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Viewing 1 to 30 of 80
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0342
Matthew S. Walp
The automotive industry is pursuing significant cost competitive efforts to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining or improving durability and impact performance. One such effort for the body shell structure is the utilization of advanced and ultra high strength steels (AHSS and UHSS) using the existing automotive manufacturing infrastructure. Common AHSS and UHSS steels include Dual Phase (DP), Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP), Partial Martensitic (PM) and others. The use of these multiphase high strength steels for impact dependent components has resulted in the need for further material characterization in order to better predict impact performance and guide new material development. This paper addresses the material properties and microstructural influences on impact behavior of advanced and ultra high strength steels through the use of laboratory tests and component level testing.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1662
Ming-Wei Lu, Marlon D. Forrest, Cheng Julius Wang
Abstract The relationship between the response (output) and the input factors on a system or process is always needed. This relationship can be used to optimize the response. The Central Composite Design (CCD) is the most commonly used in response surface study. The Uniform Design (UD) can have a small number of experiments to explore relationship between the response and the factors. In this paper, the physics-based simulation model of a “Heater fan motor” will be used to investigate the accuracy of the response (angular velocity) by the prediction models from CCD and UD.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1661
Xin Zhang, Mark E. Barkey, Yung-Li Lee, Ming-Wei Lu, Eric Pakalnins, Charles J. Orsette, William Trojanowski
More than 200 tensile-shear resistance spot welded specimens were produced and tested to analyze the effect of spot weld spacing, weld size, sheet thickness, and adhesive on the ultimate strength of joints made from a mild hot dip galvannealed steel and an unexposed quality hot dip galvannealed 590 MPa minimum tensile strength dual phase steel (DP590). The geometric layout parameters were analyzed by a design of experiment (DOE) approach. The analysis showed that weld size is a primary factor affecting the strength of the joints for a given material. It was also determined that structural adhesive created a large relative strengthening for joints made from the mild steel. Interactions of the geometrical factors are also presented.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1262
Klaus Müller-Haas, Mike Rice, Ronald Dean, Randal Olsen, Joseph Adams, Lisa Manasse, Michael Chruch
The implementations of the Tier 2 and LEVII emission levels require fast catalyst light-off and fast closed loop control through high-speed engine management. The paper describes the development of innovative catalyst designs. During the development thermal and mechanical boundary conditions were collected and component tests conducted on test rigs to identify the emission and durability performance. The products were evaluated on a Super Imposed Test Setup (SIT) where thermal and mechanical loads are applied to the test piece simultanously and results are compared to accelerated vehicle power train endurance runs. The newly developed light-off catalyst with Perforated Foil Technology (PE) showed superior emission light-off characteristic and robustness.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1265
Douglas Ball, Michael G. Zammit, George C. Mitchell
An experiment was performed with a 1.3L catalytic converter design containing a front and rear catalyst each having a volume of 0.65 liters. This investigation varied the front catalyst parameters to study the effects of 1) substrate diameter, 2) substrate cell density, 3) Pd loading and 4) Rh loading on the FTP emissions on three different vehicles. Engine displacement varied from 2.4L to 4.7L. Eight different converters were built defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Cold flow converter restriction results show the tradeoff in converter restriction between substrate cell density and substrate diameter. Vehicle FTP emissions show how the three vehicles are sensitive to the four parameters investigated. Platinum Group Metals (PGM) prices and Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emissions were used to define the emission value between the substrate properties of diameter and cell density to palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) concentrations.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0986
Sung-Tae Hong, Curt A Lavender, John R Boughton, Kurt M. Knop, Allan McGowan, David W Skilton
The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties and dynamic crush behaviors of tapered aluminum 6063-T4 tubes with octagonal cross section are investigated by experiments. First, the thickness profile of the hydroformed tube is measured by non-destructive examination technique using ultrasonic thickness gauge. The effect of hydroforming on the mechanical properties of the tube is investigated by quasi-static tensile tests of specimens prepared from different regions of the tube based on the thickness profile. The effect of hydroforming on the dynamic crush behaviors of the tube is investigated by axial crush tests under dynamic loads. Specimens and tubes are tested in two different heat treatment conditions: hydroformed-T4 (as-received) and T6. The results of the quasi-static tensile tests for the specimens in hydroformed-T4 condition show different amounts of work hardening depending on the regions, which the specimens are prepared from.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1552
