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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1193
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0861
Matthew Younkins, Margaret S. Wooldridge, Brad A. Boyer
Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines have potential for high thermal efficiencies; however, high efficiency conditions can produce high nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx) that are challenging to treat using conventional 3-way catalysts. This work presents the results of an experimental study to reduce NOx emissions while retaining high thermal efficiencies in a single-cylinder research engine fueled with hydrogen. Specifically, the effects on engine performance of the injection of water into the intake air charge were explored. The hydrogen fuel was injected into the cylinder directly. Several parameters were varied during the study, including the amount of water injected into the intake charge, the amount of fuel injected, the phasing of the fuel injection, the number of fuel injection events, and the ignition timing. The results were compared with expectations for a conventionally operated hydrogen engine where load was controlled through changes in equivalence ratio.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1242
Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
Ethanol has demonstrated strong, anti-knock performance in spark ignition (SI) engines, and this is one important reason for its increasing use around the world. Ethanol’s high octane rating is attributed to both its low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling capability. Further, whilst detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms have been developed for gasoline surrogates and ethanol, little work has been done to investigate whether autoignition in modern, SI engines with ethanol/gasoline blends can be reproduced by these mechanisms, in particular for cases with direct fuel injection. This paper therefore presents a numerical study of the trace knocking of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results of these numerical simulations are compared to experimental results obtained in a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1239
Neal J. Corey, Mark Madin, Rick L. Williams
While weight reduction in automotive design and manufacturing have been on-going for several years, in the area of powertrain technology, light-weighting has been a difficult challenge to overcome due to functional requirements, as well as material and manufacturing constraints. Ford Motor Company, as part of the Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) project with Vehma International and the US Department of Energy, worked with its material supplier, BASF, to design and develop a carbon fiber Front Cover and Oil Pan, based off the current Fox I3 Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine. The effort produced a reduced weight Front Cover and Oil Pan, that were both structurally strong enough to support the engine attachment to the frame rail and as well as meeting all the powertrain bending stress targets that are seen in the current engine.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1437
Tony R. Laituri, Raed E. El-Jawahri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Various risk curves for head injury potential were assessed theoretically relative to field data. Specifically, two AIS2+ risk curves were studied: the HIC15-based risk curve from Mertz (1997) and the provisional, BRIC-based risk curve from Takhounts et al. (2013). These two risk curves were used to estimate attendant injury potential for belted drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The occupant responses pertaining to those crashes were estimated from representative math models, and the risk curves were used to convert event responses into event risks. The assessment was conducted from two perspectives: aggregate (0-56 kph) and a point-estimate (56 kph, barrier-like). Finally, the point-estimate assessment was supplemented by considering corresponding laboratory tests. The results from HIC15-based risk curve were understated, whereas the results from the BRIC-based risk curve were overstated.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
A study of belted driver injury in various types of frontal impacts in the US field data was conducted. Specifically, subject to the Frontal Impact Taxonomy of Sullivan et al. (2008), injury potential of belted drivers in non-rollover, frontal impacts in the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) was assessed. The field data pertained to 1985 - 2013 model-year light passenger vehicles in 1995 - 2012 calendar years of NASS. Two levels of injury were considered: AIS2+ and AIS3+. For ease of presentation, we grouped the injury data into lower- or upper-body regions. Frontal impacts were binned into eight taxonomic groups: Full-engagement, Offset, Narrow, Oblique, Side-swipe corner, High/low vert (i.e., over- and under-ride crashes), DZY-No rail (i.e., distributed crashes, but with negligible frame rail involvement), and Other. The results of the survey yielded insights into the distribution of belted-driver injury in NASS.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0409
Larry Plourde, Michael Azzouz, Jeff Wallace, Mari Chellman
Title: MMLV Door Design and Component-level Testing Authors: Magna International: Larry Plourde & Mari Chellman Ford Motor Company: Mike Azzouz This paper reviews the mass reduction and structural performance of aluminum, magnesium, and steel components associated with a light weight multi-material door design relative to a C/D segment production vehicle. Stiffness, durability, and crash requirements are assessed. The structure incorporated aluminum sheet, aluminum extrusion, magnesium high pressure vacuum die casting and steel sheet. The multi-material components were assembled using structural adhesive bonding (hem and structure), self-pierce rivets (SPR's), single sided rivets, and bolts. The aluminum extrusion and the magnesium casting in the MMLV door were specifically designed to maximize stiffness, reduce part count and maximize mass reduction.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0666
Chenguang Li, Fue-Sang Lien, Eugene Yee, Mike Dong
