Viewing 1 to 30 of 74
Technical Paper
Tatsuya Yoshida, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, ZhongMou Jiang, Yozo Nakamoto
Researches for automation of hydraulic excavators have been conducted for laborsaving, improved efficiency of operations and increased worker's safety improvement. Authors' final goal is to develop automatic digging system which can realize the high efficiency. Therefore, it is thought that appropriate digging control algorithm is important for the automation. For this goal, this paper shows a dynamics model of the backhoe excavator and simulations using such models. Detailed dynamic models are needed from the point of view of the control engineering. Authors evaluate effectiveness of automatic digging algorithm by simulation models. In this research, the linkage mechanism which contains the closed loops is modeled based on the Newton-Euler formulation, where motion equation is derived. Moreover, we apply a soil model for simulation, based on the two dimensional distinct element method (DEM), in order to reproduce reaction force from grounds. This paper presents two example of dynamics simulation, integrating the linkage model and the soil model.
Technical Paper
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Hiroki Maekawa, Satoshi Kato, Jiro Senda
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency. Numerical investigation into the pressure rise rate reduction mechanism was also performed by use of a multi-component fuel model developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
Kimitoshi Tsuji, Takashi Abe, Toshiji Kato, Yasunari Kido
In order to reduce CO₂, Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hybrid Vehicles (HV) are effective. Those types of vehicles have powertrains from conventional vehicles. Those new powertrains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicles keeping the same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have an issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large, and seriously affects the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, we propose VHDL-AMS multi-domain simulation technique for the estimation of the vehicle performance at the concept planning stage. The VHDL-AMS is IEEE and IEC standardized language, which supports not only multi-domain (physics) but also encryption. The common modeling language and encryption standard is indispensable for full-vehicle simulation. By the VHDL-AMS modeling, the fuel economy, the effect of heat energy recovery from the exhaust gas, and the power performance are discussed for HV.
Technical Paper
Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Kenta Fujimori, Hiroki Maekawa, Satoshi Kato, Daisuke Kawano, Jiro Senda
Auto-ignition and combustion processes of dual-component fuel spray were numerically studied. A source code of SUPERTRAPP (developed by NIST), which is capable of predicting thermodynamic and transportation properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components, was incorporated into KIVA3V to provide physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations. Low temperature oxidation reaction, which is of importance in ignition process of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as negative temperature coefficient behavior was taken into account using the multistep kinetics ignition prediction based on Shell model, while a global single-step mechanism was employed to account for high temperature oxidation reaction. Computational results with the present multi-component fuel model were validated by comparing with experimental data of spray combustion obtained in a constant volume vessel. The results showed a good agreement in terms of spray tip penetration, liquid length, ignition delay and so on, for several kinds of dual-component fuels.
To address problems caused by insufficient operator skills, automatic digging and remote-control hydraulic excavators were recently studied by researchers from Doshisha University and Caterpillar Japan Ltd.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Tatsuya Yoshida, Hiroaki Andou, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
A high performance digging algorithm for a hydraulic excavator has not been established because the relationship between digging parameters and digging performance is complex. An examination process for a high-performance digging algorithm is proposed. In this paper, the digging efficiency is defined as the soil volume derived by the applied energy to drive the bucket in order to evaluate digging performance. The digging algorithm, which we study for high digging efficiency, decreases the reaction force to the bucket from the soil by moving the bucket upward when the reaction force exceeds a threshold during digging. Digging tests are performed with a miniature test device and a simulation model by two-dimensional distinct element methods (2D-DEM). The device and the simulation assess the effectiveness of the digging algorithm. It is quantitatively shown that the digging performance obtained by the feedback digging system is improved to prevent growing of reaction force.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yoshiki Noritou
In this research, we aim at the construction of a steering cooperation-type front-wheel steering control system to reduce the rider's steering load by stabilizing the behavior of the motorcycle when turbulence in the direction of a roll occurs during low-speed driving. Finally, a front-wheel steering control system that considers cooperation with a rider's steering based on the experimental result is constructed, and the utility is verified by simulation.
