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Viewing 1 to 30 of 137
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1473
Kalu Uduma
The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) issued the FMVSS 226 ruling in 2011. It established test procedures to evaluate ejection mitigation countermeasures that are intended to help minimize the likelihood of a complete and/or partial ejection of vehicle occupants through the side windows during rollover or side impact events. One of the countermeasures that may be used for compliance of this new safety ruling is a deployable restraint; specifically a Side Airbag Inflatable Curtain (SABIC). This paper discusses how three key phases of the optimization strategy in the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), namely, Identify; Optimize and Verify (I_OV), were implemented in CAE to develop an improved simulation response, with respect to the FMVSS 226 test requirements of a SABIC. The simulated SABIC system is intended for a generic SUV and potentially also for a generic Truck type vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Magnesium alloys have low weldability, thus self-piercing rivet (SPR) joint is one of options for joining them. This research investigates the fatigue performance of SPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31, AM30, and AM60. Lap-shear and coach peel specimens for these alloys are fabricated and tested for understanding fatigue performance of the joint. Structural stress – life (S-N) curves are developed with the test results. This approach is validated with simple structural specimens that include three or two joints in each specimen. It is also intensively studied to identify the proper representation of the joint in finite element models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0877
Shu Wang, Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
As engines are equipped with an increased number of control actuators to meet fuel economy targets they become more difficult to control and calibrate. The additional complexity created by a larger number of control actuators motivates the use of physics-based control strategies to reduce calibration time and complexity. The combustion phasing, as one of the most important engine combustion metrics, has a significant effect on engine efficiency, emissions, stability and durability. To realize physics-based combustion phasing control, an accurate combustion model is required. Considering ECU computational power limitations, quasi-dimensional combustion models may be the most complex while still having potential for real-time calculation. For the quasi-D combustion model utilized in this research, the flame is assumed to develop as a kernel at the spark plug and then propagate towards unburned mixture at a turbulent flame speed before burning diffusively at a small length scale.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0868
Qilun Zhu, Shu Wang, Robert Prucka, Michael Prucka, Hussein Dourra
The highly transient operational nature of passenger car engines makes feedback control of combustion phasing using cylinder pressure difficult. The problem is further complicated by cycle-to-cycle combustion variation. A method for fast and accurate differentiation of normal combustion variations and true changes in combustion phasing is addressed in this research. The proposed method combines the results of a feed forward combustion phasing prediction model and “noisy” measurements from cylinder pressure using an iterative estimation technique. A Kalman Filter (KF) is applied to calculate optimal estimation gain according to the stochastic properties of the combustion phasing measurement at the corresponding engine operation condition. Methods to improve steady state CA50 estimation performance and adaptation to errors are also discussed in this research. Finally, the proposed CA50 observer is validated with simulation and dynamometer tests using a prototype engine controller.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0461
Dennis Craggs
Analyze vehicle usage parameters with distribution free methods. Engineers are familiar with displaying vehicle data with interval count or percentile histograms. A cumulative time or mileage based histogram provides a direct visual means of characterizing the vehicle history. Combining the histograms from many vehicles results in a complex virtually unreadable plot. An alternative approach is to determine the 5%, median, and 95% usage and plot as a cumulative histogram . These provide design engineers with useful information to develop validation tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1530
Todd Lounsberry, Joel Walter
There has been a lot of attention in recent years on open jet correction methods, in particular on the two-measurement method set forth by E. Mercker, K. Cooper, and co-workers. This method accounts for blockage and static pressure gradient effects in automotive wind tunnels and has been shown by both computations and experiments to appropriately adjust drag coefficients towards an on-road condition, thus allowing results from different wind tunnels to be better compared. However, most wind tunnels have yet to adopt the method as standard practice due to difficulties in practical application. In particular, it is necessary to measure the aerodynamic forces on every vehicle configuration in two different static pressure gradients to capture that portion of the correction. Building on earlier proof-of-concept work, this paper demonstrates a practical method for implementing the two-measurement procedure and demonstrates how it can be used for production testing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0662
Weiguo Zhang, Mac Lynch, Robert Reynolds
A turbocharger is currently widely used to boost performance of an internal combustion engine. Generally, a turbocharger consists of a compressor which normally is driven by an exhaust turbine. Both the compressor and the turbine will have an influence on how the low frequency engine pulsation propagates in the intake and exhaust system. In addition, the turbocharger will produce high frequency flow induced sound. The high frequency sound generation is associated with rotating blade pressures, supersonic tip speeds or rotating shock waves. This paper focuses on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to the prediction of this high frequency flow induced sound. A turbocharger compressor is generally a centrifugal compressor consisting of wheel, diffuser and housing. As the compressor wheel rotates, ambient air is drawn in axially through an air induction system, accelerated to high speed and then expelled in a radial direction to the outlet.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0465
Seyed M. Mirmiran, Vern Scott, Matthew Herc, Shin Taguchi
The need for a proficient, cost-efficient asset management system has already been established . To meet that need, we first reviewed plausible solutions to asset location and verification capability based on existing technology. In lieu of unavailability of a robust solution, we conducted a two-pronged DFSS project to fulfill both the hardware and software components’ requirements of such a system. The comprehensive DFSS studies covered the full range of concept identification based on gathered voice of customer data; selection of most suitable solution via Taguchi House of Quality; designing an optimization plan; and verification of the optimized results through test runs. This paper reports the outcome of those DFSS studies, as a unique approach in taking an idea through concept generation and development, finally leading to the design of a robust product.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0428