Chang-Fa An, Kanwerdip Singh
This paper presents the results of CFD study on sunroof buffeting suppression using a dividing bar. The role of a dividing bar in side window buffeting case was illustrated in a previous study [8]. For the baseline model of the selected vehicle in this study, a very high level of sunroof buffeting, 133dB, has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be significantly reduced if a dividing bar is installed at the sunroof. A further optimization study on the dividing bar demonstrates that the peak buffeting level can be reduced to 123dB for the selected vehicle if the dividing bar is installed at its optimal location, 65% of the total length from the front edge of the sunroof. The peak buffeting level can be further reduced to 100dB if the dividing bar takes its optimal width 80mm, 15% of the total length of the sunroof for this vehicle, while staying at its optimal location.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0596
Timothy C. Scott, Shan Sundaram
Simple component models are advantageous when simulating vehicle AC systems so that overall model complexity and computation time can be minimized. These models must be robust enough to avoid instability in the iteration method used for determining the AC system operating or “balance” point. Simplicity and stability are especially important when the AC system model is coupled with a vehicle interior model for studies of transient performance because these are more computationally intensive. This paper presents a semi-empirical modeling method for compressors based on dimensionless parameters. Application to some sample compressor data is illustrated. The model equations are simple to employ and will not introduce significant stability problems when used as part of a system simulation.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-21-0019
Helmut Fennel, Stefan Bunzel, Harald Heinecke, Jürgen Bielefeld, Simon Fürst, Klaus-Peter Schnelle, Walter Grote, Nico Maldener, Thomas Weber, Florian Wohlgemuth, Jens Ruh, Lennart Lundh, Tomas Sandén, Peter Heitkämper, Robert Rimkus, Jean Leflour, Alain Gilberg, Ulrich Virnich, Stefan Voget, Kenji Nishikawa, Kazuhiro Kajio, Klaus Lange, Thomas Scharnhorst, Bernd Kunkel
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1133
Chaitra Nailadi, Venkatesh Agaram
Barrier impacts are routinely used to estimate the impact response of vehicles in vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. One area of investigation is the detection of the secondary energy absorbing structures provided for under-/over-ride mitigation as a result of increased structural engagement -- improved geometric compatibility. The flat rigid barrier and the Transportation Research Laboratory’s (TRL) full width honeycomb barrier are commonly considered. In the present study, a vehicle-to-vehicle impact that exhibited no under-/over-ride condition was compared to finite element analysis of vehicle impacts to the two different barriers in order to evaluate their ability to detect the secondary energy absorbing structure. This study demonstrates that the rigid barrier and the TRL barrier yield similar quantitative information with regard to vehicle-to-vehicle crashes.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0065
Jian Kang, Guy Nusholtz, Venkatesh Agaram
The responses of the THOR and the Hybrid-III ATDs to head and neck loading due to a deploying air bag were investigated. Matched pair tests were conducted to compare the responses of the two ATDs under similar loading conditions. The two 50th percentile male ATDs, in the driver as well as the passenger positions, were placed close to the air bag systems, in order to enhance the interaction between the deploying air bag and the chin-neck-jaw regions of the ATDs. Although both ATDs nominally meet the same calibration corridors, they differ significantly in their kinematic and dynamic responses to interaction with a deploying air bag. The difference between the structural designs of the Hybrid-III's and the THOR's neck appears to result in significant differences in the manner in which the loads applied on the head are resisted.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1433
Matthew S. Walp, Astrid Wurm, John F. Siekirk, Ajit K. Desai
Significant efforts are underway in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining performance and cost competitiveness. One such effort is the use of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) as the primary body materials method to meet weight targets using the existing automotive manufacturing infrastructure. Issues related to the stamping of AHSS are well known, and significant hurdles still exist for successful implementation. Due to material strength and mechanical behavior, springback is a major hurdle in forming AHSS. While working to form AHSS parts and reduce springback, press shops have encountered a new fracture type. The term shear fracture or local elongation has been loosely used to specify these fractures, which occur at part radii under low strains in multiphase AHSS. These fractures cause design limitations and manufacturing uncertainty.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0032