Technical Paper
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Satoshi Morita, Hiroshi Uehara
This paper describes damping loss factor prediction in statistical energy analysis (SEA) for co-generation system (CGS) enclosures. To accurately predict vibration and noise by SEA, it is important to estimate parameters called the damping and coupling loss factors. In this study, the damping loss factors were estimated by the decay ratio method and a technique for calculating the modal damping ratio that uses a multi-degree of freedom curve fit. The calculated loss factor was applied to the vibration prediction of the co-generation system, and the influence of the internal loss factor calculation method on prediction accuracy was verified.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takahisa Onishi
This paper describes the relationship between the rider's evaluation of feeling of pulse and the seat vibration of the cruiser-type motorcycle. A simulated running condition was created to measure the seat vibration and engine speed. Next, the seat vibration was reproduced on the hydrodynamic shaker. Finally, we examined the influence of which order of rotational speed effects evaluation of feeling of pulse in a forced vibration test. As a result, it is known that 0.5th and 1st orders of seat vibration contribute to evaluation of feeling of pulse near 1,500 to 2,000 rpm of engine rotation.
Technical Paper
Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Tsuyoshi Nakatsuji
The purpose of this study is to characterize the brake torque variation (BTV) of the developed brake system using wave type brake disc. The brake torque was fluctuated when the pad passed at the point of the wavy shape. The indentation of the pad into the space of wavy shape was observed. These results indicate that remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was related with the pad deformation. In the devised test, remarkable peak of the BTV of the wave type brake disc was decreased by insertion of spacers. This paper proposed an effective aspect to prevent the BTV of the wave type brake disc.
Technical Paper
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Masami Matsubara, Kinya Moriguchi, Ichiro Shima
Improvement of vehicle interior noise is desired in recent years in the modern world of the demand of low weight, good fuel economy and offering technical advantages strongly. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We focus on structure-borne noise transferred through the spindle. It is necessary for effort of the effective tire/road noise reduction to predict spindle force excited by tire/road contact. The major issues in predicting spindle forces are to clarify the distribution of road forces and how to input on the simulation model. Therefore, it is important that road forces are measured accurately on the rolling tire. First, the dynamic road forces on the rolling tire are measured by using the tri-axial force sensor directly. In efforts to reduce interior noise due to structure-borne noise, it is necessary to predict spindle forces excited by the tire/road contact. Second, the spindle forces during the operation are predicted by using the FE tire model and the distribution of the dynamic road forces which are measured experimentally.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yukio Nakamura, Ichiro Kido, Masato Hashioka
This paper describes a proposal of techniques on Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) to analyze transmission of vibration among the components in a complex structure. This proposal is evolved from the previous one [1] in the dimension which dominates the quality of the analysis in automotive body structure by TPA. The proper coordinate transformation was introduced to resolve the troublesome process on the application of the body structure in the previous proposal. The complications are caused by the treatment with a lot of transfer functions and transmitted forces at the conjunctions that are complexly assembled with many adjacent nodes. Dimension of the analytical region is expanded from two to three in this study. That is, from the cross section of interface of components to the structure itself where the vibration transmits between two components. Coordinate transformation of the transmission is expressed by modal degree of freedom of the component and this makes easy to understand the vibration transmission by the three-dimensional image.
