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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1161
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Julien Manin, Scott Skeen, Lyle Pickett, Eric Kurtz, James E. Anderson
The purpose of this study is to characterize extended lift-off combustion in a controlled engine combustion simulation facility using selected fuels of different cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and blend ratio. Ignition delay time, lift-off length and soot KL extinction have been measured for ambient and injector operating conditions relevant to modern diesel engines. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyldecanoate, TPGME, as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames from different fuels. The results confirmed the impact of oxygenated fuels on combustion, with a slight reduction in ignition delay times and a strong impact on soot formation. It has been observed that the changes in ignition timing and lift-off length, generally associated with changes in soot production levels were not following a direct relationship.
Technical Paper
2014-10-13
Antonino La Rocca, David MacMillan, Paul Shayler, Michael Murphy, Ian Pegg
Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. Magnitude and cycle-to-cycle variation of indicated parameter have been used as key indicators of cold idle performance. The utility of different injection strategies, up to three pilot injections before a main, is investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm, a speed representative of idle conditions, and at -20ºC. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis performed for each case. A CFD investigation was then used to visualise the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution, with particular emphasis on how the injection patterns affect the mixture distribution in the proximity of the glow plug. Kiva 3v was used to model the combustion system and fuel injections. A 60º mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. Combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation.
Technical Paper
2014-09-28
Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Carlos Agudelo, Shanglei Li, Harald Abendroth, Karl-Heinz Wollenweber, Achim Reich
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer performance test variability. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. This paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory performance tests. With multiple companies (or programs) developing and assessing the friction coefficient and friction behavior under different methods, it is inevitable to avoid conflicts of performance requirements or lack of reproducibility or correlation of test results under different test methods. In order to provide an evaluation consistent with previous phases of the Task Force activities, the same brake corner assembly and same friction material is used for this study. The study is comprised of three main steps: (a) Conducting tests under several test procedures: • ISO 26867:2009 — Friction Behaviour Assessment for Automotive Brake Systems (two samples) • SAE J2522:2013 — Dynamometer Global Brake Effectiveness (two samples) • SAE J2784:2009 — FMVSS Inertia Dynamometer Test Procedure for Vehicles Below 4 540 Kg GVWR (two samples) • JASO C406:2000 — Passenger Car — Dynamometer Test Procedures (two samples) • ECE R90-02:2013-Annex 9 – Part A— Determination of friction behaviour by machine testing (three samples) • SAE J661:2012 — Brake Lining Quality Control Test Procedure (five samples) • GB 5763:2008 — Brake Linings for Automobiles (TBD samples) all dynamometer tests were conducted using the same inertia dynamometer to eliminate the reproducibility (dyno-to-dyno) component in the total variability evaluation.
Article
2014-07-16
Ram’s official move to adopt the SAE J2807 towing standard for validating all three (1500, 2500, and 3500) of its pickup weight classes raises the competitive bar for the industry's other pickup players. Meanwhile, Ford has engineered its latest F-450 with half the GCVW capability of a Class-8 tractor-trailer.