M. Makino, T. Kondo, A. Kunz, E. Ohara, F.-W. Schuetze, M. Hoffmann, M. Groeger, E. Jean, E. Ottaviani, W. Guertler, M. Paule, B. Keppeler, D. Scharr
The development of diesel powered passenger cars is driven by the enhanced emission legislation. To fulfill the future emission limits there is a need for advanced aftertreatment devices. A comprehensive study was carried out focusing on the improvement of the DOC as one part of these systems, concerning high HC/CO conversion rates, low temperature light-off behaviour and high temperature aging stability, respectively. The first part of this study was published in [1]. Further evaluations using a high temperature DPF aging were carried out for the introduced systems. Again the substrate geometry and the catalytic coating were varied. The results from engine as well as vehicle tests show advantages in a highly systematic context by changing either geometrical or chemical factors. These results enable further improvement for the design of the exhaust system to pass the demanding emission legislation for high performance diesel powered passenger cars.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0138
Chang-Fa An, Kanwerdip Singh
This paper presents the results of optimization study for sunroof buffeting reduction using CFD technology. For an early prototype vehicle as a baseline model in this study a high level of sunroof buffeting 133dB has been found. The CFD simulation shows that the buffeting noise can be reduced by installing a wind deflector at its optimal angle 40 degrees from the upward vertical line. Further optimization study demonstrates that the buffeting peak SPL can be reduced to 97dB if the sunroof glass moves to its optimal position, 50% of the total length of the sunroof from the front edge. For any other vehicles, the optimization procedure is the same to get the optimal parameters. On the other hand, however, this optimization study is only based on fluid dynamics principle without considering manufacturability, styling, cost, etc. Further work is needed to utilize the results in the production design.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3849
George Mitchell, Mike Zammit, Douglas Ball
A Robust Engineering experiment was performed to determine the effects PGM loading and placement on the FTP emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.4L and two 8 cylinder 4.7L vehicles. 1.3L catalytic converters were used containing a front and rear catalyst of equal volume. The experiment is defined by a Taguchi L-8 array. Eight different combinations of catalyst PGM loadings were aged and evaluated. Results show that nmHC and NOx emissions are predominately affected by the PGM loading of the front catalyst. The rear catalyst is insensitive to either Pt or Pd which can be used at low concentrations. Results also compare the benefits of Pd and Rh to reduce emissions. Confirmation runs suggest that significant reductions in PGM cost can be achieved over baseline designs.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2451
Mike Workings, Nandu Ambady, Paul Olsen
Pure tone whine noises produced by transmission gear meshing can be a particular annoyance to vehicle occupants. In this case the gear meshing was exciting a resonance within the transaxle, resulting in an especially obtrusive pure tone noise within a narrow speed range. This report presents the identification of the resonating component and the development of a novel approach to eliminate the noise problem. Specifically a laminated steel (MPM) disk was fastened to the face of the gear to provide damping. Knowledge of the gear's mode of vibration was used to optimize the effectiveness of the damping treatment. This approach is proven to be effective via experimentally verified prototypes
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1908
K. S. Choi, J. Pan, S. Ho
In this paper, the effects of roller geometry on contact pressure and residual stress in crankshaft fillet rolling are investigated by a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first introduced to review some characteristics of the rolling tools. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is then employed to qualitatively investigate the influence of the roller geometry. Computations have been conducted for eight different contact geometries between the primary roller and the secondary roller to investigate the geometry effect on the contact pressure distribution on the edge of the primary roller. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are also estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory. Then, computations have been conducted for three different contact geometries between the primary roller and the crankshaft fillet to investigate the geometry effect on the residual stress distribution near the crankshaft fillet.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1938
Mingde Su, Guy Nusholtz, Venkatesh Agaram
