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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1162
2014-11-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-9080
James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington, Robert A. Stein, William M. Studzinski
Abstract Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws. For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled. Hence the use of three points on the curve (T10, T50, and T90, defined as the 10%v, 50%v, and 90%v evaporated temperatures) has been sufficient to define their volatility-related behavior in engines.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2708
Antonino La Rocca, David MacMillan, Paul Shayler, Michael Murphy, Ian Pegg
Abstract Cold idle operation of a modern design light duty diesel engine and the effect of multiple pilot injections on stability were investigated. The investigation was initially carried out experimentally at 1000rpm and at −20°C. Benefits of mixture preparation were initially explored by a heat release analysis. Kiva 3v was then used to model the effect of multiple pilots on in-cylinder mixture distribution. A 60° sector of mesh was used taking advantage of rotational symmetry. The combustion system and injector arrangements mimic the HPCR diesel engine used in the experimental investigation. The CFD analysis covers evolutions from intake valve closing to start of combustion. The number of injections was varied from 1 to 4, but the total fuel injected was kept constant at 17mm3/stroke. Start of main injection timing was fixed at 7.5°BTDC. The experimental study shows that increasing the number of pilots improves stability and leads to fuel preparation resulting in higher initial peak rate of heat release.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2657
Julien Manin, Scott Skeen, Lyle Pickett, Eric Kurtz, James E. Anderson
Abstract The Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy offers a possible alternative to low temperature combustion or other globally lean, premixed operation strategies to reduce soot directly in the flame, while maintaining mixing-controlled combustion. Adjustments to fuel properties, especially fuel oxygenation, have been reported to have potentially beneficial effects for LLFC applications. Six fuels were selected or blended based on cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and the presence of an aromatic hydrocarbon. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyl decanoate, tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (TPGME), as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Ignition delay times, lift-off lengths and soot KL extinction levels for the six fuels have been measured at in-cylinder conditions relevant to modern diesel engines.
2014-09-28
Technical Paper
2014-01-2521
Jaroslaw Grochowicz, Carlos Agudelo, Shanglei Li, Harald Abendroth, Karl-Heinz Wollenweber, Achim Reich
Abstract The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests. With multiple companies (or programs) developing and assessing the friction coefficient and friction behavior under different methods, it is inevitable to avoid conflicts of performance requirements or lack of reproducibility or correlation of test results under different test methods.
2014-07-16
Article
Ram’s official move to adopt the SAE J2807 towing standard for validating all three (1500, 2500, and 3500) of its pickup weight classes raises the competitive bar for the industry's other pickup players. Meanwhile, Ford has engineered its latest F-450 with half the GCVW capability of a Class-8 tractor-trailer.
Anytime
Training / Education On Demand Web Seminar RePlay
Driven by the need for lower emissions, better fuel economy and improved drive quality, optimized powertrain calibrations are required for the many different vehicle configurations on today's roadways. While powertrain components such as the internal combustion engine, transmission, and hybrid electric powertrain are somewhat familiar to the automotive industry, the control theory, calibrations and system interactions between these components are a relatively unfamiliar aspect. This web seminar will introduce participants to the concepts behind optimized powertrain calibrations and how they impact...
