rear end of the body was found in the formulation of the switching coefficient fk which produces too low values resulting in too low eddy viscosity in this region.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0797
Mindaugas Melaika, Petter Dahlander
Abstract This paper assesses methane low pressure direct injection with stratified charge in a SI engine to highlight its potential and downsides. Experiments were carried out in a spark ignited single cylinder optical engine with stratified, homogeneous lean and stoichiometric operational mode, with focus on stratified mode. A dual coil ignition system was used in stratified mode in order to achieve sufficient combustion stability. The fuel injection pressure for the methane was 18 bar. Results show that stratified combustion with methane spark ignited direct injection is possible at 18 bar fuel pressure and that the indicated specific fuel consumption in stratified mode was 28% lower compared to the stoichiometric mode. Combustion and emission spectrums during the combustion process were captured with two high-speed video cameras. Combustion images, cylinder pressure data and heat release analysis showed that there are fairly high cycle-to-cycle variations in the combustion.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0946
Jonas Jansson, Soran Shwan, Magnus Skoglundh
Abstract Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from heavy-duty diesel engines are subject to more stringent environmental legislation. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) over metal ion-exchanged zeolites is in this connection an efficient method to reduce NOx. Understanding durability of the SCR catalyst is crucial for correct design of the aftertreatment system. In the present paper, thermal and chemical ageing of Fe-BEA as NH3-SCR catalyst is studied. Experimental results of hydrothermal ageing, and chemical ageing due to phosphorous and potassium exposure are presented. The catalyst is characterized by flow reactor experiments, nitrogen physisorption, DRIFTS, XRD, and XPS. Based on the experimental results, a multisite kinetic model is developed to describe the activity of the fresh Fe-BEA catalyst.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2400
Andrea Matrisciano, Anders Borg, Cathleen Perlman, Harry Lehtiniemi, Michal Pasternak, Fabian Mauss
In this work a soot source term tabulation strategy for soot predictions under Diesel engine conditions within the zero-dimensional Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) framework is presented. The DI-SRM accounts for detailed chemistry, in-homogeneities in the combustion chamber and turbulence-chemistry interactions. The existing implementation [1] was extended with a framework facilitating the use of tabulated soot source terms. The implementation allows now for using soot source terms provided by an online chemistry calculation, and for the use of a pre-calculated flamelet soot source term library. Diesel engine calculations were performed using the same detailed kinetic soot model in both configurations. The chemical mechanism for n-heptane used in this work is taken from Zeuch et al. [2] and consists of 121 species and 973 reactions including PAH and thermal NO chemistry. The engine case presented in [1] is used also for this work.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2538
Lars Christian Riis Johansen, Ingemar Denbratt, Stina Hemdal
Abstract The emissions from a parallel hybrid combustion engine and electric powertrain operated on a modified New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) was investigated in order to determine the relation between emissions and the road and engine load profile. The effect of simulated electric motor assistance during accelerations on emissions was investigated as a means to reduce particulate and gaseous emissions. The time resolved particulate number and size distribution was measured in addition to gaseous emissions. The combustion engine was a downsized, three cylinder spark ignited direct injection (SIDI) turbocharged engine fuelled with gasoline. Electric motor assistance during accelerations was simulated by reduction of the vehicle mass. This reduced engine load during accelerations. Fuel rich engine transients occurred during accelerations. NOx emissions were reduced with electric assistance due to a reduction in engine load.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1545
Lennert Sterken, Simone Sebben, Lennart Lofdahl, Tim Walker, Thies Wölken
Abstract Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0571
Andreas Teibinger, Christian Mayer, Ernö Dux, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Peter Luttenberger, Jac Wismans, Rémy Willinger
Abstract In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0337
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl, Peter Gullberg
Abstract The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1529
Sabine Bonitz, Lars Larsson, Lennart Lofdahl, Alexander Broniewicz