This paper presents a 2D model for frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes that can be used for fleet modeling. It presents the derivational details and a preliminary assessment of the model. The model is based on rigid-body collision principles, enhanced adequately to represent energy dissipation and lateral engagement that plays a significant role in oblique frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. The model employs the restitution and the apparent friction in order to represent dissipation and engagement respectively. It employs the impulse ellipse to identify the physical character of the crash, based on the principal directions of impulse. The enhancement of the rigid body collision model with restitution and apparent friction is based on collision simulations that use very simple finite element vehicle representations.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1352
Chaitra Nailadi, Venkatesh Agaram
A finite element model of the Transport Research Laboratory (TRL) honeycomb barrier, which is being proposed for use in vehicle compatibility studies, has been developed for use in LSDYNA. The model employs penalty parameters to enforce continuity between adjacent finite elements of the honeycomb barrier. Results of impact tests with indentors of various shapes and sizes were used to verify the performance of the computational model. Numerical simulations show reasonably good agreement with the test results.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0746
Brian D. Grenke
At one time it was considered imperative to collect high frequency accelerometer data for accurate analysis. As a result current FMVSS regulations and SAE J2570 require the use of accelerometers with damping ratio of 0.05 or less (designated as undamped). This prevents the use of damped accelerometers for regulated channels. Damped accelerometers can provide comparable data and in some cases better data than undamped accelerometers, as long as they meet specific minimum requirements. To collect the most useful data, damped accelerometers should be added to the tool box of transducers used by crash test facilities.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1111
Douglas Ball, John Nunan, Patrick Blosser, Jennifer Wilson, George Mitchell, Stuart Davis, Mike Zammit
A new family of automotive three-way conversion (TWC) catalyst technologies has been developed using a Precision Metal Addition (PMA) process. Precious metal (PGM) fixation onto the support occurs during the PMA step when the PGM is added to the slurry immediately prior to application to the monolith substrate. PMA slurries can be prepared with high precision and the slurry manufacturing process is greatly simplified. Further, it has been found that with the use of new generation washcoat (WC) materials, the same WC composition can be used for all three PGMs - Pt, Pd & Rh. Negative interactions between Pd and Rh in the same WC layer do not occur, providing advantages over older technologies. Thus, new WC compositions coupled with the PMA process offers precious metal flexibility. This FlexMetal family of catalyst technologies includes single layer Pd-only, Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and dual layer bi-metal Pd/Rh and Pt/Rh and tri-metal Pt/Pd/Rh.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0637
Terry North, Keith Frazier, Dale L. Sanders, James P. Muccioli
As the volume and complexity of electronics increases in automobiles, so does the complexity of the electromagnetic relationship between systems. The reliability and functionality of electronic systems in automobiles can be affected by noise sources such as direct current (DC) motors. A typical automobile has 25 to 100+ DC motors performing different tasks. This paper investigates the noise environment due to DC motors found in automobiles and the requirements that automobile manufacturers impose to suppress RF electromagnetic noise and conducted transients.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0686
M. K. Yassine, C. C. Kirchoff, T. D. Laymac, R. W. Berndt, J. H. Coffell
Measuring vehicle exhaust volumetric flow rate accurately and precisely is critical in calculating the correct vehicle modal and bag mini-diluter exhaust emission constituent masses. It is also instrumental in engine calibration practices. Currently, DaimlerChrysler's Emission and Certification Lab in Auburn Hills, Michigan utilizes constant volume sampling bag systems to certify vehicles but the automotive technological trend is heading toward the bag mini-diluter for greater precision at low emission levels. The bag mini-diluters, as well as the modal sampling system, used extensively in vehicle development testing, rely on exhaust flow rate measurement by means of a direct vehicle exhaust flow meter named E-Flow. The E-Flow has few limitations such as flow profile instability at low idle flow rates and reaction to resonating pressure waves in the exhaust system.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1905
Timothy C. Scott, Larry K. McDonald
Advanced design of modern engine cooling and vehicle HVAC components involves sophisticated simulation. In particular, front end air flow models must be able to cover the complete range of conditions from idle to high road speeds involving multiple fans of varying types both powered and unpowered. This paper presents a model for electric radiator cooling fans which covers the complete range of powered and unpowered (freewheel) operation. The model applies equally well to mechanical drive fans.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1449
