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Viewing 1 to 30 of 122
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1736
Justin Cartwright, Ahmet Selamet, Robert Wade, Keith Miazgowicz, Clayton Sloss
The heat rejection rates and skin temperatures of a liquid cooled exhaust manifold on a Ford 2011 3.5L TiGTDI engine are determined experimentally using an external cooling circuit, which is capable of controlling the manifold coolant inlet temperature, outlet pressure, and flow rate. The manifold is equipped with a jacket that surrounds the collector region and is cooled with an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze to reduce skin temperatures. Results were obtained by sweeping the manifold coolant flow rate from 2.0 to 0.2 gpm for a total of 12 engine operating points of increasing brake power up to 220 hp. The nominal inlet temperature and outlet pressure were 85 degC and 13 psig, respectively. Data were collected under steady conditions and time averaged. For the majority of operating conditions, the manifold heat rejection rate is shown to be relatively insensitive to changes in manifold coolant flow rate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Magnesium alloys have low weldability, thus self-piercing rivet (SPR) joint is one of options for joining them. This research investigates the fatigue performance of SPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31, AM30, and AM60. Lap-shear and coach peel specimens for these alloys are fabricated and tested for understanding fatigue performance of the joint. Structural stress – life (S-N) curves are developed with the test results. This approach is validated with simple structural specimens that include three or two joints in each specimen. It is also intensively studied to identify the proper representation of the joint in finite element models.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1281
Ahsanul Karim, Anthony Morelli, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte, Robert Wade
The use of Swirl-Vanes or Inlet Guide Vanes (IGV) in gas engines is well-known and has demonstrated their ability to improve compressor surge margin at low flow rates. But, the use of swirl-vanes is not too common in large diesel engine turbo-chargers where compressor housing inlet has some form of Casing–Treatment (CT). Recently, Ford engineers used swirl-vanes in a diesel engine turbocharger where the compressor inlet had a casing-treatment and the experimental data showed no improvement in surge margin. To investigate reasons for not improving surge margin after introducing swirl-vanes at the compressor inlet, CFD analyses were performed. The CFD results showed strong interactions between swirling flow at the compressor inlet and flow stream coming out of the compressor inlet casing-treatment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0407
Timothy W. Skszek, Matthew Zaluzec
Title: Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project Overview Authors: Magna International: Tim Skszek & Jeff Conklin Ford Motor Company: Matthew Zaluzec and David Wagner Abstract: The Multimaterial Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance, occupant safety and utility of the baseline production vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-1 vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1-liter 3 cylinder engine, resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0511
Bradford Johnson, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Increasing fuel economy is a high priority of the automotive industry due to consumer demand and government regulations. High strength aluminum alloys such as AA7075-T6 can be used in strength-critical automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight and thus improve fuel economy. However, these aluminum alloys are known to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for thick plate. The level of susceptibility to SCC must be determined before a material is implemented. ASTM standards exist that generate semi-quantitative data primarily for use in screening materials for SCC. For the purposes of this work ASTM G139 (breaking load method) has been used to evaluate sheet AA7075-T6 for use in automotive applications. A tensile fixture applying a constant strain was used to quantitatively measure residual strength of the material after exposure to a corrosive environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0677
Marcin Marek Okarmus, Rifat Keribar, Rob Zdrodowski, Arup Gangopadhyay
Valvetrain friction can represent a substantial portion of overall engine friction, especially at low operating speed. This paper describes the methodology for predictive modeling of frictional losses in the direct-acting mechanical bucket tappet–type valvetrain. The proposed modeling technique combines advanced mathematical models based on established theories of Hertzian contact, elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), asperity contact of rough surfaces, flash temperature, and lubricant rheology with detailed measurements of lubricant properties and surface finish. A detailed analysis of valvetrain system kinematics and dynamics was carried out. The contributions of individual friction components to the overall valvetrain frictional loss were identified and quantified. Calculated valvetrain friction was validated against motored valvetrain friction torque measurements on two engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1615
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, John Huber, Jeff wallace
