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Viewing 1 to 30 of 167
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mohammed K Billal, Vinothkumar Subramani, Mohan Rao, Tim Potok
Abstract An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Timothy C. Scott, Fu-Long Chang, Masuma Khandaker, Sudhi Uppuluri
This paper discusses simplified lumped parameter thermal modeling of power train components. In particular, it discusses the tradeoff between model complexity and the ability to correlate the predicted temperatures and flow rates with measured data. The benefits and problems associated with using a three lumped mass model are explained and the value of this simpler model is promoted. The process for correlation and optimization using modern software tools is explained. Examples of models for engines and transmissions are illustrated along with their predictive abilities over typical driving cycles.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
Robert L. Norton, David Eovaldi, James Westbrook, Ronald L. Stene
Testing of an OHC valve train with hydraulic lash adjuster in which the valve displacements, velocities and accelerations were measured and analyzed in both time and frequency domains, coupled with analysis of the frequency content of the valve acceleration function and its ramps, show that traditional designs of the opening and closing ramps used on some IC engine valve cams can exacerbate vibration in the follower system causing higher levels of spring surge and noise. Suggestions are made for improvement to the design of the beginning and ending transitions of valve motion which can potentially reduce dynamic oscillation and vibration in the follower train.
Technical Paper
1999-03-01
C. R. Glaspie, J. R. Jaye, T. G. Lawrence, T. H. Lounsberry, L B. Mann, J. J. Opra, D. B. Roth, F.-Q. Zhao
Gasoline direct injection technology is receiving increased attention among automotive engineers due to its high potential to reach future emission and fuel economy goals. This paper reports some of the design and development techniques in use at Chrysler as applied to four-stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engines. The spray characteristics of Chrysler's single-fluid high-pressure injector are reported. Tools used in the design process are identified. Observations of the in-cylinder fuel/air mixing process using laser diagnostic techniques and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are described. Finally, combustion and emissions characteristics using Design of Experiment (DoE) tests are presented.
Technical Paper
1998-11-30
Jonathan Swindell, William E. Franklin, Jody Bailiff, David H. Ehlfeldt
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper
1998-11-16
Kim M. Lyon
Formula One motorsport competition, ever seeking increases in powertrain responsiveness and efficiency, has utilized electronically-shifted manual transmissions for nearly a decade. With the advent of this technology for passenger car usage ( for example the Magneti Marelli “Selespeed” system), new levels of powertrain electronic control become possible. At the same time, world-wide emission and fuel economy standards have driven powertrain designers to seek transmissions that are multi-faceted; able to offer manual transmission levels of driveline efficiency while simultaneously offering the ability to be automatically controlled. This paper will document a 1995-1996 Chrysler advanced powertrain concept study that culminated in a fully driveable, fully automatic, manual 5 speed transmission Neon coupe. The particular difficulties of electronically managing clutch control, gearshift synchronization, and synchronization duration will be scrutinized while detailed data traces will chronicle their successful resolution.
Technical Paper
1998-10-19
Stephen J. Buckley, James E. Malone, Tsung W. Sheng
This paper discusses the feasibility and issues associated with integrating a consumer off-the shelf product into a vehicle. For this evaluation, we selected a handheld personal computer (HPC), cellular telephone and modem to integrate with the vehicle audio, climate and system controls. Connectivity between the HPC and the vehicle is established by the use of the standard infrared serial data link that comes with the HPC. Connectivity outside the vehicle uses a cellular telephone for voice and a cellular digital packet data (CDPD) modem for data. This system is built into the Dodge ESX-2 hybrid powered concept vehicle for demonstration.
Technical Paper
1998-10-19
Thomas L. Kizer
The rapid growth of information technology has the potential to affect many of the reasons why people drive. The Internet is arguably the most significant recent milestone in the growth of information technology. This paper examines the ways Internet communication might affect the travel experience by a) eliminating traditional reasons for personal travel, b) providing new reasons, c) changing the balance between personal and freight travel, and d) changing trip length distribution. Changes of the types listed could affect the product demand "mix" for electric, hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles being developed.
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
Robert L. Norton, Ronald L. Stene, James Westbrook, David Eovaldi
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system. The frequency response function of the valve spring was separately measured and deconvolved from the acceleration spectra.
