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Viewing 1 to 30 of 146
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0262
Ivan A. Almeida, Luis C. Marcoccia, Enrico F. Curione, Marcelo M. Fernandes
In recent years, a number of key influences are contributing to accelerate technological innovation in the automotive industrial sector. Concerns about renewable energy resource, fossil-fuels crises and higher gasoline prices, global warming awareness and environmental impacts, scarcity of minerals/metals and electronics demands rising are some of the major challenges for vehicle automakers and their suppliers. The interest in alternative fuel vehicles, especially hybrid-electrical vehicles (HEV) or renewable energy power concepts for road vehicles has become intensified and represents a significant area of research and development in order to meet nowadays global demands. However because of Hybrid Vehicles unique Power Supply System the electrical/electronic architecture (E/E) is sophisticated, requesting more robust sealing and a particular wiring harness components, such as connector, terminals and cables. On the other hand there is a remarkable miniaturization over automotive Power and Signal Distribution System components following by electronically controlled systems growth to meet customers' demands in quality requirements, driver safety and comfort, and infotainment networking applications.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0153
Marcelo Machado Fernandes, Enrico Faria Curione, Ivan Alves de Almeida, Luis Carlos Marcoccia
Miniaturization is an important trend in many technology segments, once it can enable innovative applications generating new markets. This trend was begun in electronics industry after World War II and has spawned changes into automotive sector also. For Automotive Wiring Harness, miniaturization is clearly presented in most of the components, mainly because of its benefits like the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. Furthermore the main voice of customer points to cable gauge reduction that represents a considerable challenge for connection manufacturing process due to quality control limitations presented by conventional crimp process for 0,35 [mm₂] cables and smaller. According to that, the scope of this article is to present, in details, a manufacturing process optimization for an alternative and more robust technology of joining copper stranded cables to tin brass terminals used on automotive wiring harness, Resistance Welding. This technology shows significant advantages over mechanical crimp process, mainly in regard of electrical performance due to the "zero resistance" effect.
2012-10-02
Technical Paper
2012-36-0114
Luis C. Marcoccia, Ivan A. Almeida
In vehicular mobility context, it is extremely important for the environmental sustainability that the available energy will be used as efficiently as possible, both in the use of internal combustion engines (ICE) as powertrain, as well in the application of Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Motors (HEV/EV). In this comparison, ICE has a lower efficiency when compared to electric motors, wasting much of the potential energy of the fuel in form of heat and noise. On the other hand, the electric vehicles face limitation in autonomy and recharge time, demanding for a more efficient use of energy stored in batteries. This study aims to present emerging technologies for reuse of energy within the automotive context, originally known as “Energy Harvesting” and “Renewable Energies”. Besides that, it was analyzed their applications and paradigms that corroborate the international targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG - Greenhouse Gas Emissions) such as CO2 and consumption of fossil fuels.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0645
Kuo-huey Chen, Shailendra Kaushik, Taeyoung Han, Debashis Ghosh, Mingyu Wang
The focus of this study is to validate the predictive capability of a recently developed physiology based thermal comfort modeling tool in a realistic thermal environment of a vehicle passenger compartment. Human subject test data for thermal sensation and comfort was obtained in a climatic wind tunnel for a cross-over vehicle in a relatively warm thermal environment including solar load. A CFD/thermal model that simulates the vehicle operating conditions in the tunnel, is used to provide the necessary inputs required by the stand-alone thermal comfort tool. Comparison of the local and the overall thermal sensation and comfort levels between the human subject test and the tool's predictions shows a reasonably good agreement. The next step is to use this modeling technique in designing and developing energy-efficient HVAC systems without compromising thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1134
Adam Weall, James P. Szybist, K. Dean Edwards, Matthew Foster, Keith Confer, Wayne Moore
While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0641
Debashis Ghosh, Mingyu Wang, Edward Wolfe, Kuo-huey Chen, Shailendra Kaushik, Taeyoung Han
Spot, or distributed, cooling and heating is an energy efficient way of delivering comfort to an occupant in the car. This paper describes an approach to distributed cooling in the vehicle. A two passenger CFD model of an SUV cabin was developed to obtain the solar and convective thermal loads on the vehicle, characterize the interior thermal environment and accurately evaluate the fluid-thermal environment around the occupants. The present paper focuses on the design and CFD analysis of the energy efficient HVAC system with spot cooling. The CFD model was validated with wind tunnel data for its overall accuracy. A baseline system with conventional HVAC air was first analyzed at mid and high ambient conditions. The airflow and cooling delivered to the driver and the passenger was calculated. Subsequently, spot cooling was analyzed in conjunction with a much lower conventional HVAC airflow. Spot cooling was achieved by strategically placing multiple nozzles in the vehicle directed at specific body parts.