Abstract The phenomenon of three-dimensional flow separation is and has been in the focus of many researchers. An improved understanding of the physics and the driving forces is desired to be able to improve numerical simulations and to minimize aerodynamic drag over bluff bodies. To investigate the sources of separation one wants to understand what happens at the surface when the flow starts to detach and the upwelling of the streamlines becomes strong. This observation of a flow leaving the surface could be captured by investigating the limiting streamlines and surface parameters as pressure, vorticity or the shear stress. In this paper, numerical methods are used to investigate the surface pressure and flow patterns on a sedan passenger vehicle. Observed limiting streamlines are compared to the pressure distribution and their correlation is shown. For this investigation the region behind the antenna and behind the wheel arch, are pointed out and studied in detail.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0009
Johan Strandroth, Simon Sternlund, Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall, Matteo Rizzi, Anders Kullgren, Maria Ohlin, Rikard Fredriksson
Pedestrians and bicyclists account for a significant share of deaths and serious injuries in the road transport system. The protection of pedestrians in car-to-pedestrian crashes has therefore been addressed by friendlier car fronts and since 1997, the European New Car Assessment Program (Euro NCAP) has assessed the level of protection for most car models available in Europe. In the current study, Euro NCAP pedestrian scoring was compared with real-life injury outcomes in car-to-pedestrian and car-to-bicyclist crashes occurring in Sweden. Approximately 1200 injured pedestrians and 2000 injured bicyclists were included in the study. Groups of cars with low, medium and high pedestrian scores were compared with respect to pedestrian injury severity on the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS)-level and risk of permanent medical impairment (RPMI). Significant injury reductions to both pedestrians and bicyclists were found between low and high performing cars.
2014-11-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9129
Filip Nielsen, Åsa Uddheim, Jan-Olof Dalenbäck
Abstract Fuel consumption of vehicles has received increased attention in recent years; however one neglected area that can have a large effect on this is the energy usage for the interior climate. This study aims to investigate the energy usage for the interior climate for different conditions by measurements on a complete vehicle. Twelve different NEDC tests in different temperatures and thermal states of the vehicle were completed in a climatic wind tunnel. Furthermore one temperature sweep from 43° to −18°C was also performed. The measurements focused on the heat flow of the air, from its sources, to its sink, i.e. compartment. In addition the electrical and mechanical loads of the climate system were included. The different sources of heating and cooling were, for the tested powertrain, waste heat from the engine, a fuel operated heater, heat pickup of the air, evaporator cooling and cooling from recirculation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0653
Blago B. Minovski, Lennart Lofdahl
Abstract The work investigates the integration between tools for analysis and simulation of cooling systems at Volvo Group Trucks Technology. At the same time it is a consequent step in evaluating GT-SUITE for the purposes of analysis and simulation of such systems. The focus is on 1D simulation tools, which are generally preferred in the context of transient simulations of engine and power train installation systems. The Cooling Analysis and Simulations group at Volvo Group Trucks Technology use a variety of 1D simulation tools for analysis of cooling performance. Volvo Power Train, on the other hand, use among others GT-SUITE for engine simulations. It is expected to improve the quality of the simulation, (i.e the accuracy of the results) and improve system integration by using one tool for both areas of simulation. This work delivers two transient models of FH 13L cooling system integrated with a predictive model of the engine and a detailed model of the main coolant circuit.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0615
Sofie Koitrand, Lennart Lofdahl, Sven Rehnberg, Adrian Gaylard
Automotive aerodynamics measurements and simulations now routinely use a moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), which is more representative of on-road conditions than the fixed ground-fixed wheel (FG&FW) alternative. This can be understood as a combination of three elements: (a) moving ground (MVG), (b) rotating front wheels (RWF) and (c) rotating rear wheels (RWR). The interaction of these elements with the flow field has been explored to date by mainly experimental means. This paper presents a mainly computational (CFD) investigation of the effect of RWF and RWR, in combination with MVG, on the flow field around a saloon vehicle. The influence of MVG&RW is presented both in terms of a combined change from a FG&FW baseline and the incremental effects seen by the addition of each element separately. For this vehicle, noticeable decrease in both drag and rear lift is shown when adding MVG&RW, whereas front lift shows little change.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0602
Lennert Sterken, Lennart Lofdahl, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker
Abstract Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0001
Jonas Östh, Jóna Marín Ólafsdóttir, Johan Davidsson, Karin Brolin
The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0052
Anders N. Johansson, Stina Hemdal, Petter Dahlander
