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Viewing 1 to 30 of 120
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0726
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Ahmed Uddin
In this paper, thermal models are developed based on experimental test data, and the physics of thermal systems. If experimental data is available, the data can be fitted to mathematical models that represent the system response to changes in its input parameters. Therefore, empirical models which are based on test data are developed. The concept of time constant is presented and applied to development of transient models. Mathematical models for component temperature changes during transient vehicle driving conditions are also presented. Mathematical models for climate control system warm up and cool-down are also discussed. The results show the significance of adopting this concept in analysis of vehicle test data, and in development of analytical models. The developed models can be applied to simulate the system or component response to variety of changes in input parameters. As a result, significant testing and simulation time can be saved during the vehicle development process.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0729
Alaa El-Sharkawy, Asif Salahuddin, Brian Komarisky
In this paper a design methodology for automotive heat exchangers has been applied which brings robustness into the design process and helps to optimize the design goals: as to maintain an optimal coolant temperature and to limit the vehicle underhood air temperature within a tolerable limit. The most influential design factors for the heat exchangers which affect the goals have been identified with that process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals for the vehicle as mentioned above. Taguchi's [1] Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methods have been employed to conduct this analysis in a robust way.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0943
Paul R. Stibich, Yu Hsien Wu, Weidong Zhang, Michao Guo, Kumar Srinivasan, Sreekanth Surapaneni
Abstract This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0892
Eric Frank, Peter Jacobsen
Abstract As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0887
Weiguo Zhang, Rakesh Khurana, Mark Likich, Mac Lynch
Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1180
Owais Iqbal, Kunal Arora, Manyam Sanka
Accurate numerical prediction of an engine thermal map at a wide range of engine operating conditions can help tune engine performance parameters at an early development stage. This study documents the correlation of an engine thermal simulation using the conjugate heat transfer (CHT) methodology with thermocouple data from an engine operating in a dynamometer and a vehicle drive cell. Three different operating conditions are matched with the simulation data. Temperatures predicted by simulation at specific sections, both at the intake and the exhaust sides of the engine are compared with the measured temperatures in the same location on the operating engine.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0395
Kiranmaye Aluru, Bruce Geist, William Resh
Abstract Interference assessments of a stepped-radius power-train component moving within a deformed stepped bore often arise during engine and transmission development activities. For example, when loads are applied to an engine block, the block distorts. This distortion may cause a cam or crankshaft to bind or wear prematurely in its journals as the part rotates within them. Within an automatic transmission valve body, care must be taken to ensure valve body distortion under oil pressure, assembly, and thermal load does not cause spool valves to stick as they translate within the valve body. In both examples, the mechanical scenario to be assessed involves a uniform or stepped radius cylindrical part maintaining a designated clearance through a correspondingly shaped but distorted bore. These distortions can occur in cross-sections (“out-of-round”) or along the bore (in an “s” or “banana” shaped distortions).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0399
Mohamed Sithik, Rama Vallurupalli, Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Subash Sudalaimuthu
Abstract In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0880
Christian Scheiblegger, Nantu Roy, Orlando Silva Parez, Andrew Hillis, Peter Pfeffer, Jos Darling
Abstract Cab mounts and suspension bushings are crucial for ride and handling characteristics and must be durable under highly variable loading. Such elastomeric bushings exhibit non-linear behavior, depending on excitation frequency, amplitude and the level of preload. To calculate realistic loads for durability analysis of cars and trucks multi-body simulation (MBS) software is used, but standard bushing models for MBS neglect the amplitude dependent characteristics of elastomers and therefore lead to a trade-off in simulation accuracy. On the other hand, some non-linear model approaches lack an easy to use parameter identification process or need too much input data from experiments. Others exhibit severe drawbacks in computing time, accuracy or even numerical stability under realistic transient or superimposed sinusoidal excitation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0612
Mark E. Gleason, Todd Lounsberry, Khaled Sbeih, Sreekanth Surapaneni
Abstract Recently, the Two-Measurement correction method that yields a wake distortion adjustment for open jet wind tunnels has shown promise of being able to adjust for many of the effects of non-ideal static pressure gradients on bluff automotive bodies. Utilization of this adjustment has shown that a consistent drag results when the vehicle is subjected to the various gradients generated in open jet wind tunnels. What has been lacking is whether this consistent result is independent of the other tunnel interference effects. The studies presented here are intended to fill that gap and add more realistic model and wind tunnel conditions to the evaluations of the performance of the two-measurement technique. The subject CFD studies are designed to greatly reduce all wind tunnel interference effects except for the variation of the non-linear static pressure gradients. A zero gradient condition is generated by simulating a solid wall test section with a blockage ratio of 0.1%.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0684
B. Vasanth, Jose Bright, Pavan Reddy, Sathish Kumar S, Murali Govindarajalu