Ford Motor Company and Magna International Inc., co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, have collaborated on a lightweight vehicle concept project that uses advanced material solutions to achieve a nearly 25% weight savings over the reference vehicle. Lightweight design actions on radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin generate vehicle interior acoustic degradation due to the reduction of panel surface mass. In order to reduce this deficiency, an MMLV vehicle sound package development study was conducted to improve NVH performance of MMLV with industry leading ultra-light weight sound package technologies. Our goal was to improve acoustical performance of MMLV by 2 dB without increasing the total sound package weight of the “Vehicle A” which is the baseline vehicle for MMLV.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0453
Zhimin Xi, Hao Pan, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Model bias can be represented by a generic random process for a time series (or dynamic) system response. Accurate characterization of the model bias in different design configurations plays an important role for time-dependent reliability analysis. This paper addresses three technical challenges in this field: (i) model bias modeling of dynamic system responses, (ii) validation metric for dynamic system responses, and (iii) dynamic model bias approximation at various design configurations. The proposed approach is incorporated with Monte Carlo simulation for time-dependent reliability analysis of a corroded beam structure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Recently, electric vehicles have received considerable attention since they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative in comparison to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate and reliable monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery’s lifespan. To implement an effective battery management system, it is critical that the physical model can adapt to expected parameter changes due to aging over the lifetime of the vehicle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0455
Hao Pan, Zhimin Xi, Ren-Jye Yang
Available methodologies for model bias characterization are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models, response surface approach, etc. Due to the curse of dimensionality, performance of all regression-based approaches degrades for high dimensional problems. This paper proposes an adaptive Copula approach for model bias characterization without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea of the proposed research is to model the statistical relationship between model bias, base model prediction, and model inputs adaptively using classification techniques. Two case studies whose dimensionality range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0336
Amey Karnik, Daniel Pachner, Adrian M. Fuxman, David Germann, Mrdjan Jankovic, Christopher House
Numerous studies describe the fuel consumption benefits of changing the powertrain temperature based on vehicle operating conditions. Actuators such as electric water pumps and active thermostats now provide more flexibility to change powertrain operating temperature than traditional mechanical-only systems did. Various control strategies have been proposed for powertrain temperature set-point regulation. A characteristic of powertrain thermal system is that the system operating conditions change continuously to meet the driver demand. Control strategies for set-point regulation which rely purely on feedback for disturbance rejection, without knowledge of future disturbances, might not provide the full fuel consumption benefits due to the slow thermal inertia of the system. A solution to this problem is to design a control strategy that utilizes the estimate of variability of future disturbances.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0466
Boxiao Chen, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor
Greenhouse gas emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the light duty vehicle (LDV) and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries recently due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the LDV and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. An analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal costs and CO2 emissions for both sectors. The model includes electric vehicles, as well as conventional, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles that can be fueled by either gasoline or NG.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0443
Zhenfei Zhan, Junqi Yang, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang, Saeed Barbat, Ling zheng
ncreasing computer programs and models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. To maximize the effectiveness of these models, the validity and predictive capabilities of these models need to be assessed quantitatively. For a successful implementation of CAE models as an integrated part of the current vehicle development process, it is necessary to develop objective validation metric that has the desirable metric properties to quantify the discrepancy between multiple tests and simulation results. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric that can evaluate the differences of the multiple time histories as well as the key features under uncertainty.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Being the world’s largest auto producer and consumer, China is becoming the most promising but complex market given the country’s rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. Advanced multivariate analysis techniques are then employed to reduce a set of survey responses to key measures of customer preference. Finally, a new network analysis approach is proposed to model customer cross-shopping behavior that can inform the firm about the implied market structure and product competitive positioning. Our proposed approach is demonstrated by using a rich set of market data collected in China.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0452