2011-10-06
Technical Paper
2011-28-0083
Rammohan B, Sanjay Singh Chauhan, Arvind Krishna
The development of an analytical model for multilayer stack subjected to temperature change is demonstrated here. Thin continuous layers of materials bonded together deform as a plate due to their differing coefficients of thermal expansion upon subjecting the bonded materials to the change in temperature. Applications of such structures can be found in the electronics industry (the study of warpage issues in printed circuit boards) or in the aerospace industry as (the study of laminated thin sheets used as skin structures for load bearing members such as wings and fuselage). In automotive electronics, critical high-power packages (IGBT, Power FETs) include several layers of widely differing materials (aluminum, solder, copper, ceramics) subjected to wide temperature cyclic ranges. Modeling of such structures by using three-dimensional finite element methods is usually time consuming and may not exactly predict the inter-laminar strains. An attempt has been made here to obtain a closed form solution for such a multilayered stack using a set of recursive polynomial equations on subjecting the stack to temperature change under steady state conditions.
2010-10-06
Technical Paper
2010-36-0160
Marcelo Machado Fernandes, Ivan Alves de Almeida, Helio Maciel Junior
One of the most evident trends in automotive sector is miniaturization. It is related to considerable benefits due to the potential of mass reduction, cost reduction and efficiency improvement. It involves many different automobile components and most of them are facing challenges to achieve the targets defined by car makers and final consumers. Specifically for wiring harness, it seems to be many manufacturing and process challenges to be surpassed in order to fully perceive the benefits expected with miniaturization, internally and externally. So this article aims to present an overview of literature as well as reporting of experts on this issue mentioning some of the challenges that global automotive wiring harness manufacturers are facing. Subjects as assembly automation, terminal connection and small gauge cables are discussed in the article and also a general overview of how those problems are being addressed in order to meet customer requirements.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1080
Debashis Ghosh, Kimberley King, Brian Schwemmin, Douglas Zhu
Abstract CFD analysis was performed using the FLUENT software to design the thermal system for a hybrid vehicle battery pack. The battery pack contained multiple modular battery elements, called bricks, and the inlet and outlet bus bars that electrically connected the bricks into a series string. The simulated thermal system was comprised of the vehicle cabin, seat cavity, inlet plenum, battery pack, a downstream centrifugal fan, and the vehicle trunk. The fan was modeled using a multiple reference frame approach. A full system analysis was done for airflow and thermal performance optimization to ensure the most uniform cell temperatures under all operating conditions. The mesh for the full system was about 13 million cells run on a 6-node HP cluster. A baseline design was first analyzed for fluid-thermal performance. Subsequently, multiple design iterations were run to create uniform airflow among all the individual bricks while minimizing parasitic pressure drop. NVH issues were also addressed in the design by keeping the flow streamlined thereby minimizing flow induced turbulence.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0598
Walter F. Piock, Peter Weyand, Edgard Wolf, Volker Heise
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems. In addition to conventional high energy systems, MultiCharge systems and their derivatives as well as more sophisticated advanced concepts are presented.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0330
Joel da Conceição Júnior
The utilization of Laser welding process has increased during last years in several areas of industry, due to many benefits that can be achieved with this technology, such as: flexibility, productivity and quality. Thus, the optimization of Laser welding processes has been considered as a “green field” to be explored by Laser manufacturers, automation companies and process/project engineers. Nowadays there are few researches that provide a roadmap for Laser welding processes improvement that approaches both the aspects and characteristics applied to evaluate the Laser weld application performance. Therefore, this paper has per its main purpose through an exploratory study to provide parameters toward continuous improvement of Laser welding process considering both types of Lasers: Laser spot weld and Laser seam weld of stainless steel joints, thus this work may be considered as theoretical and practical reference to be applied by people involved with Laser welding applications. The method used on this research was based on technical literature review and case study with both types of Laser equipments mentioned above.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-36-0333
Joel da Conçeião Júnior
Many companies around the world have adopted the lean thinking as their strategy to operate, in a global market where changes happen all the time. One foundation for the success of lean manufacturing appliance is the continuous improvement approach which has been considered even on company statements, or it can be also considered as part of the genetic code of any enterprise. However, if in one side the continuous improvement thinking, set people mind to look for opportunities of improvement all the time, on other hand these improvements are incremental and they do not have significant impact on company performance on both short-term and medium-term and sometimes, the activities performed by the employees are not sustainable due to the lack of structure to manage and follow up these activities. Therefore, based on lean manufacturing concept, this paper has per its main purpose to discuss and make a proposal of an project-based manufacturing including the development of core competencies to reach breakthrough on critical areas of value stream that are strongly related with the company strategy and its performance, so this paper proposes an structure to focus company personnel on critical areas and provide tools to get significant and sustainable improvements with case study to support the proposals.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0361