Training / Education
2014-04-14
Julian Blair, Gregory Banish, Chi Binh La, Talus Park
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and improved drive quality, optimized powertrain calibrations are required for the many different vehicle configurations on today's roadways. While powertrain components such as the internal combustion engine, transmission, and hybrid electric powertrain are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the control theory, calibrations and system interactions between these components are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This web seminar will introduce participants to the concepts behind optimized powertrain calibrations and how they impact fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and vehicle performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Dhaval Vaishnav, Mike Dong, Mayur Shah, Francisco Gomez, Mohammad Usman
When a vehicle with a partially filled fuel tank undergoes sudden acceleration, braking, turning or pitching motion, fuel sloshing is experienced. It is important to establish a CAE methodology to accurately predict slosh phenomenon. Fuel slosh can lead to many failure modes such as noise, erroneous fuel indication, irregular fuel supply at low fuel level and durability issues caused by high impact forces on tank surface and internal parts. This paper summarizes activities carried out by the fuel system team at Ford Motor Company to develop and validate such CAE methodology. In particular two methods are discussed here. The first method is Volume Of Fluid (VOF) based incompressible multiphase Eulerian transient CAE method. The CFD solvers used here are Star CD and Star CCM+. The second method incorporates Fluid-Structure interaction (FSI) using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation. While Eulerian domain predicts motion and forces of fluid inside the tank, Lagrangian domain models tank shell and predicts its vibration under these forces.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
C. Scott Sluder, Brian H. West, Aron D. Butler, Arvon L. Mitcham, William J. Ruona
During the 1980s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) incorporated the R factor into fuel economy calculations in order to address concerns about the impacts of test fuel property variations on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) compliance, which is determined using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) cycles. The R factor is defined as the ratio of the percent change in fuel economy to the percent change in volumetric heating value for tests conducted using two differing fuels. At the time the R-factor was devised, tests using representative vehicles initially indicated that an appropriate value for the R factor was 0.6. Reassessing the R factor has recently come under renewed interest after EPA's March 2013 proposal to adjust the properties of certification gasoline to contain significant amounts of ethanol. This proposed change will likely result in a significant deviation from the CAFE baseline test fuel heating value, and thus increased importance of the R factor.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matija Hoic, Nenad Kranjcevic, Zvonko Herold, Josko Deur, Vladimir Ivanovic
Clutch wear is dominantly manifested as the reduction of friction plate thickness. For dry dual clutch with position-controlled electromechanical actuators this affects the accuracy of normal force control because of the increased clutch clearance. In order to compensate for the wear, dry dual clutch is equipped with wear compensation mechanism. The paper presents results of experimental characterization and mathematical modeling of two clutch wear related effects. The first one is the decrease of clutch friction plate thickness (i.e. increase of clutch clearance) which is described using friction material wear rate experimentally characterized using a pin-on-disc type tribometer test rig. The second wear related effect, namely the influence of the clutch wear compensation mechanism activation at various stages of clutch wear on main clutch characteristics, was experimentally characterized using a clutch test rig which incorporates entire clutch with related bell housing. Finally, the previously proposed and experimentally validated physical clutch model, which was focused on the clutch actuator and axial dynamics, is extended to capture both wear related effects as a further step towards a more comprehensive overall clutch dynamics model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Sharon Leach, Mark Jennings
Abstract A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink. Also, the simulation capability interfaces to Ford standard vehicle data sets for HEVs through a Matlab interface.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alex O. Gibson, Brad VanDerWege, Steven Wooldridge, Peter C. Moilanen, Seunghoon Lee
Abstract Stop/Start technology for conventional automatic transmissions has recently received considerable attention in the automotive industry due to the potential fuel economy, and CO2 emission reduction, benefit at minimal cost. Stop/Start was first developed for manual transmission applications in the EU and Japanese markets. When stop/start is applied to any automatic transmission powertrain the powertrain control challenge is to restart the engine in a manner that simultaneously minimizes the delay in transferring torque to the driven wheel(s) and provides a consistently smooth launch feel with low NVH. It has recently been shown that stop/start can be added to a gas engine powertrain with a conventional torque converter automatic transmission while achieving the desired launch characteristics with minimal change to the powertrain hardware and cost. This paper describes some of the powertrain control challenges that were addressed in the development of a stop/start system for conventional torque converter based automatic transmission applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Wei-Jen Lai, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Yunan Guo, Xuming Su