Eysion A. Liu, Mick Winship, Simon Ho, Kuo-Ting Hsia, Mitchel Wehrly, William F. Resh
The cambore distortion is one of major concerns of an engine performance. A good design does not ensure a quality product. To meet product performance requirements, engineering community turns efforts to both design and manufacturing at an early stage of product development. This paper will discuss this process by providing an example of design and manufacturing of an overhead cambore. In this study a methodology to evaluate bore distortions is introduced. FEA cambore distortion analysis will use it to provide necessary data so that the product team can make a sound decision.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1438
Mahmoud Yassine, Sashi Velnati, Rajinder Dhatt, Thomas Laymac
Automakers in the United States have started using bag mini-diluters (BMD) for developing, testing and certifying vehicles, to meet PZEV and SULEV regulation requirements. The BMD system which is a new technology developed by AIGER, is being used as an alternative to the traditional CFV/CVS system for accurate ultra low-level emission measurement. BMD system has shown to have considerable advantage over CFV/CVS system, especially at ULEV/SULEV emission levels. This paper details modifications and diagnostic checks conducted with the existing BMD system at the DaimlerChrysler Tech Center emissions facility, Auburn Hills, Michigan. This paper also discusses possible scenarios where the BMD system at DaimlerChrysler could give erroneous results due to system setup, optimization issues and equipment limitations.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1436
Mahmoud Yassine, Rajinder Dhatt, Ron Berndt, Majed Marji, Dennis Blumke, Thomas Laymac
Vehicle exhaust flow is difficult to measure accurately and with high precision due to the highly transient nature of the cyclic events which are dependent on engine combustion parameters, varying exhaust gas compositions, pulsation effects, temperature and pressure. Bag mini-diluter (BMD) is becoming one of the few technologies chosen for SULEV and PZEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. A central part of the BMD system is an accurate and reliable exhaust flow measurement which is essential for proportional bag fill. A new device has been developed to accurately and reliably calibrate exhaust flow measurement equipments such as the E-Flow. The calibration device uses two different size laminar flow elements (LFE), a 40 CFM (1.13 m3/min) LFE for low end calibration and a 400 CFM (11.32 m3/min) LFE for higher flows. A blower is used to push flow through a main flow path, which then divides into two flow pathways, one for each of the two LFE's.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1498
K. S. Choi, J. Pan, S. Ho
In this paper, the fatigue failure of the primary roller used in a crankshaft fillet rolling process is investigated by a failure analysis and a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fillet rolling process is first discussed to introduce the important parameters that influence the fatigue life of the primary roller. The cross sections of failed primary rollers are then examined by an optical microscope and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to understand the microscopic characteristics of the fatigue failure process. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis is employed to qualitatively investigate the influences of the contact geometry on the contact pressure distribution and the Mises stress distribution near the contact area. Fatigue parameters of the primary rollers are then estimated based on the Findley fatigue theory.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1501
V. Yu, W. Y. Chien, K. S. Choi, J. Pan, D. Close
Resonant frequencies of a resonant bending system with notched crankshaft sections are obtained experimentally and numerically in order to investigate the effect of notch depth on the drop of the resonant frequency of the system. Notches with the depths ranging from 1 to 5 mm, machined by an EDM (Electrical-Discharging Machining) system, were introduced in crankshaft sections at the fillet between the main crank pin and crank cheek. The resonant frequencies of the resonant bending system with the crankshaft sections with various notch depths were first obtained from the experiments. Three-dimensional finite element models of the resonant bending system with the crankshafts sections with various notch depths are then generated. The resonant frequencies based on the finite element computations are in good agreement with those based on the experimental results.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1707
Uwe Reinhardt, Ivo Rynda
Modern vehicles contain a multitude of networked electronics. This feature causes distributed functions in distributed electronics. Malfunctions occurring during EMC testing cannot be allocated precisely without detailed knowledge of the data streams. The electromagnetic environment during EMC-testing limits the possibilities of using standard solutions to detect these malfunctions. The paper will present a new tool, which is able to track the data streams in a CAN-Bus system during EMC-testing. By integrating EMC related parameters in the existing data stream of the vehicle's data bus, it is possible to keep a record of malfunctions as they occur.
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