Technical Paper
Yoshimitsu Wada, Jiro Senda
The objective of this study is to explore the relation among mixture distribution condition, chemical character of fuel, combustion processes, and emissions characteristics with premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation. The present experiment employs two fuel injectors which are capable of port injection and direct one. The former was used to supply a highly-homogeneous mixture and the latter with late injection timing was employed to control the mixture heterogeneity. Thus, these sets of injection equipments are capable of setting a wide variety of mixture heterogeneity. Furthermore, two primary reference fuels were used in order to know the influences of chemical character. The experiments were conducted in order to clarify the combustion and emissions characteristics through engine tests. Optical diagnostic was also performed to gain additional insight into the combustion processes for a wide variety of mixture distribution. The results using the port injection showed that the steepness of the combustion was affected by the local equivalence ratio rather than the overall one.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, T. Hori, J. Senda, H. Nakagawa, S. Kamata, K. Katsuta
It is very much necessary for researchers and engineers whose work is the field of combustion in a CI engine to find the information of droplets in a diesel spray. The information is strongly required to construct the model of spray built in the numerical code for its simulation and to be used for the verification of the accuracy of the calculation. This paper describes the photographing system with high spatial resolution, the distribution of droplet size and the vortex scale caused by the droplets motion by means of this system.
Technical Paper
Hiroshi Uehara, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Satoshi Morita, Tomoya Minamino
This paper describes the application of statistical energy analysis (SEA) to predicting sound power radiated from co-generation system enclosure. To predict vibration and noise accurately by using SEA, it is important to estimate parameter called loss factors. In this study, loss factors were estimated by power injection method. Next, the noise radiated from enclosure surface was predicted by the obtained vibration and radiation efficiency of enclosure panels. As a result, the calculated sound power was relatively corresponding to measured sound power. Finally, the sound power from modified enclosure was predicted. Coupling loss factors related to a modified subsystem were estimated by ratio of the number of structure modes. By using these steps, the noise from the system was reduced.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Yuya Ezaki
It’ll be expected that tandem riders increase in the future. So, there is a need to improve the motorcycle stability of tandem riding from the perspectives of safety and comfort. In this research, we focus on tandem riding at low speed because the motorcycle especially becomes unstable. In order to improve the stability of a motorcycle after disturbance is input by the passenger’s posture change, we design a front wheel steer control system that assists the rider’s driving operation. And we simulate it. It is necessary to consider cooperation with the rider’s driving operation. In this study, as a means to consider the cooperative control of the man-machine system, the fuzzy logic was applied to this system.
Technical Paper
Tsukasa Hori, Takahiro Kuge, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
In this study, a numerical experiment using a 2D convective equation and LES of an evaporative diesel spray for different convective schemes has been performed to examine effects of convective schemes on a fuel-air mixture formation of the diesel spray simulation and to determine the convective scheme used in KIVALES. In addition to KIVALES original schemes, such as QSOU, PDC and IDC, CIP was incorporated into KIVALES in order to calculate the convective terms with low numerical diffusion. The numerical experiment using the 2D convective equation showed that the numerical diffusion of CIP scheme was lowest in the convective schemes used in present study. However CIP scheme used was not a monotone scheme completely due to the overshoot and the undershoot of the scalar provided near the boundary. Hence, CIP scheme was employed for only the convective term of the LES momentum equation, while the other convective schemes were calculated using QSOU, which is a monotone scheme. The LES spray simulation showed that the sensitivity for convective schemes was significant high in the diesel spray simulation with LES approach.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, T. Yamashita, T. Hori, M. Oshima, H. Tanaka
The particulate matters (PM) containing in the exhaust gas through a CI engine affects strongly the human health. Thus, it is very significant to measure the mechanism of PM itself generation for actualization of a clean CI engine. On the standpoint mentioned above, the authors carried out the experiments of the characteristics of PM generated from a small high speed DI CI engine with a single cylinder. The variables were the equivalence ratio, the injection timing, the EGR rate and the sort of fuel. As a result, the effect of experimental condition on the distribution of PM is clear through experiments.
Technical Paper
Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Shin Nakahara, Hiroko Oshima
Current simulation of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) often uses a large DOF and detailed finite element model along with improvement of CAE technology and computational performance. By using a detailed model, predictions of precise vibration characteristics become possible. However, the number of eigenmodes in the target frequency range increases and engineers require a lot of time to examine eigenmodes and establish countermeasures. In this paper, a practical method of efficient and effective analysis by classifying target eigenmodes into a small number of groups is proposed. The classification is executed based on the relation between the dynamic characteristics of the entire automotive body structure and substructures.