Didimo Garcia Neto, Juliano Fujioka Mologni, Frank Kenji Goto
This paper investigates the application of thick film hybrid circuit technology on ceramic substrate in comparison to the main stream substrate FR-4 (Flame Retardant 4) for PCB implementation. The study is based on computer models for these very substrates in order to simulate the propagation of heat through convection and conduction within the material boundaries. In order to simulate electronic components surface mounted, different heat sources are randomly arranged on physical contact to the surface of the material under investigation. The results emphasize and discern the usage of both substrates and its most suitable environment verifying the application towards vehicular integration. Future study may include experimental analysis for simulated data verification and validation of thick film hybrid circuit technology for the automotive industry.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0325
Henrique Betti, Erico Martins
Short timing and complexes strategies are mandatory in a competitive market as automotive industry. Therefore quality problems identification during and after the coding phase, may be the difference between the business success and undesired conflicts with customer, solving problems that were not previously identified. Consequently the usage of technique Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) to analyze coding metrics, create an environment to improve the final product quality and mitigate potential problems later identified.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-36-0399
Cleber Favaro, Roberto Jorge
Brazilian automotive market has been growing faster than ever. In order to react properly to market increasing demand in terms of volume and diversity, production systems have to be carefully designed. Traditional manufacturing tends to react to demand increase by outsourcing or investing in new equipments or facilities. Lean thinking suggests that by reducing waste along the value stream it is possible to increase flexibility and freed resources to reduce the investment level required to cope customer’s needs. This paper presents two cases of a system redesign based on the lean manufacturing principles to support the demand.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0221
Devendra Rai, T. K. Jestin, Lev Vitkin
The complexity of automotive software and the needs for shorter development time and software portability require the development of new approaches and standards for software architectures. The AUTOSAR project is one of the most comprehensive and promising solutions for defining a methodology supporting a function-driven development process. Furthermore, it manifests itself as a standard for expressing compatible software interfaces at the Application Layer. This paper discusses the implementation of AUTOSAR requirements for the component structure, as well as interfaces to the Application Layer in a model-based development environment. The paper outlines the major AUTOSAR requirements for software components, provides examples of their implementation in a Simulink/Stateflow model, and describes the modelbased implementation of an operating system for running AUTOSAR software executables (“runnables”). In addition, it describes the use of xml files for the architectural and interface descriptions of software.
2007-11-28
Technical Paper
2007-01-2872
Helio Maciel, Luciano Ferreira, Rodrigo Castro
This paper is about the use of the Six Sigma Methodology, to solve variation problems in the manufacture area, at one of the Delphi Automotive Systems unit that manufacturer electrical harness. The DMAIC framework was followed, the improvements were done, eliminating the rots causes, and the use of Six Sigma methodology, was showed very efficient in solve problems. The methodology power, is in using a structured frame work, the DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control), completing by quality quality tools (Pareto Chart, Five Why's, Cause and Effect Diagram) and statistical analyses, for example: variance analyses, hypotheses tests and Design of Experiments.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1263
W. Burton Williamson, John G. Nunan, David G. Frownfelter, Richard S. McClaughry, Glenn E. Tripp, Julia T. Huynh
Dual-monolith catalyst systems containing Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs) provide effective emission solutions for LEV2/Bin 5 and Bin 4 close-coupled applications at low PGM loadings. These systems combine washcoat technology and PGM distribution for front and rear catalysts resulting in optimal hydrocarbon and NOx light-off and transient NOx control. The dual-catalyst [Pd/Rh + Pd/Rh] systems are characterized as a function of Pd-Rh content, PGM location, and catalyst technology for 4-cyl [close-coupled + underfloor] systems and 6-cyl close-coupled applications. The current Pd/Rh dual-catalyst converters significantly reduce NOx emissions compared to earlier [Pd + Pt/Rh] or [Pd + Pd/Rh] LEV/ULEV systems by utilizing uniform Rh distribution and new OSC materials. These new design strategies particularly impact NOx performance, especially during transient A/F excursions. NOx and NMHC emissions were further improved by Pd distribution and Pd/Rh ratio optimization, and reducing the thermal inertia of the front Pd/Rh catalyst.