Failure mode and fatigue behavior of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of aluminum and copper sheets are investigated. Quasi-static tests and fatigue tests of laser-welded lap-shear specimens under different load ranges with the load ratio of 0.1 were conducted. Optical micrographs of the welds after the tests were examined to understand the failure modes of the specimens. For the specimens tested under quasi-static loading conditions, the micrograph indicates that the specimen failed through the fusion zone of the aluminum sheet. For the specimens tested under cyclic loading conditions, two types of failure modes were observed under different load ranges. One failure mode has a kinked crack initiating from the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing into the aluminum fusion zone at an angle close to 90°. The other failure mode has an interfacial crack initiating at the interfacial surface between the aluminum and copper sheets and growing along the interfacial surface between the fusion zone and the copper base metal at an angle close to 90°.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Shin-Jang Sung, Wei-Jen Lai, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jwo Pan, Saeed Barbat
The compressive behavior of lithium-iron phosphate battery cells is investigated by conducting in-plane constrained compression tests and out-of-plane compression tests of representative volume element (RVE) specimens. The results for cell RVE specimens under in-plane constrained compression tests without pre-strains and with pre-strains in the out-of-plane direction indicate that the load carrying capacity is characterized by the buckling of cell specimens. As the pre-strain increases, the nominal compressive stress-strain curve becomes higher. The nominal stress-strain curves in the out-of-plane direction were also obtained and used to determine the elastic moduli for the elastic buckling analyses of the cell components in the cell RVE specimens with different pre-strains. Based on the elastic buckling analyses for a beam with different lateral constraints due to different pre-strains in the out-of-plane direction, the number of half waves and the buckling stresses were obtained. The results indicate that the number of half waves and the buckling stress increase as the pre-strain increases.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hiroko Ohtani, Khaled Zreik, Edgar Steigerwald, Martin Knaffel, Robert Neumann, Gordon P. Small, Gregory Mordukhovich, Tracey E. King
Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously. The Force Controlled Continuous Slip mode has demonstrated a correlation with anti-shudder performance in the field, whereas other tests revealed important properties such as torque capacity and shift qualities.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jesse Schneider, Graham Meadows, Steven R. Mathison, Michael J. Veenstra, Jihyun Shim, Rainer Immel, Morten Wistoft-Ibsen, Spencer Quong, Manfred Greisel, Timothy McGuire, Peter Potzel
The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions. It defines the fueling protocol and operational fueling parameters that ensure both station and vehicle maintain their safety limits (e.g.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Li Huang, John V. Lasecki, Haiding Guo, Xuming Su
In present paper, the process of joining aluminum alloy 6111T4 and steel HSLA340 sheets by self-piercing riveting (SPR) is studied. The rivet material properties were obtained by inverse modeling approach. Element erosion technique was adopted in the LS-DYNA/explicit analysis for the separation of upper sheet before the rivet penetrates into lower sheet. Maximum shear strain criterion was implemented for material failure after comparing several classic fracture criteria. LS-DYNA/implicit was used for springback analysis following the explicit riveting simulation. Large compressive residual stress was observed near frequent fatigue crack initiation sites, both around vicinity of middle inner wall of rivet shank and upper 6111T4 sheet.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Claire Boland, Robb DeKleine, Aditi Moorthy, Gregory Keoleian, Hyung Chul Kim, Ellen Lee, Timothy J. Wallington
Abstract Automakers have the opportunity to utilize bio-based composite materials to lightweight cars while replacing conventional, nonrenewable resource materials. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to understand the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with the implementation of bio-based composite materials in automotive component production. This cradle-to-grave approach quantifies the fiber and resin production as well as material processing, use, and end of life for both a conventional glass-reinforced polypropylene component as well as a cellulose-reinforced polypropylene component. The comparison is calculated for an exterior component on a high performance vehicle. The life cycle primary energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) are evaluated. Reduced GWP associated with the alternative component are due to the use of biomass as process energy and carbon sequestration, in addition to the alternative material component's lightweighting effect.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tae-Kyung Lee, Ghamdan Kaid, John Blankenship, Dyche Anderson