Technical Paper
Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takayuki Koizumi, Hiroki Nakagawa, Kinya Moriguchi
The demand for quieter vehicle interiors increases year after year. The dynamic force transmission of rolling tires from the road surface to the spindles is a critical factor in vehicle interior noise. We investigated the dynamic force transmission of a rolling tire as it relates to reducing vehicle interior noise. A test with a tire rolling over a cleat was conducted in order to measure the road forces and the spindle forces. The transfer function of the rolling tire was identified from the experimental results by applying multi dimensional spectral analysis. In addition, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology has advanced recently. This enables prediction of spindle forces early in the design stage. One of the most important issues in predicting spindle forces accurately is to clarify the distribution of road forces. This paper also describes the distribution of the dynamic road forces of the rolling tire. The dynamic road forces were directly measured using triaxial force sensors, and the distribution of the road forces at the contact patch was described.
Technical Paper
Hiroaki Andou, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi, Takudou Ohkado
A hydraulic excavator cab is mounted on a viscous mount. When the weight of the cab is heavy, the neutral position is depressed. Besides, at a large load, the cab receives compressive repulsion power of oil thereby restricting its damping ability. In addition, it is difficult to obtain an arbitrary damping performance separately. To overcome these problems, which combines the shear force due to viscous fluid with elastic force due to air-spring a mount, was invented. The neutral position of composite mount is adjustable by air-spring according to the weight. And viscous oil is not sealed up. So, viscous oil can flow at a large load. Therefore, it may not experience the repulsion force of oil in spite of a large load. Moreover, the generated elastic force is adjustable according to change of pressure in the air spring, and the generated damping force is adjustable according to change of viscous fluid's viscosity or volume. In this research, excitation tests under several conditions were performed to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the composite mount and its dependence on several conditions (displacement, frequency, pressure and viscosity).
Technical Paper
Hiroshi Uehara, Masahiro Saito, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
This paper describes how use of multi-objective optimization of pulsating noise and backpressure improved an exhaust silencer for diesel drive equipment. Low frequency pulsating noise and backpressure were simultaneously predicted using one-dimensional fluid dynamics and acoustic analysis by BEM. In addition, an experiment was done to investigate the relation between high frequency noise including flow-induced noise and the dimensions of perforations in silencer pipes. Finally, a prototype of the exhaust silencer was built and examined in order to confirm the effects of these design methods mentioned. As predicted, exhaust noise was reduced without increasing backpressure.
Technical Paper
Tsukasa Hori, Takahiro Kuge, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results. Furthermore, the cyclic variability at each injection is evaluated from the results of the five computations.
Technical Paper
Taku Tsujimura, Yoshihiko Ueda, Keita Mitsushima, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto, Yoshiroh Tokunaga
It is thought that the synthetic gas, including hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has a potential to be an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines, because a heating value of the synthetic gas is higher than one of hydrogen or natural gas. A purpose of this study is to acquire stable auto-ignition and combustion of the synthetic gas which is supposed to be applied into a direct-injection compression ignition engine. In this study, the effects of ambient gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations on auto-ignition characteristics of the synthetic gas with changing percentage of hydrogen (H2) or carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in the synthetic gas. An electronically-controlled, hydraulically-actuated gas injector was used to control a precise injection timing and period of gaseous fuels, and the experiments were conducted in an optically accessible, constant-volume combustion chamber under simulated quiescent diesel engine conditions. Results obtained in this study are that the ambient gas temperature has a significant effect on the auto-ignition delays of the synthetic gas, and that the higher a percentage of CO in the synthetic gas results in the greater temperature dependency of the auto-ignition delay.