2006-11-21
Technical Paper
2006-01-2671
Gilberto Geraldo
The Gasoline Engine Management Systems for passenger cars have the OBD-II (On Board Diagnostic) for United States of America market, the EOBD (European On Board Diagnostic) for Europe and OBD-BR1 and OBD-BR2 for Brazil. This paper presents the differences between these four On Board Diagnostic Systems.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4027
Felipe José Astorri, Mohamed Idris, Henri Clesse
Several heater cores failed due to erosion by cavitation. After analysis, most of failures were explained by the presence of impurities in the heater core. It was then decided with the customer to use CFD simulation in order to prove that the cavitation was not caused by design concept of the tank. In this paper, we present the results of heater core simulations done in 2D and in 3D with Fluent. The objective is to simulate the pressure and velocity distribution within the heater core and to verify if the zones of low pressure are below the saturation vapour pressure of the fluid causing cavitation. In these areas, the deterioration of the tubes might occur due to erosion by cavitation.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4115
Luis Carlos Marcoccia
This paper provides a survey about the consequences of a 42V Power Supply System for new vehicle projects, specially, its impact on directed project for Emerging Markets. At a first moment, it will be described new systems and its demand for additional power availability for future projects, such as electrical steering and brake systems; electrical air conditioning compressor; and electrical water and oil pumps. Following this subject, it will be presented possible alternatives for 14/42V Power Supply Systems, and also its impact over Power and Signal Distribution System components, such as connector, terminals, cables, relays, electrical centers, etc. Finally, the previous presented scenarios will be analyzed under a point of view for the Emerging Market demand for such new proposed systems, looking for best alternative driven.
2005-11-22
Technical Paper
2005-01-4109
Marcos Marini, Andrew Gregos, John Kightlinger
Delphi's Zero Resistance Technology (ZRT) is a revolutionary new product/process that enables the reduction of mass and volume from a traditional wiring assembly. ZRT is defined as a minimal (zero) resistance change over time. The ZRT product is an electrical/electronic connection system which provides a viable solution for high density and limited space wiring applications. The ZRT process is a semi-automated wiring harness manufacturing system with flexibility to produce harnesses to the customer demand.
2004-11-16
Technical Paper
2004-01-3254
Felipe José Astorri, Flavio Sawaya Sacamoto
For A/C and cooling systems development is usual send vehicles to US or Europe for wind tunnel tests, witch is expensive and has a long lead-time. Here in Brazil Delphi has at the Piracicaba Technical Center a chamber equipped with temperature control and chassis dynamometer. There is a up-grade project for it that consist in add ducts with fans inside the chamber that will get air from the chamber, already in the right temperature, accelerate and homogenate the air flow and blow it out direct to the front end of the vehicle. For development purposes may be possible eliminate totally the necessity of sending vehicle abroad. It was then decided to use CFD simulation to predict firstly the required fan power necessary to supply winds until 120 km/h at the front end of the vehicle and secondly predict the airflow pattern inside the chamber, considering chamber inlet air, chamber outlet air, exhaust outlet, duct outlet and flow pattern around the vehicle. To validate this simulation it was compared with Luxembourg Technical Center wind tunnel validation that consist in measure the Cp in thirteen points around the vehicle in eighteen wind tunnels in Europe and measure the same points at the CFD.
2004-10-18
Technical Paper
2004-21-0068
Vladimir Rasin, Dave McNamara, Craig Simonds, Frank Perry, Gary Streelman
Our customers expect in their vehicles the same constant connectivity that they experience in their homes through high speed internet portals. New services based on these advances will be transparent and ubiquitous - completely integrated into our lives, just as electricity comes to the wall socket or water from the faucet. The Wi-Fi Radio implements this vision using Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) based on the suite of IEEE 802.11 standards. Drivers have constant wireless connectivity and personalized digital content made available to them through the Wi-Fi Radio. Ford and our partner Delphi developed the Wi-Fi Radio to overcome the inherent functional and packaging limitations of our vehicles, to quickly introduce new technology at affordable prices and to seamlessly integrate new services into the vehicle. We chose the radio as the integration site because the radio is accessible to every customer and affordable on every vehicle. In our vision, the radio serves as the access point for wireless connectivity.