Junqi Yang, Zhenfei Zhan, Chong Chen, Yajing Shu, Ling zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Yan Fu, Saeed Barbat
Simulation based design optimization has become the common practice in automotive product development. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate various dynamic systems. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess their validity. In model validation, for the purpose of obtaining results successfully, it is vital to select or develop appropriate metrics for specific applications. For dynamic systems, one of the key obstacles of model validation is that most of the responses are functional, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of a metric that can evaluate the differences in terms of phase shift, magnitude and shape, which requires information from both time and frequency domain. And by representing time histories in frequency domain, more intuitive information can be obtained, such as magnitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Shawn Morgans, Michael Lee, Jeffrey Laya, Amir Chator, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Bruno Barthelemy, Sreekanth Reddy gondipalle
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as the design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to significant weight savings of more than 11kg.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1237
Xiaoming Chen, Jeff Coklin, Mike Carpenter, Jeff wallace, Cynthia Flanigan, David Wagner, Vijitha Kiridena, Stephane Betrancourt, Jason Logsdon
As part of the Ford and Vehma collaborative efforts on the DOE sponsored project on Multi Materials Lightweight Vehicle, several automotive chassis components were identified for development and evaluation on a lightweight passenger vehicle. The lightweight prototype chassis parts included composite and hollow steel coil springs, carbon fiber wheels, tires with a tall and narrow design, hollow steel stabilizer bars, and an aluminum front cradle. The lightweight chassis parts development included mixed and multi materials to investigate potential weight savings. The glass fiber reinforced composite front spring and hollow steel rear springs achieved 59% and 37% weight savings respectively. Both springs passed required component tests and survived proving ground durability test with no issues detected. For the lightweight tall narrow tires, evaluations were conducted on three distinct sets of tires with varying material constructions and final weight in the range of 17 pounds per tire.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0556
Wenkai Li, Haitao Cui, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto
Conventional high cycle fatigue (HCF, at 75 Hz) and ultrasonic fatigue (VHCF, at 20 kHz) tests have been conducted on three cast aluminum alloys. Tests were performed in distilled water, laboratory air and different controlled humidity levels. It has been observed that for some alloys the fatigue life is dramatically affected by the environment humidity when tested in VHCF. Fractographic observations of the failed specimens demonstrated different crack propagation mechanisms under VHCF according to the humidity level. Other factors were also investigated, like the porosity level, material strength, and chemical composition of these three cast aluminum alloys. It was found that the copper content was the key factor controlling the humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing of these cast aluminum alloys.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1657
Ahsanul Karim, Meisam Mehravaran, Brian Lizotte, Keith Miazgowicz, Yi Zhang
A computational aero-acoustics simulation on the aerodynamic noise generation of an automotive radiator fan assembly is carried out. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the unsteady flow field was performed including the entire impeller and shroud to obtain the source of an audible broad-band flow noise between 2 to 4 kHz. Static pressure probes placed around the outer-periphery and at the center of the impeller inlet side and, at the shroud cavities to capture the noise sources. The static pressure at all probe locations were FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) processed and sound pressure level (SPL) was calculated. The sound pressure levels from the fan outer-periphery probes show the dominant source of blade passing frequency (BPF) and the broad-band noise. The BPF level is the strongest in fan outer-peripheral region because of large pressure fluctuations as a result of blade-passing.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1616
Lindita Bushi, Timothy Skszek, David Wagner
MMLV Mach-I Aluminum Intensive Vehicle Design-ISO 14040/44 and CSA Group 2014 Guidance Conformance Comparative LCA Study of Lightweight Auto Parts Lindita Bushi1, Tim Skszek2, and David Wagner3 Regulation requirements such as the 2020 CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standard, growing public demand, and increased fuel prices are pushing auto manufacturers worldwide to increase fuel economy through incorporation of lightweight materials in newly-designed vehicle structures. This paper is aimed at communicating the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) study which compares the lightweight auto parts of the new multi-material lightweight (MMLV) Mach-I (1.0l I3) vehicle design to the conventional auto parts of the baseline 2013 Ford Fusion (1.6l I4), both internal combustion engine vehicles (gasoline fuelled), built and driven for 250,000 km in North America [1].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0478
Kai Zheng, Ren-Jye Yang, Jie Hu