Abstract In an Automotive air conditioning system, the air flow distribution in the cabin from the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning), ducts and outlets is evaluated by the velocity achieved at driver and passenger mannequin aim points. Multiple simulation iterations are being carried out before finalizing the design of HVAC panel duct and outlets until the target velocity is achieved. In this paper, a parametric modeling of the HVAC outlet is done which includes primary and secondary vane creation using CATIA. Java macro files are created for simulation runs in STAR CCM+. ISIGHT is used as an interface tool between CATIA and STARCCM+. The vane limits of outlet and the target velocity to be achieved at mannequin aim points are defined as the boundary conditions for the analysis. Based on the optimization technique and the number of iterations defined in ISIGHT, the vane angle model gets updated automatically in CATIA followed by the simulation runs in STARCCM+.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0913
Guofei Chen, Mingchao Guo, Weidong Zhang
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0921
Barry (Baizhong) Lin, Mike Gundle, Mike Rowley, Alan Aloe, Frederick Zweng, Eric Blackburn, Chandra Thandhayuthapani, Chandra Thonta, Edward Law, Kah Wah Long, Mike Temkin, Zachary Calkins
Abstract Fuel Tank Straps very often get different durability fatigue test results from different types of durability testing such as shaker table vibration, road test simulator (RTS) vehicle testing and proving ground vehicle durability testing. One test produces good durability results and other may indicate some durability risk. A special study was conducted to address this inconsistency. It was found that fuel level in the tank plays a big role in fuel tank strap durability. Higher fuel levels in a tank produce higher loads in straps and lower fatigue life. This paper will use a CAE fuel tank strap model and acquired proving ground strap load data to study fuel level influence in fuel tank strap durability. The fuel level study includes a full tank of fuel, 3 quarters tank of fuel, a half tank of fuel and one quarter tank of fuel.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0985
Xiaoming Chen, Ching-Kuo Hsiung, Ken Schmid, Changqing Du, Dajun Zhou, Chris Roman
Abstract Forming a metal gainer is a common technique used to gather material in a high stretch region along an edge in preparation for a subsequent flanging operation. This technique has proven to be successful for mild steels, but needs to be evaluated for the applicability to advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Stamping Team launched a project for this study. Experimental trials were conducted on gainer forming, trimming and flanging. Twelve (12) AHSS have been tested with tensile strengths ranging from 460 to 1240 MPa. Edge stretch limits for flanging have been evaluated and compared to flanging without gainers. Different trimming and flanging approaches have also been tried. The results show that metal gainers are not advantageous for flanging of higher strength AHSS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1518
Homayoun Ahari, Michael Zammit, Luis Cattani, Jason Jacques, Thomas Pauly
Abstract To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0211
Barbara J. Czerny, Robert Suchala, Michael Runyon
Abstract Exposure in ISO 26262 is defined as the state of being in an operational situation that can be hazardous if coincident with the failure mode under analysis. An operational situation is defined as a scenario that can occur during a vehicle's life with examples given such as driving, parking, or maintenance. Accurately predicting exposure is one of the more difficult tasks in the ASIL determination. ISO 26262 Part 3 attempts to provide guidance in Annex B through tables of potential operational situations and associated exposure levels. However, the contents of these tables may not allow for an accurate prediction of exposure and may lead to an exposure value that is too high or too low. In this paper, we describe a potential method for determining exposure that considers a potential mishap scenario as a composition of multiple coincident operational situations rather than considering a single operational situation as indicated in the tables in Annex B of Part 3.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0644
Yu Hsien Wu, Sreekanth Surapaneni, Kumar Srinivasan, Paul Stibich
Abstract Automotive vehicle body electrophoretic (e-coat) and paint application has a high degree of complexity and expense in vehicle assembly. These steps involve coating and painting the vehicle body. Each step has multiple coatings and a curing process of the body in an oven. Two types of heating methods, radiation and convection, are used in the ovens to cure coatings and paints during the process. During heating stage in the oven, the vehicle body has large thermal stresses due to thermal expansion. These stresses may cause permanent deformation and weld/joint failure. Body panel deformation and joint failure can be predicted by using structural analysis with component surface temperature distribution. The prediction will avoid late and costly changes to the vehicle design. The temperature profiles on the vehicle components are the key boundary conditions used to perform structure analysis.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0656
Alaa El-Sharkawy
Abstract Computational tools have been extensively applied to predict component temperatures before an actual vehicle is built for testing [1, 2, 3, 4, and 5]. This approach provides an estimate of component temperatures during a specific driving condition. The predicted component temperature is compared against acceptable temperature limits. If violations of the temperature limits are predicted, corrective actions will be applied. These corrective actions may include adding heat shields to the heat source or to the receiving components. Therefore, design changes are implemented based on the simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is the formal technique of determining most influential parameters in a system that affects its performance. Uncertainty analysis is the process of evaluating the deviation of the design from its intended design target.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0902
Virgiliu-Adrian Savu, Yung-Li Lee, Anthony Han, Azadeh Narimissa, Amir Kazemi
Abstract Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0926