Technical Paper
1997-05-20
Anbarasu Nachimuthu, Karen M. Camago, Farshid Haste
To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper
1997-04-08
R. Sun, M. Gleason, S. Rahman, S. Parameswaran
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Colt Correa, Dave Gitterman, Armgard Rüskert, Taoqu Chen
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Sandeep Dhameja, Min Sway-Tin
Abstract A few years ago, electric vehicles (EVs) were considered to be objects of the distant future … technology that was still in its infancy, not yet ready and for those outside the “high pollution” areas probably not even worth the expenditure. But the present day scenario has changed dramatically. In the United States of America, several states are following California's lead and the need for the operating fleets to commit to purchase of Zero Emission vehicles (ZEVs) is becoming a requirement. In order to make the technology available to the utilities … as well as the public, state of the art, affordable batteries are essential for making EVs a reality and an effective means of transportation.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
M. F. Shi, J. A. Brindza, P. F. Michel, P. Bucklin, P. J. Belanger, J. M. Prencipe
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact. The dent resistance performance of the three steel types are examined and compared for both static and dynamic test conditions.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Josh Ullrich, Dave Emanuel, Walter Fong, Guy Nusholtz, Mansoor Chaudhry, Shawn Williams
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Kathleen Elder, Douglas Peterson, Gorica Zerafa, Joe Mecozzi, Dean Smith, Barry Coke, John Vitkuske
The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Gerald Winslow, Susan Yester, Stewart Coulter
With the increasing demand to improve recyclability of automobiles worldwide the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) a cooperative effort among Chrysler, Ford and General Motors has been formed. The VRP has been developing preferred practices for improvement of recyclability for future vehicle subsystems. These preferred practices are intended to assist engineers and designers in improving recyclability without impairing the performance of the subsystem. This paper discusses the practices of specific design for recycling of plastic bumper fascia systems and what the designer should consider in developing a design to improve and maximize recyclability.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Gerald Winslow, Susan Yester, Leo Ang, Frank Parkinson, Michael Biddle, Blaine Paxton
Hand dismantling of certain automotive parts has been an accepted process to remove high value materials, but in large scale recycling this may not be economical. In plastics, a pure non contaminated material stream is critical for maintaining high material values and this means designing plastic parts that can be machine separated. One candidate for separating the plastics in vehicle subsystems such as instrument panels and door trim panels is density separation. In order to better understand what processes are required to develop design requirements for automated plastic separation methods Chrysler and the Vehicle Recycling Partnership have undertaken a major materials separation study with MBA Polymers. In this paper, we describe the material separation methods and the application of these methods to three automotive interior assemblies. Reasonable success was achieved in separating the simpler assemblies (door trim panels and bumper-fascias), although problems were encountered in separating instrument panels into pure streams of materials.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Tim Rose, Mike Raby
In many instances, automotive companies wish to create both a left-hand drive and a right-hand drive version of the same vehicle. When the vehicle has relatively low sales volumes, it is imperative to reduce investment costs wherever possible. One successful - if challenging - way is by producing the instrument panel system for both versions off the same tooling. This feat was accomplished in the case of the '97 Jeep® Wrangler, saving the company approximately $7 million.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Kasser Jaffri, Hans G. Hascher, Mark Novak, Keunchul Lee, Harold Schock, Mike Bonne, Philip Keller
The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top. In addition, tumble and swirl calculations were performed on a volume basis which utilized 75% of the cylinder's volume.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Hans G. Hascher, Kasser Jaffri, Mark Novak, Keunchul Lee, Harold Schock, Mike Bonne, Philip Keller
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows. During the compression stroke the higher TKE was located around the momentary center of the cylinder volume.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Robert J. Kainz, Monica H. Prokopyshen, William E. Franklin
Environmental costs are a delayed financial burden that result from product decisions made early in the product life cycle--early material choices may create regulatory and waste management costs that were not factored into the acquisition cost. This paper outlines a step-wise approach to determine decision points; environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) cost drivers that affect decisions; and sources of information required to conduct a Life Cycle Management (LCM) review. Additionally, how LCM fits into the larger concurrent engineering framework is illustrated with an electrocoat primer example. Upstream and downstream supply chain processes are reviewed, as well as organizational challenges that affect the decision process.