Sida Li, Xiaowu Yang, Bruce Minaker, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Mark Villaire
Bushing model development is always necessary for dynamic simulation regarding vehicle durability, as its accuracy will directly affect the quality of the result. By considering nonlinearity, asymmetry, and hysteresis, this paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, providing users fast and stable fitting and application process in the time domain. A total number of 9 parameters make ABM relatively straight-forward and less redundant compared with some existing bushing models. The additional capability with proper transfer function makes ABM possible to reflect the frequency dependency of some special-made bushings, such as hydraulic engine mounts. Comparisons between tested and simulated result show that ABM is capable of reproducing accurate force out of a given bushing, under some common situation faced in durability simulation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0426
Xiaowu Yang, Sida Li, Xiaojin (Shine) Lan, Bruce Minaker, Mark Villaire
In the automotive industry, multi-axis shaker tables are often used to study the damage caused by motion-induced inertia loads to components such as engine mounts or fuel tank strips. To assess the component durability characteristics using this approach, prototype parts must be built and a test rig must be installed. This process is both time and budget consuming, so there is an incentive to reduce the number of physical shaking tests. To that end, this paper introduces a set of software tools that are capable of conducting virtual shaking simulations with quality output results, i.e., a virtual multi-axial shaker table (VMAST). By refining and reproducing vehicle body acceleration signals collected from the proving grounds, the VMAST is able to replay the body motion of a vehicle. The reproduced motion (drive file) can then be used to drive the virtual dynamic shaking.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0594
Xin Xie, Changqing Du, Xiaona Li, Yi-Hsin Chen, Guobiao Yang, Yongjun Zhou, Dajun ZHOU, Yaqian Zheng, Bernard Sia, Christina Phillips, Lianxiang Yang
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens system are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that no edge thinning limit reduction observed in three levels’ pre-strain coupon tests and the pre-straining does not affect the edge thinning limit. Basic theory of DIC, experimental setup, test plan and experimental results are shown in detail in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0550
Wenxin Qin
Substructure Stiffness Synthesis for Fatigue Analysis of Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain durability fatigue analysis, FEA model becomes bigger and bigger and close to adopt a full vehicle as computer hardware and software improved. However, due to a huge amount of components (more than 20,000 parts in a vehicle), there are still too much computational time needed and a lot of pre/post process works to do for using full car FEA model. Therefore, for saving time and cost it is desirable to reduce the number of subsystems, and getting an effective subsystem model which keeps the main features of the mechanics of a whole vehicle system. In this paper, authors present a useful and effective substructure FEA model: Substructure Stiffness Synthesis (SSS) method in the automotive durability analysis.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0593
Guobiao Yang, Changqing Du, DAJUN ZHOU, Xiaona Li, Yongjun Zhou, Biyu Ye, xinfeng shi, Yaqian Zheng, Junrui Li, Lianxiang Yang
The material parameters are very important in engineering application. In the automotive industry to large plastic deformation required parts stamping, the material parameters must be tested in the large plastic deformation. Among many of the parameters, aluminum edge tearing strength of the large plastic deformation of materials is an very important parameter. With traditional methods testing these parameters, there have many defects in the process of testing because of the complicated plastic deformation. In this paper, a novel method has been present to test the aluminum edge tearing strength with testing system of 3D digital image correlation with double CCD; at the same time, the special specimen and fixture were designed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue NARAINEN, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0931
Zihan Wang, Andrew Swantek, Riccardo Scarcelli, Daniel Duke, Alan Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Ronald Reese, Kevin Freeman, York Zhu
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays are simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time are compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations are simulated and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior are investigated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0683
Jiman Han, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Xichen Sun
This paper describes the scuffing tests performed to understand the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior for austempered ductile iron (ADI) material. As the scuffing tendency is increased, metal-to-metal interaction between contacting surfaces is increased. Lubrication between sliding surfaces becomes the boundary or mixed lubrication condition. Oil film breakdown leads to scuffing failure with the critical load. Hence, the role of surface roughness and lubrication becomes prominent in scuffing study. There are some studies in which the influence of the surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing was evaluated. However, no comprehensive scuffing study has been found in the literature regarding the effect of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing behavior of ADI material. The current research took into account the inferences of surface roughness and lubrication on scuffing for ADI.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0568
Wenxin Qin
Simplified 3D Simulation Models to 2D Plane Strain Analytical Models in Automotive Structure Wenxin Qin (Chrysler Group, LLC, USA) Abstract In automotive chassis, body and powertrain finite element numerical analysis, more and more analysts and engineers like to adopt 3D complex FEA models along with improved computer hardware and software. The advantages of 3D FEA model are (1) looked like real model in vision; (2) simulation response is more vivid; (3) easily to discover the mistakes by watching simulation response. The drawbacks of 3D FEA model are (1) more pre/post process works and computation time; (2) numerical divergence is a challenging issue in nonlinear and contact situations and debug becomes difficulty; (3) sometimes accumulated numerical errors will cover the actual response. Therefore, it is necessary to explore what kinds of 3D FEA situations can be successfully converted by the simple 2D plan FEA models.