Weidong Zhang, Mingchao Guo, Paul Stibich, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0912
Wenxin Qin, Fred Zweng, Sandip Datta
Abstract In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0906
Bhaskar Kusuma, Kaizhi Quan, Mingchao Guo, Ram Bhandarkar
Abstract In this paper, four possible CAE analysis methods for calculating critical buckling load and post-buckling permanent deformation after unloading for geometry imperfection sensitive thin shell structures under uniformly distributed loads have been investigated. The typical application is a vehicle roof panel under snow load. The methods include 1) nonlinear static stress analysis, 2) linear Eigen value buckling analysis 3) nonlinear static stress analysis using Riks method with consideration of imperfections, and 4) implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of imperfections. Advantage and disadvantage of each method have been discussed. Correlations between each of the method to a physical test are also conducted. Finally, the implicit quasi-static nonlinear stress analysis with consideration of geometry imperfections that are scaled mode shapes from linear Eigen value buckling analysis is preferred.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1815
Rami Abousleiman, Osamah Rawashdeh
Abstract Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2004
Antoni Szatkowski
The sound quality of a prototype series hydraulic hybrid passenger vehicle powertrain was analyzed. Different sound quality metrics were evaluated to determine which one correlated best with the subjective assessment of sound quality, and a desired sound quality target was developed. Next, the effect of the design of the hydraulic powertrain components on sound quality was analyzed. Two extreme options were analyzed: “stiff” systems with a hard drive shaft or short fluid hoses, and “soft” systems with a soft drive shaft or long fluid hoses. Experimental results from these systems are presented in the paper. Finally, design recommendations were made to achieve the best sound quality of the hybrid hydraulic powertrain, and therefore maximum customer satisfaction.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1875
Jeff Orzechowski, Jaspal Sandhu, Dumitru Beloiu, Andrew Talby
Superior NVH performance is a key focus in the development of new powertrains. In recent years, computer simulations have gained an increasing role in the design, development, and optimization of powertrain NVH at component and system levels. This paper presents the results of a study carried out on a 4-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine with focus on growl noise. Growl is a low frequency noise (300-700 Hz) which is primarily perceived at moderate engine speeds (2000-3000 rpm) and light to moderate throttle tip-ins. For this purpose, a coupled and fully flexible multi-body dynamics model of the powertrain was developed. Structural components were reduced using component mode synthesis and used to determine dynamics loads at various engine speeds and loading conditions. A comparative NVH assessment of various crankshaft designs, engine configurations, and in- cylinder gas pressures was carried out.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1249
Guy S. Nusholtz, Zine Aoun, Laura Di Domenico, Timothy Hsu, Manuel A. Gracián, Jesús A. Prado
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1169
Sarin Babu Thokala, Sathya Narayanan, Naveed Ahamed, Deepak Ranjan Bhuyan, Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Sathya Dev
Springback is a major phenomenon in sheet metal forming process that has to be tackled to achieve the desired product with greater dimensional accuracy. Springback occurs due to elastic recovery of sheet metal after the stamping process. The automobile industry is gradually moving from use of conventional steels to advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for their light weight and greater strength properties; however AHSS possesses greater springback effect due to higher elastic limit which proves to be difficult to deal with the springback effect. Hence it is imperative that the counter measures are taken to minimize the springback effect. The purpose of the study is to showcase various factors that influence the prediction of springback phenomenon. In this study the simulation results are compared with scanned data of actual stamped panels and their deviation is studied.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1171
Praveen Balaj Balakrishnan, Sathya Dev, Deepak Bhuyan, Parvez Syed, Sarin Babu Thokala
Automotive industry's migration to usage of HSS (High Strength Steels), AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels) from conventional steels for their low weight and high strength properties has had its significant effects on die wear. The unpredictability of die wear can pose manufacturing issues, for example, undesirable tool life. Hence die wear has been gaining immense attention and lot of research work has been carried out to provide a die wear prediction method. This paper focuses on the method of estimating wear mathematically based on the mechanics behind die wear phenomenon. This is also an effort to study wear on die for an automotive component in critical areas for which the amount of wear are calculated. This study is further to be correlated with production data from die maintenance record, explicit measurement of die wear, etc., to validate the estimation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0466
Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
Regression models are used to understand the relative fatality risk for drivers in front-front and front-left crashes. The field accident data used for the regressions were extracted by NHTSA from the FARS database for model years 2000-2007 vehicles in calendar years 2002-2008. Multiple logistic regressions are structured and carried out to model a log-linear relationship between risk ratio and the independent vehicle and driver parameters. For front-front crashes, the regression identifies mass ratio, belt use, and driver age as statistically significant parameters (p-values less than 1%) associated with the risk ratio. The vehicle type and presence of the ESC are found to be related with less statistical significance (p-values between 1% and 5%). For front-left crashes the driver risk ratio is also found to have a log-log linear relationship with vehicle mass ratio.
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