Forthcoming reductions in legal limits for emissions of particle matter (PM) from direct injection engines have increased the need for understanding particle distributions in the engines and the factors affecting them. Therefore, in the presented study the influence on PM-emissions of potentially important factors (fuel injection pressure, load, speed and 50% mass fraction burned phasing) on particle mass, number and size distributions were experimentally investigated. The experimental system was a spray-guided, direct injection, single-cylinder research engine operated in stratified charge mode (using gasoline with 10% ethanol as fuel), under five load and speed settings that are appropriate for stratified combustion. The particle distributions obtained from operating the engine in homogeneous combustion and stratified combustion modes were also compared.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0871
Lars Christian Riis Johansen, Eugenio de Benito Sienes, Petter Dahlander
Transient compressible gas jets, as encountered in direct injection gas fuel engines, have been examined using Schlieren visualization. Helium has been injected into air in a pressure chamber to create the jets examined. The structure of the jets is studied from the mean and coefficient of variation of the penetration length, jet width and jet angle. The quantities are calculated by digital image processing of Schlieren images captured with a high-speed camera. Injection pressure and chamber pressure have been varied to determine whether they have an effect on the response variables. Design of experiments methods have been used to develop the scheme employed in performing the experiments. The mean normalized penetration length of the jets is found to scale with injection to chamber pressure ratio and is in agreement with a momentum conserving relation given in the literature. The dispersion of the penetration length has been found to be in agreement with a normal distribution.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0464
Lennert Sterken, Simone Sebben, Tim Walker, Lennart Lofdahl
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0955
Teddy Hobeika, Simone Sebben, Christoffer Landstrom
It is well known that wheels are responsible for a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. Tyres, and mostly rims, have been the subject of research in the automotive industry for the past years, but their effect and interaction with each other and with the car exterior is still not completely understood. This paper focuses on the use of CFD to study the effects of tyre geometry (tyre profile and tyre tread) on road vehicle aerodynamics. Whenever possible, results of the numerical computations are compared with experiments. More than sixty configurations were simulated. These simulations combined different tyre profiles, treads, rim designs and spoke orientation on two car types: a sedan and a sports wagon. Two tyre geometries were obtained directly from the tyre manufacturer, while a third geometry was obtained from our database and represents a generic tyre which covers different profiles of a given tyre size.
2012-09-24
Technical Paper
2012-01-1931
Hoda Yarmohamadi, Viktor Berbyuk
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption. In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass. Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1719
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0355
Markus Grahn, Krister Johansson, Christian Vartia, Tomas McKelvey
The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0907
Mikael Thor, Bo Egardt, Tomas McKelvey, Ingemar Andersson
Combustion model structures based on Vibe functions are outlined and investigated in this work. The focus of the study is the use of such model structures for estimation of diesel combustion properties by reconstructing in-cylinder pressure from measurements of crankshaft torque. Investigated combustion properties include the start and phasing of the combustion as well as maximum values of the in-cylinder pressure and its derivative. The accuracy associated with the proposed estimation method is evaluated using ideal torque data, i.e. torque calculated from in-cylinder pressure, that is generated using both simulations and experiments. The results indicate that the uncertainty associated with the estimation of a selected combustion property tends to increase if that property is located close to TDC, where the signal-to-noise ratio is low for a torque signal.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0745
Mitra Pourabdollah, Viktor Larsson, Lars johannesson, Bo Egardt
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have rechargeable energy storage which can be used to run the vehicle on shorter range on electricity from the grid. In the absence of a priori information about the trip, a straightforward strategy is to first deplete the battery down to a minimum level and then keep the state of charge (SoC) around this level. However, largely due to the battery losses, the overall fuel economy can be improved if the battery is discharged gradually. This requires some a priori knowledge about the trip. This paper investigates the tradeoff between improved fuel economy and the need for a priori information. This investigation is done using a variant of telemetry equivalent consumption minimization strategy (T-ECMS) which is modified to be used for a PHEV. To implement this strategy, several parameters need to be tuned based on an assumption of the future trip.
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