Technical Paper
1997-02-24
Richard W. Andrews, David J. Pruess
Testing for vehicle emissions and fuel economy certification occurs primarily on chassis dynamometers in a laboratory setting and therefore the actual road conditions, such as forces due to tire rolling resistance and internal friction, must be simulated. Test track coastdown procedures measure vehicle road load forces and produce an equation which relates these forces to velocity. The recent inclusion of onboard anemometry has allowed the coastdown procedure to account for varying wind effects; however, the new anemometer based mechanical loss coefficients do not take into account ambient weather conditions. The two purposes of this study are (1) to determine the new tire rolling resistance temperature correction coefficient that should be used when test ambient temperature is different from the standard reference value of 68°F, and (2) to investigate the effects of auxiliary measurements, such as other ambient conditions and vehicle settings, on this correction coefficient. In order to estimate the correction coefficient and to determine the effects of the other conditions a test procedure was executed on 12 vehicle/tire combinations for temperatures ranging from 40° to 100° Fahrenheit.
Technical Paper
1996-12-01
Michael J. Royce, Kevin J. Royce
The true output of racing engines is normally a closely guarded secret. This is particularly so in Formula One. Also, the consistency of output between engines of identical specifications is of interest to all those involved. This paper outlines a study that was done on the 1993 3.5L Chrysler-Lamborghini CL-01 Formula 1 Engine, and will cover: The output variation of one specific engine configuration/fuel combination over the course of the season, The output variation of a second build/fuel combination over a significant number of builds, The output improvements due to fuels, The output changes due to mechanical developments during the season. The paper will also show that if engine output has been designated as one of the criteria for accepting or rejecting an engine, very small differences in either the acceptable level of performance or the recorded output can make a very significant difference to the number of engines rejected.
Technical Paper
1996-12-01
Timothy J. Culbertson, Joshua B. Browne, Eric P. Dion
Chrysler is a company run by automotive enthusiasts, and its motorsports programs are an integral part of the company's corporate, brand, and product development process. Chrysler's motorsports programs are executed from within its Platform Team system by the same engineers, using the same processes and facilities as production vehicle programs. This results in teaching and inspiring engineers, designers, and technicians, as well as providing genuine technical benefits to the company. This paper tells the “how” story of the design, build, and test of the Dodge Stratus Super Touring Car. Detailed results have been purposely omitted from the paper due to the competitive nature of motor racing.
Technical Paper
1996-11-01
G. S. Nusholtz, S. Bilkhu, M. Founas, K. Uduma, P. A. DeBois
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data. The experimental data presented in this paper indicate that the state of hydrostatic stress may affect the response of a Hybrid III head form interacting with foam padding.
Technical Paper
1996-05-01
Gang Chen, Thomas W. Asmus, Gregory T. Weber
Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined. The model not only quantitatively identifies the effects of each parameter on the final mixture but also shows the interactive influences of three phases of the mixture during the process.
Technical Paper
1996-02-01
C. E. DeLadurantey, R. J. Kainz, M. H. Prokopyshen
Environmental issues continue to emerge as a significant concern of the public today. End-of-pipe controls have proven to be costly solutions and have not addressed the root causes of environmental issues. Pollution prevention programs better address concerns and produce more cost-effective solutions. Additionally, regulations can no longer be addressed in isolation. Industry must view regulatory requirements as other business matters are addressed. The integration of regulatory requirements into the business plan focuses the cost of compliance on appropriate products or processes and exposes formerly hidden costs. For highly outsourced OEM's, supplier participation is critical to the success of any program. The bounds of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) are extended through an integrated global raw material strategy that encompasses regulated substance control, material selection and rationalization, and design for recyclability/separability. A life cycle management (LCM) model is used to evaluate environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) issues in a systematic business decision framework.
Technical Paper
1996-02-01
W. Charles Moeser, Mark A. Bindbeutel, Robert J. Kainz
Environmental issues have significantly impacted automotive operations worldwide. Countries are continuing to ratchet down their allowable emissions and to remain competitive, all industries must take Life Cycle Management (LCM) and implement it into everyday practice. Economic competitiveness as a part of economic development is central to the nation's social and financial well-being. America must catch-up to the rest of the world in how it views government and industry relationships as well as how to focus costs within the corporate structure. The adversarial relationships between government and industry must give way to stronger partnerships. For this concept to succeed a long term view of problems must be made by a corporation and both short and long term actions taken to resolve these problems. Industry must help create the market for recycled goods and must “walk the talk” by using recycled goods where possible. With the new national and international regulations, more innovative emission reduction strategies have to be developed.
Technical Paper
1996-02-01
Kevin McCallum, Les Rado, John Petroni, Paul Bucklin, Ming Shi
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
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