2002-12-02
Technical Paper
2002-01-3324
Tom Gideon, John Melvin, Lynn Streetz, Steve Willhite
The structure of the racecar has been the subject of much discussion with regard to crash safety. The stiffness of the structure, the amount of crush and the resulting deceleration were being judged, in some instances, as too stiff or not stiff enough for the driver. Much of this discussion centered on crash incidents for which no deceleration data were available from crash recorders (black boxes). In this paper, crash test dummy (Anthropomorphic Test Device ATD) results are compared for various idealized deceleration-time histories (deceleration pulses) that represent various structural crush characteristics. A crash velocity of 64.4 KPH (40 MPH) against a wall was used to represent a life threatening energy level.
2002-11-19
Technical Paper
2002-01-3510
André V. Scaff
Although the Six Sigma [1] concept has become very popular in industrial sectors, very little is said about how to start a successful implementation in a Corporation, or when it should be initiated, and the most important, who should be addressed to lead this task. Its methodologies are widely observed by different sectors of the automotive market, typically focusing in projects with a potential financial impact, following the DMAIC sequence. More than just financial return, this sophisticated tool, has a direct impact on Quality in different levels for both non-productive process and manufacturing process, that eventually would also affect some organizational structures that ultimately can be understood as reengineering. This paper has the objective of highlighting some good practices that will help some organizations to be better prepared, not only for the implementation of a Six Sigma program, but also to absorb and deal with some organizational changes through their “Change Agents”.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-21-0024
Sanket Amberkar, Brian T. Murray
In recent years, the desire for improved vehicle performance, reliability and safety have increased the electrical content and its complexity in vehicles. Advanced automotive systems integrate sensors, controllers, actuators and communication networks. To maintain safety and reliability, a comprehensive system of diagnostics and physical and analytic redundancy are used. In some cases, diagnostic strategies based on analytical redundancy can provide detection, as well as fault-tolerance, and may provide benefits in cost, packaging, flexibility and reusability. This paper discusses a range of diagnostic methods and their applicability to advanced automotive systems such as X-by-Wire. It will also show the reduction to practice of an advanced analytical technique for an automotive application.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2698
Ming-Chia Lai, Pai-Hsiu Lu, Joon-Ho Yoo, Bizhan Befrui, Dan Varble, Reinhold Kneer, Jay Sofianek, Sergio Quelhas
A parametric study on the effects of critical injector design parameters of inwardly-opening pressure-swirl injectors was carried out using 3-D internal flow simulations. The pressure variation and the integrated momentum flux across the injector, as well as the flow distributions and turbulence structure at the nozzle exit were analyzed. The critical flow effects on the injector design identified are the swirler efficiency, discharge coefficient, and turbulence breakup effects on the spray structure. The study shows that as a unique class of injectors, pressure-swirl injectors is complicated in fluid mechanics and not sufficiently characterized or optimized. The swirler efficiency is characterized in terms of the trade-off relationship between the swirl-to-axial momentum-flux ratio and pressure drop across the swirler. The results show that swirl number is inversely proportional to discharge coefficient, and that hole diameter and swirler height is the most dominant parameters. Experimental data are also used to correlate the analysis to injector performance.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2663
Gerhard F. Meister, Ales Alajbegovic, Ming-Chia Lai, Joon-Ho Yoo
Utilization of direct injection systems is one of the most promising technologies for fuel economy improvement for SI engine powered passenger cars. Engine performance is essentially influenced by the characteristics of the injection equipment. This paper will present CFD analyses of a swirl type GDI injector carried out with the Multiphase Module of AVL's FIRE/SWIFT CFD code. The simulations considered three phases (liquid fuel, fuel vapor, air) and mesh movement. Thus the transient behavior of the injector can be observed. The flow phenomena known from measurement and shown by previous simulation work [2, 7, 10, 11] were reproduced. In particular the simulations shown in this paper could explain the cause for the outstanding atomization characteristics of the swirl type injector, which are caused by cavitation in the nozzle hole.
2002-05-07
Technical Paper
2002-01-1601
Bryan Riley, George Kuo, Todd Nethercutt, Kevin Shipp, Matthew Smith
This work examines the development and implementation of a pulsing brake control system as part of a Forward Collision Warning (FCW) System for an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) prototype vehicle. The brake pulse is a likely candidate to be employed with visual and auditory cues in the event of an imminent collision alert level when the driver is not in ACC mode.
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