Technical Paper
Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Tsuyoshi Nakatsuji
This study discussed the mechanism of the low speed judder for wave type brake disc developed newly for recent motorcycles. Wavy disc was examined to investigate the effect of wave configurations on the BTV (Brake Torque Variation) behavior. Torque amplitude in braking was compared with respect to the revolution order which represented the multiple number of the number of revolutions. To explain the mechanism at the mode showing largest BTV, the elastic deformation of the pad was analyzed by finite element method concerning geometrical nonlinearity with commercial code. This study found that most crucial BTV appeared on low speed judder was observed at the 3 rd peaks on the revolution order. Test data showed that this crucial BTV was related with the number of waves at the disc periphery, and caused by the indentation of the pad into notched part at disc periphery. Finally, current paper proposed an effective model to predict the amplitude at high order of BTV calculating with the indentation of the pad and the line pressure.
Technical Paper
Hiroaki Andou, Takayuki Koizumi, Nobutaka Tsujiuchi
Operator comfort is an important design criteria for hydraulic excavators during working and idling conditions. An engine, a cooling fan motor and a pump are installed on a hydraulic excavator. It is hard to identify the vibration contribution to a response because three sources are synchronizingly working. This paper describes the use of partial coherence measurement techniques for source identification. And it is examined to reduce the vibration of the source component identified by the partial coherence results. Finally, it is verified that the response acceleration is effectively decreased by reducing the vibration of the identified component.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, J. Senda, Y. Komemushi, T. Kuge
One of the effective ways to cope with the very severe future regulation of soot exhausted through a CI engine is the use of oxygenated fuel. This paper describes the experimental results of the soot generation of six kinds of oxygenated fuel and n-heptane whose cetane number is the almost the same as that of the gas oil by means of time resolved LII (TIRE-LII) and the classical two color method. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume chamber. The main result is that the oxygen content of the fuel is the much significant factor to decrease in the soot.
Technical Paper
Tetsuya Sakai, Mitsuo Iwahara, Akio Nagamatsu, Toshiyuki Shibayama
In this study, the air suspension is newly applied to the engine mounting layout for getting the significant vibration isolation effect. In this case, the genetic algorithm so called GA is also applied for the optimization of many parameters, calculations of stiffness matrix and inverse stiffness matrix to prevent the coupled vibration of lateral and rolling modes and to obtain the displacement of each mounting point. As a result, inexperienced engineers can easily obtain the optimum engine mounting layout in a minute. By the confirmation test of FEM, the engine lateral vibration level at 25Hz dropped below 1/10 and its effect was significant.
Technical Paper
Hajime Fujimoto, K.- J. Myong, H. Suzuki, K. Ueda, J. Senda
Almost all the researches relating to the characteristics of transient spray have carried out by using the fuel with only single component. However, the actual fuel oil supplying to a reciprocating engine has multiple components. Thus, this paper describes the experimental results on the characteristics of a transient spray formed by the mixed fuel with three kinds of pure fuel. The state of periphery of non evaporating spray near the nozzle outlet was arranged by the dimensionless number. And the technique of laser Induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to an evaporating spray to find the state of mixing.
Technical Paper
Hitoshi YUASA, Kazuya OKUBO, Toru FUJII, Tsuyoshi NAKATSUJI
A prediction method was proposed for crack initiation in one-piece type brake discs under extreme braking conditions. Braking tests under extreme loading conditions were conducted by using sample discs. The variations of internal temperatures and surface strains at several locations were measured by using thermocouples and strain gages. In order to obtain the S-N curve of the disc material, specimens with a hole in their center were used for the fatigue test in which an alternative strain was cyclically applied. The numbers of strain cycles, when a 0.3mm crack initiated from the hole, were analyzed by the Weibull plot. The maximum and minimum strains at the hole edge were estimated by calculation considering the temperature variation with respect to time as well as the strain induced by friction due to braking pads. The number of cycles corresponding to the strain amplitude range was estimated by the rain-flow method. The fatigue life of the sample disc was predicted based on the cumulative damage principle as well as by shifting the master S-N curve.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 74


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