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0984
Aledoni Keci, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process. The results verify that water is the most superior form of quenching, i.e. above 1000°C/s, the bead die quench rate is impressive at 525°C/s, and the water-cooled plate quench rate is marginal at 34°C/s.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0958
Hoda Eiliat, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong, Julio Villafuerte
Abstract This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower coefficient of friction. This can be explained due to the oil retention structure of coarse coatings with more topographical variance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0811
Horst Lanzerath, Niels Pasligh
Abstract Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient. Therefore new FEM crash methods for structural adhesives have been investigated and validated with the help of test results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1156
Chen Fang, Xipeng Wang, Qi Dai, Yi Murphey, David Weber, Perry MacNeille
Abstract New vehicle control algorithms are needed to meet future emissions and fuel economy mandates that are quite likely to require a measurement of ambient specific humidity (SH). Current practice is to obtain the SH by measurement of relative humidity (RH), temperature and barometric pressure with physical sensors, and then to estimate the SH using a fit equation. In this paper a novel approach is described: a system of neural networks trained to estimate the SH using data that already exists on the vehicle bus. The neural network system, which is referred to as a virtual SH sensor, incorporates information from the global navigation satellite system such as longitude, latitude, time and date, and from the vehicle climate control system such as temperature and barometric pressure, and outputs an estimate of SH. The conclusion of this preliminary study is that neural networks have the potential of being used as a virtual sensor for estimating ambient and intake manifold's SH.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1165
Yong-Wha Kim, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Greg Stewart, Jaroslav Pekar
Abstract This paper presents the application of model predictive control (MPC) to DOC temperature control during DPF regeneration. The model predictive control approach is selected for its advantage - using a model to optimize control moves over horizon while handling constraints. Due to the slow thermal dynamics of the DOC and DPF, computational bandwidth is not an issue, allowing for more complex calculations in each control loop. The control problem is formulated such that all the engine control actions, other than far post injection, are performed by the existing production engine controller, whereas far post injection is selected as the MPC manipulated variable and DOC outlet temperature as the controlled variable. The Honeywell OnRAMP Design Suite (model predictive control software) is used for model identification, control design and calibration. The paper includes description of the DPF regeneration process, model identification and validation results, control design and trade-off analysis and experimental validation of the controller on a Ford Superduty diesel truck.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0435
Luciano Lukacs, Mahendra Dassanayake, Iuri Pepe
Abstract Nighttime driving behavior differs from that during the day because of unique scenarios presented in a driver's field of vision. At night drivers have to rely on their vehicle headlamps to illuminate the road to be able to see the environment and road conditions in front of him. In recent decades car illumination systems have undergone considerable technological advances such as the use of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Adaptive Front-lighting Systems (AFS), a breakthrough in lighting technology. This is rapidly becoming one of the most important innovative technologies around the world within the lighting community. This paper discusses driver's needs given the environment and road conditions using a survey applied to compare the needs of both truck and car drivers under different road conditions. The results show the potential and suitability of the methodology proposed for controlling truck-related lighting in any emergent market.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0400
Hongyi Xu, Monica T. Majcher, Ching-Hung Chuang, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Abstract Response Surface Model (RSM)-based optimization is widely used in engineering design. The major strength of RSM-based optimization is its short computational time. The expensive real simulation models are replaced with fast surrogate models. However, this method may have some difficulties to reach the full potential due to the errors between RSM and the real simulations. RSM's accuracy is limited by the insufficient number of Design of Experiments (DOE) points and the inherent randomness of DOE. With recent developments in advanced optimization algorithms and High Performance Computing (HPC) capability, Direct Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (DMDO) receives more attention as a promising future optimization strategy. Advanced optimization algorithm reduces the number of function evaluations, and HPC cut down the computational turnaround time of function evaluations through fully utilizing parallel computation. In this paper, we test the performance of RSM-based optimization and DMDO using multiple benchmark problems of both analytical mathematical examples and a vehicle design.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0713
Guangning(Gary) Gao