Abstract Aggressive battery usage profiles in electrified vehicle applications require extensive efforts in developing battery management strategy and system design determination to guarantee safe operation under every real-world driving conditions. Experiment based approaches have been widely used for battery system development, but higher costs and longer testing time restrain the number of test cases in the product development process. Battery experiments tend to be conservative to avoid inherent risks of battery failure modes under aggressive battery operation close to the capability limits. Battery Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) is an alternative way to overcome the limitations of experiment-based approaches. Battery models in the HIL should provide real-time computation capability and high (at least acceptable) prediction accuracy. Equivalent circuit model (ECM) based HILs have been used owing to its relatively good balance between computational time and prediction accuracy. However, there are difficulties in constructing compact ECM structures to capture reliable battery responses over wide ranges of State of Charge (SOC), current, and temperature.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alexander T. Zaremba, Ciro Soto, Mohammad Shakiba-herfeh, Mark Jennings
Pareto optimal map concept has been applied to the optimization of the vehicle system control (VSC) strategy for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. The methodology relies on an inner-loop optimization process to define Pareto maps of the best engine and electric motor/generator operating points given wheel power demand, vehicle speed, and battery power. Selected levels of model fidelity, from simple to very detailed, can be used to generate the Pareto maps. Optimal control is achieved by applying Pontryagin's minimum principle which is based on minimization of the Hamiltonian comprised of the rate of fuel consumption and a co-state variable multiplied by the rate of change of battery SOC. The approach delivers optimal control for lowest fuel consumption over a drive cycle while accounting for all critical vehicle operating constraints, e.g. battery charge balance and power limits, and engine speed and torque limits. The methodology has been verified through comparison with the production VSC strategy of the 2013 HEV Fusion and it shows comparable performance.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ienkaran Arasaratnam, Jimi Tjong, Saeid Habibi
Abstract No two battery cells can be identical. Charging/discharging a battery pack without monitoring cell voltages or SoC (State-of-Charge) will cause cell voltages to deviate over time and the packs useable capacity to decrease quickly. To redistribute charge uniformly among cells, various cell balancing methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a cell balancing method based on a single switched-capacitor is presented from a brand new perspective. Unlike the traditional balancing methods that rely on the voltage divergence criterion, this paper uses the SoC divergence criterion to shuttle charge from a highly charged cell to a poorly charged cell. Moreover, an equivalent resistance of the single-switched capacitor topology is derived in steady state. For fast cell balancing, design guidelines are provided for selecting a proper switching-time period and the capacitor parameters. Ultracapacitors are recommended to achieve this goal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerous simulations are performed on a string of five series connected Lithium-ion cells that have different initial SoCs and electrochemical parameters.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hangsheng Hou
Abstract The purpose of this work is to analytically investigate automotive exhaust system noise generation and propagation phenomena. The turbulent exhaust gas flow interacts with the exhaust system structure, and as a result of this interaction, the structure vibrates and radiates noise. In the meantime, pressure wave becomes acoustic wave at its outlet. This study focuses on an exhaust system and carrying out transient fluid-structure analysis by using an explicit finite element solver that is capable of solving the Navier Stokes equations for turbulent, compressible viscous fluids as well as the field equations for solid structures in a fully coupled fashion. The time domain signals obtained from the transient analysis are post-processed to yield frequency domain data, sound pressure levels, noise source pattern as well as the selected acoustic field contour snapshots. The work involves evaluating different design proposals and comparing their corresponding sound pressure levels and acoustic fields.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Donald F. Tandy, Steven Beane, Robert Pascarella
Abstract There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few. Like in the development of passive suspensions and steering systems, a development engineer must take into account the mission of a vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Narayanan Kidambi, R. L. Harne, Yuji Fujii, Gregory M. Pietron, K. W. Wang
Dynamic vehicle loads play critical roles for automotive controls including battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty predictions, and various active safety systems. Accurate real-time estimation of vehicle loads such as those due to vehicle mass and road grade can thus improve safety, efficiency, and performance. While several estimation methods have been proposed in literature, none have seen widespread adoption in current vehicle technologies despite their potential to significantly improve automotive controls. To understand and bridge the gap between research development and wider adoption of real-time load estimation, this paper assesses the accuracy and performance of four estimation methods that predict vehicle mass and/or road grade. These include recursive least squares (RLS) with multiple forgetting factors; extended Kalman filtering (EKF); a dynamic grade observer (DGO); and a method developed by this research: parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation using a longitudinal accelerometer.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Louis Tijerina, James Sayer