2014-07-07
Article
Recently, with increased vehicle safety requirements, vehicle manufacturers are installing cutting-edge testing equipment in their own crash test facilities.Chrysler Group LLC partnered with Messring Systembau GmbH to upgrade Chelsea Proving Grounds, the central testing facility in Chelsea, MI.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1815
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1518
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Zammit, Luis Cattani, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly
Abstract To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0656
Alaa El-Sharkawy
Abstract Computational tools have been extensively applied to predict component temperatures before an actual vehicle is built for testing [1, 2, 3, 4, and 5]. This approach provides an estimate of component temperatures during a specific driving condition. The predicted component temperature is compared against acceptable temperature limits. If violations of the temperature limits are predicted, corrective actions will be applied. These corrective actions may include adding heat shields to the heat source or to the receiving components. Therefore, design changes are implemented based on the simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is the formal technique of determining most influential parameters in a system that affects its performance. Uncertainty analysis is the process of evaluating the deviation of the design from its intended design target.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0644
Yu Hsien Wu, Sreekanth Surapaneni, Kumar Srinivasan, Paul Stibich
Abstract Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0684
B. Vasanth, Jose Bright, Pavan Reddy, Sathish Kumar S, Murali Govindarajalu
Abstract In an Automotive air conditioning system, the air flow distribution in the cabin from the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning), ducts and outlets is evaluated by the velocity achieved at driver and passenger mannequin aim points. Multiple simulation iterations are being carried out before finalizing the design of HVAC panel duct and outlets until the target velocity is achieved. In this paper, a parametric modeling of the HVAC outlet is done which includes primary and secondary vane creation using CATIA. Java macro files are created for simulation runs in STAR CCM+. ISIGHT is used as an interface tool between CATIA and STARCCM+. The vane limits of outlet and the target velocity to be achieved at mannequin aim points are defined as the boundary conditions for the analysis. Based on the optimization technique and the number of iterations defined in ISIGHT, the vane angle model gets updated automatically in CATIA followed by the simulation runs in STARCCM+.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0985
Xiaoming Chen, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Ken Schmid, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Chris Roman
Abstract Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0943
Paul R. Stibich, Yu Hsien Wu, Weidong Zhang, Michao Guo, Kumar Srinivasan, Sreekanth Surapaneni
Abstract This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0926
Weidong Zhang, Mingchao Guo, Paul Stibich, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0892
Eric Frank, Peter Jacobsen
Abstract As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0880
Christian Scheiblegger, Nantu Roy, Orlando Silva Parez, Andrew Hillis, Peter Pfeffer, Jos Darling
Abstract Cab mounts and suspension bushings are crucial for ride and handling characteristics and must be durable under highly variable loading. Such elastomeric bushings exhibit non-linear behavior, depending on excitation frequency, amplitude and the level of preload. To calculate realistic loads for durability analysis of cars and trucks multi-body simulation (MBS) software is used, but standard bushing models for MBS neglect the amplitude dependent characteristics of elastomers and therefore lead to a trade-off in simulation accuracy. On the other hand, some non-linear model approaches lack an easy to use parameter identification process or need too much input data from experiments. Others exhibit severe drawbacks in computing time, accuracy or even numerical stability under realistic transient or superimposed sinusoidal excitation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0921
Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Mike Gundle, Mike Rowley, Alan Aloe, Frederick Zweng, Eric Blackburn, Chandra Thandhayuthapani, Chandra Thonta, Edward Law, Kah Wah Long, Mike Temkin, Zachary Calkins
Abstract Fuel Tank Straps very often get different durability fatigue test results from different types of durability testing such as shaker table vibration, road test simulator (RTS) vehicle testing and proving ground vehicle durability testing. One test produces good durability results and other may indicate some durability risk. A special study was conducted to address this inconsistency. It was found that fuel level in the tank plays a big role in fuel tank strap durability. Higher fuel levels in a tank produce higher loads in straps and lower fatigue life. This paper will use a CAE fuel tank strap model and acquired proving ground strap load data to study fuel level influence in fuel tank strap durability. The fuel level study includes a full tank of fuel, 3 quarters tank of fuel, a half tank of fuel and one quarter tank of fuel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0912
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Sandip Datta
Abstract In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
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