Abstract Distance to empty (DTE) estimation is an important factor to electric vehicle (EV) applications due to its limited driving range. The DTE calculation is based on available energy of the battery and power usage by the powertrain components (e.g. electric motor) and climate control components (e.g. PTC heater and electric AC compressor). The conventional way of estimating the DTE is to treat the power consumed by the climate control system the same as the power by the powertrain for either instantaneous or rolling average estimation. The analysis in this study shows that the power consumption by the climate control system should be estimated based on the current ambient conditions and driver's input instead of using the recorded data from the past driving cycles. The climate control should also be considered separately from the powertrain in power usage rolling average calculation, which results in improvements in DTE estimation especially for extreme hot and cold conditions. Additionally, the climate control power consumption shows unique characteristics during the initial period of cabin climate control.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0214
Yanan Zhao, Thomas Rambow, Chat Nguyen, Mathew Boesch, Raymond Spiteri, Kyle Post
Abstract The safety monitor is a high integrity control that monitors the health and performance of safety related computer controlled functions in vehicles. The integrity of the safety monitor code is critical to the overall performance of the control software. Traditionally, once monitor requirements are understood, then the safety monitor is hand coded or created in a modeling environment. New practices such as ISO 26262 prescribe formal or semiformal methods are used against certain classes of foreseeable faults. Recently, a new tool, which is capable of auto-generating C-code based on safety monitor formal functional requirements is available from BTC Company. Ford Motor Company investigated the tool using an application example from a powertrain control feature safety monitor. The paper describes a pilot project and process assessment, comprising the steps of requirement-based C-code generation, code integration, code analysis and code verification using requirements selected from the powertrain control feature's specification.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0130
Donald F. Tandy, Steven Beane, Robert Pascarella
Abstract There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few. Like in the development of passive suspensions and steering systems, a development engineer must take into account the mission of a vehicle.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0160
Louis Tijerina, James Sayer
Abstract The objectives of this study were a) to determine how expert judges categorized valid Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) Forward Collision Warning (FCW) events from review of naturalistic driving data; and b) to determine how consistent these categorizations were across the judges working in pairs. FCW event data were gathered from 108 drivers who drove instrumented vehicles for 6 weeks each. The data included video of the driver and road scene ahead, beside, and behind the vehicle; audio of the FCW alert onset; and engineering data such as speed and braking applications. Six automotive safety experts examined 197 ‘valid’ (i.e., conditions met design intent) FCW events and categorized each according to a taxonomy of primary contributing factors. Results indicated that of these valid FCW events, between 55% and 73% could be considered ‘nuisance alerts’ by the driver. These were the FCW alerts presented in benign conditions (e.g., lead-vehicle turning) or as a result of deliberate driver action (aggressive driving).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0178
Lawrence Banasky
Abstract In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants. The participants possess a tremendous amount of test experience and are therefore qualified to provide recommendations on the subject.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0020
Hangsheng Hou
Abstract The purpose of this work is to analytically investigate automotive exhaust system noise generation and propagation phenomena. The turbulent exhaust gas flow interacts with the exhaust system structure, and as a result of this interaction, the structure vibrates and radiates noise. In the meantime, pressure wave becomes acoustic wave at its outlet. This study focuses on an exhaust system and carrying out transient fluid-structure analysis by using an explicit finite element solver that is capable of solving the Navier Stokes equations for turbulent, compressible viscous fluids as well as the field equations for solid structures in a fully coupled fashion. The time domain signals obtained from the transient analysis are post-processed to yield frequency domain data, sound pressure levels, noise source pattern as well as the selected acoustic field contour snapshots. The work involves evaluating different design proposals and comparing their corresponding sound pressure levels and acoustic fields.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0550
Ali Seyed Yaghoubi, Paul Begeman, Golam Newaz, Derek Board, Yijung Chen, Omar Faruque
Abstract The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples. A linear potentiometer was installed next to each crush-can to directly measure crush length of the can.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1531
Joel Michelin, Frederic Guilbaud, Alain Guil, Ian Newbigging, Emmanuel Jean, Martina Reichert, Mario Balenovic, Zafar Shaikh
Abstract Future Diesel emission standards for passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles, require the combination of a more efficient NOx reduction performance along with the opportunity to reduce the complexity and the package requirements to facilitate it. With the increasing availability of aqueous urea, DEF or AdBlue® at service stations, and improved package opportunities, the urea SCR technical solution has been demonstrated to be very efficient for NOx reduction; however the complexity in injecting and distributing the reductant remains a challenge to the industry. The traditional exhaust system contains Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), all require additional heat to facilitate each of their specific functions. With some particular package scenarios the SCR catalyst maybe found after the particulate filter where elaborate light-off strategies need to be deployed to ensure activation under many different driving regimes.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1298
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure. The applicable window of the injection timing for the n-butanol fuel was much narrower than that of the conventional diesel fuel because of the constraints of misfiring and excessive pressure rise rate.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1277