Design optimization methods are commonly used for weight reduction subjecting to multiple constraints in automotive industry. One of the major challenges remained is to deal with a large number of design variables for large-scale design optimization problems effectively. In this paper, a new approach based on fuzzy rough set is proposed to address this issue. Rough set theory is a mathematical tool to deal with redundant information and seek for a reduced design variable set. The proposed method first exploits fuzzy rough set to screen out the insignificant or redundant design variables with regard to the output functions, then uses the reduced design variable set for design optimization. A vehicle body structure is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and compare with a traditional weighted sensitivity based main effect approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0533
Jianghui Mao, Carlos Engler-Pinto, Xuming Su
In this paper, thermal stress analysis for powertrain component (exhaust manifold) is carried out using various thermal viscoplastic material models. The material models considered are two in-house developed viscoplastic models (Chaboche model and Sehitoglu model) that are implemented into Abaqus through its user subroutine UMAT. The exhaust manifold used in this analysis is made of High Silicon-Molybdenum Ductile Iron(HiSiMo). The model parameters are obtained from isothermal cyclic tests performed on standard samples under various combination of strain rates and temperatures. Models’ validity is verified by comparing to independent nonisothermal tests conducted on similar samples. All the models are applied to the numerical analysis of exhaust manifold subject to temperature cycling as a result of vehicle operation. Due to complexity, only four thermal cycles of heating up and cooling down are simulated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0437
Zhendan Xue, Mariapia Marchi, Sumeet Parashar, Guosong Li
Relatively easy access to powerful computational resources and rich collection of CAE and Design Optimization tools, engineers are able to perform Design of Experiment (DOE) exploration, Statistical Analysis, Design Optimization, and Robustness/Reliability Assessment and Optimization (RRAO), as part of their standard design process. However, the computational overhead involved in these studies is often expensive due to CAE simulations demanding high accuracy, while expectations for time to market are becoming shorter. The computation cost can increase significantly for RRAO studies because additional design samples have to be calculated around the nominal design to quantify and account for uncertainty. Approximation methods, such as Polynomial Chaos (PC) and other Response Surface Methods (RSM) like Kriging, Radial Basis Functions etc have been introduced to reduce the computational burden of the sampling process.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0698
Danielle Zeng, Li Lu, Jin Zhou, Yang Li, Z. Xia, Paul Hoke, Kurt Danielson, Dustin Souza
Long fiber reinforced plastics (LFRP) have exhibited superior mechanical performance and outstanding design flexibility, bringing them with increasing popularity in the automotive structural design. Due to the injection molding process, the distribution of fiber orientations varies at different locations and through the part thickness, resulting in anisotropic and non-uniform mechanical properties of the final LFRP parts. Images from X-ray CT scan of the materials show that local volume fraction of the long fibers tends to be higher at core than at skin layer. Also fibers are bundled and tangled to form clusters, which may reduce the effective fiber aspect ratio. Most of the current micromechanical material models used for LFRP are extended from those for short fibers. The effect of the complexity of long fibers on the material properties is not considered.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0933
Jaclyn Johnson, Jeffrey Naber, Meng Tang, Zachary Taylor, Kyle Yeakle, Eric Kurtz, Nan Robarge
Diesel combustion and emissions is largely spray and mixing controlled. Spray and combustion models enable studies of spray and combustion over a range of conditions to understand optimum combustion strategies. The validity of these models depends on the inputs, including the rate of injection profile of the injector. One method to measure the rate of injection is using the momentum flux method where the injected fuel spray is directed onto a force transducer which provides measurements of momentum flux, from which mass flow rate can be determined. The usefulness of the spray model is dictated by the accuracy of the momentum flux measurement. In this study, the impact of impingement distance (the distance from injector nozzle to the anvil connected to the force transducer) is characterized over a range of 2 – 12 mm.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0598
Xiaona Li, Changqing Du, Yongjun Zhou, Xin Xie, Xu Chen, Yaqian Zheng, Thomas Ankofski, Rodrigue NARAINEN, Cedric Xia, Thomas Stoughton, Lianxiang Yang
Accurate forming limit strain determination of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by the industry. Also, if the draw bead effects (enhanced forming limit behaviors) reported on steel sheet metals also happens on aluminum sheets metals is not fully understand. This paper introduce an experimental study on draw bead effect of aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0)of the sheet metal. Two kind of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material situations are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests are proceeded to create plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used to record and measures the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
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