Abstract The objectives of this study were a) to determine how expert judges categorized valid Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) Forward Collision Warning (FCW) events from review of naturalistic driving data; and b) to determine how consistent these categorizations were across the judges working in pairs. FCW event data were gathered from 108 drivers who drove instrumented vehicles for 6 weeks each. The data included video of the driver and road scene ahead, beside, and behind the vehicle; audio of the FCW alert onset; and engineering data such as speed and braking applications. Six automotive safety experts examined 197 ‘valid’ (i.e., conditions met design intent) FCW events and categorized each according to a taxonomy of primary contributing factors. Results indicated that of these valid FCW events, between 55% and 73% could be considered ‘nuisance alerts’ by the driver. These were the FCW alerts presented in benign conditions (e.g., lead-vehicle turning) or as a result of deliberate driver action (aggressive driving).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Mario Hrgetic, Josko Deur, Vladimir Ivanovic, Eric Tseng
Abstract This paper presents the extended Kalman filter-based sideslip angle estimator design using a nonlinear 5DoF single-track vehicle dynamics model with stochastic modeling of tire forces. Lumped front and rear tire forces have been modeled as first-order random walk state variables. The proposed estimator is primarily designed for vehicle sideslip angle estimation; however it can also be used for estimation of tire forces and cornering stiffness. This estimator design does not rely on linearization of the tire force characteristics, it is robust against the variations of the tire parameters, and does not require the information on coefficient of friction. The estimator performance has been first analyzed by means of computer simulations using the 10DoF two-track vehicle dynamics model and underlying magic formula tire model, and then experimentally validated by using data sets recorded on a test vehicle.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Yanan Zhao, Thomas Rambow, Chat Nguyen, Mathew Boesch, Raymond Spiteri, Kyle Post
Abstract The safety monitor is a high integrity control that monitors the health and performance of safety related computer controlled functions in vehicles. The integrity of the safety monitor code is critical to the overall performance of the control software. Traditionally, once monitor requirements are understood, then the safety monitor is hand coded or created in a modeling environment. New practices such as ISO 26262 prescribe formal or semiformal methods are used against certain classes of foreseeable faults. Recently, a new tool, which is capable of auto-generating C-code based on safety monitor formal functional requirements is available from BTC Company. Ford Motor Company investigated the tool using an application example from a powertrain control feature safety monitor. The paper describes a pilot project and process assessment, comprising the steps of requirement-based C-code generation, code integration, code analysis and code verification using requirements selected from the powertrain control feature's specification.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Lawrence Banasky
Abstract In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants. The participants possess a tremendous amount of test experience and are therefore qualified to provide recommendations on the subject.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Luciano Lukacs, Mahendra Dassanayake, Iuri Pepe
Abstract Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of unique scenarios presented in a driver's field of vision. At night drivers have to rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the road to be able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. In recent decades car illumination systems have undergone considerable technological advances such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Adaptive Front-lighting Systems (AFS), a breakthrough in lighting technology. This is rapidly becoming one of the most important innovative technologies around the world within the lighting community. This paper discusses driver's needs given the environment and road conditions using a survey applied to compare the needs of both truck and car drivers under different road conditions. The results show the potential and suitability of the methodology proposed for controlling truck-related lighting in any emergent market.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Joel Michelin, Frederic Guilbaud, Alain Guil, Ian Newbigging, Emmanuel Jean, Martina Reichert, Mario Balenovic, Zafar Shaikh
Abstract Future Diesel emission standards for passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles, require the combination of a more efficient NOx reduction performance along with the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the package requirements to facilitate it. With the increasing availability of aqueous urea, DEF or AdBlue® at service stations, and improved package opportunities, the urea SCR technical solution has been demonstrated to be very efficient for NOx reduction; however the complexity in injecting and distributing the reductant remains a challenge to the industry. The traditional exhaust system contains Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), all require additional heat to facilitate each of their specific functions. With some particular package scenarios the SCR catalyst maybe found after the particulate filter where elaborate light-off strategies need to be deployed to ensure activation under many different driving regimes.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Wei Luo, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber, Chris Glugla
Abstract The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time. Both offline simulation and engine dynamometer test results show that stochastic knock control with fixed length of finite impulse response (FIR) filter has slow and excessive retard issue when a significant knock event happens.
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