Satheesh Makkapati, Eric Curtis
Abstract Naturally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) operational window is very limited due to inherent issues with combustion harshness. Load range can be extended for HCCI operation using a combination of intake boosting and cooled EGR. Significant range extension, up to 8bar NMEP at 1000RPM, was shown to be possible using these approaches in a single cylinder engine running residual trapping HCCI with 91RON fuel with a 12:1 compression ratio. Experimental results over the feasible speed / load range are presented in this paper for a negative valve overlap HCCI engine. Fuel efficiency advantage of HCCI was found to be around 15% at 2.62bar / 1500RPM over a comparable SI engine operating at the same compression ratio, and the benefit was reduced to about 5% (best scenario) as the load increased to 5bar at the same speed. The primary intention of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of the presented HCCI concept in a future downsized and boosted engine for improving fuel efficiency over typical drive cycles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1358
Wei Luo, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber, Chris Glugla
Abstract The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time. Both offline simulation and engine dynamometer test results show that stochastic knock control with fixed length of finite impulse response (FIR) filter has slow and excessive retard issue when a significant knock event happens.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1813
Sharon Leach, Mark Jennings
Abstract A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink. Also, the simulation capability interfaces to Ford standard vehicle data sets for HEVs through a Matlab interface.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1747
Alex O. Gibson, Brad VanDerWege, Steven Wooldridge, Peter C. Moilanen, Seunghoon Lee
Abstract Stop/Start technology for conventional automatic transmissions has recently received considerable attention in the automotive industry due to the potential fuel economy, and CO2 emission reduction, benefit at minimal cost. Stop/Start was first developed for manual transmission applications in the EU and Japanese markets. When stop/start is applied to any automatic transmission powertrain the powertrain control challenge is to restart the engine in a manner that simultaneously minimizes the delay in transferring torque to the driven wheel(s) and provides a consistently smooth launch feel with low NVH. It has recently been shown that stop/start can be added to a gas engine powertrain with a conventional torque converter automatic transmission while achieving the desired launch characteristics with minimal change to the powertrain hardware and cost. This paper describes some of the powertrain control challenges that were addressed in the development of a stop/start system for conventional torque converter based automatic transmission applications.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1846
Ienkaran Arasaratnam, Jimi Tjong, Saeid Habibi
Abstract No two battery cells can be identical. Charging/discharging a battery pack without monitoring cell voltages or SoC (State-of-Charge) will cause cell voltages to deviate over time and the packs useable capacity to decrease quickly. To redistribute charge uniformly among cells, various cell balancing methods have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a cell balancing method based on a single switched-capacitor is presented from a brand new perspective. Unlike the traditional balancing methods that rely on the voltage divergence criterion, this paper uses the SoC divergence criterion to shuttle charge from a highly charged cell to a poorly charged cell. Moreover, an equivalent resistance of the single-switched capacitor topology is derived in steady state. For fast cell balancing, design guidelines are provided for selecting a proper switching-time period and the capacitor parameters. Ultracapacitors are recommended to achieve this goal. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerous simulations are performed on a string of five series connected Lithium-ion cells that have different initial SoCs and electrochemical parameters.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1988
Hiroko Ohtani, Khaled Zreik, Edgar Steigerwald, Martin Knaffel, Robert Neumann, Gordon P. Small, Gregory Mordukhovich, Tracey E. King
Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously. The Force Controlled Continuous Slip mode has demonstrated a correlation with anti-shudder performance in the field, whereas other tests revealed important properties such as torque capacity and shift qualities.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1959
Claire Boland, Robb DeKleine, Aditi Moorthy, Gregory Keoleian, Hyung Chul Kim, Ellen Lee, Timothy J. Wallington
Abstract Automakers have the opportunity to utilize bio-based composite materials to lightweight cars while replacing conventional, nonrenewable resource materials. In this study, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to understand the potential benefits and tradeoffs associated with the implementation of bio-based composite materials in automotive component production. This cradle-to-grave approach quantifies the fiber and resin production as well as material processing, use, and end of life for both a conventional glass-reinforced polypropylene component as well as a cellulose-reinforced polypropylene component. The comparison is calculated for an exterior component on a high performance vehicle. The life cycle primary energy consumption and global warming potential (GWP) are evaluated. Reduced GWP associated with the alternative component are due to the use of biomass as process energy and carbon sequestration, in addition to the alternative material component's lightweighting effect.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1958
Bert Bras, Andrew Carlile, Thomas Niemann, Sherry Mueller, Hyung Chul Kim, Timothy Wallington, Heidi McKenzie, Susan Rokosz
Abstract Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
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