A deeper understanding of the complex phenomenology associated with the flow induced noise and vibration in a dynamic valve is of critical importance to the automotive industry. To this purpose, a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate the complex processes that are responsible for the noise and vibration in a poppet valve (or poppet). More specifically, an Eulerian multiphase flow model, a dynamic mesh and a user-defined function are utilized within the ANSYS-FLUENT software system in order to facilitate the modeling of the complicated two-phase fluid-structure interaction problem associated with the generation of noise and vibration in a poppet valve. In this strongly coupled simulation framework, the poppet valve which is driven by spring and various dynamical fluid forces (e.g., viscous and pressure forces), is modeled as an under-damped vibration system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1238
Cliff Maki, Kevin Byrd, Bryan McKeough, Robert G. Rentschler, Brian J. Nellenbach, Rick L. Williams, James M. Boileau
In the quest for reducing fuel consumption the demand for light weight engines is increasing. The design of several key components; cylinder block, connecting rod and cylinder head cam carrier are examined for mass reduction opportunities within the US DOE and Ford Motor Company funded MMLV project. Within this paper the mass reduction and durability performance of several key powertrain components are discussed. A new hybrid aluminum cylinder block with fractured split powder metal bulkhead inserts that tie the head bolts to the main bearing cap bolts was designed to meet the highly loaded characteristics of today’s modern turbocharged engines. This new hybrid aluminum cylinder block design resulted in a 40% or 9.46 kg mass reduction in comparison to the production 1.0L I3 grey cast iron cylinder block while meeting the same stringent durability requirements. Similarly, a new forged aluminum connecting rod was designed to replace the forged powder metal connecting rod.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
This paper proposed a method to characterize a driver’s handling behavior through the measured and computed signals used for various vehicle electronic control systems. It uses the vehicle responses under the influence of both the driver and its electronic control systems. It characterizes the driving behavior into different categories based on the driver’s control action. The estimated driver behavior can be used to personalize vehicle control functions or warn the driver. The approach is validated by testing on various vehicles during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0551
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, John V. Lasecki, John Hill, Xuming Su, John J. Bonnen
The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray(EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1336
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in predicting the behavior of automotive components. In the current work the fan, shroud and radiator assembly has been simulated using a less expensive CFD methodology. After validating the CAE tool with the test data, the similar simulation was carried on for 13 different shrouds and the effect of geometrical parameters on airflow was investigated. The CFD data show that the smoothly converging shroud will lead to higher flow rates while cavities and steps will perform as a restriction and degrade the efficiency. Besides, it is seen that decreasing the blade-shroud clearance up to 17 mm will improve the air flow as it prevents the leakage of the pumped flow, but if we go further, the airflow does not increase and may even decrease, which may be explained based on the interference of blade and shroud boundary layer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1080
Eduardo J. Barrientos, Matti M. Maricq, Andre L. Boehman, James E. Anderson
Biodiesel has been proven to have a strong impact on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. The fatty acid methyl esters, of which biodiesel is comprised, exhibit a more complex ignition chemistry than normal alkanes of equivalent carbon number. Studies have shown a clear dependence of soot reactivity on fuel oxygenate molecular structure, suggesting that the unique oxidation behavior of esters may be a governing factor of the enhanced soot oxidation behavior presented by biodiesel. A study and analysis of the relation of biodiesel chemical structures to the resulting soot characteristics and soot oxidative reactivity was conducted. Soot samples generated from the combustion of various methyl esters, alkanes, biodiesel and diesel fuels in laminar co-flow diffusion flames were analyzed to evaluate the impact of fuel-bound oxygen in fatty acid esters on soot oxidation behavior.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1280
Ahsanul Karim, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte
The stable operation of turbocharger compressor at low flow rates is important to provide low end engine torque for turbocharged automotive engines. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the lowest flow rates at different turbo speed at which surge phenomenon occurs. For this purpose, a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation performed including the entire compressor wheel and volute. The wheel consisted of six main and six splitter blades. Flow bench and engine testing can be used to detect surge phenomenon. Complete 3D CFD analysis can be performed upfront in the design to calculate low end compressor operating range and to understand the fundamental mechanisms of stalled flow, the surge phenomenon, and impact of compressor inlet conditions on surge. This paper presents a CFD analysis near the low flow region at constant turbo speed to predict automotive centrifugal compressor surge phenomenon.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1403
Yi lu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
A host of new technologies, features and functions are continuously being added to vehicles to make the driving task and journey safe, pleasant, relaxing, enjoyable, and even exciting for the driver. An encompassing framework for research has been to understand and push further the need for ‘driver wellness’, the definition for which is still elusive. Suffice to say that ‘wellness’ is reflected in feeling good before, during and after the drive. Objective measures, primarily driver physiology, reflect wellness, but in an as yet not fully understood way. Murphey and Kochhar [1, 2] developed a Transportable Instrument Package (TIP) for in-vehicle on-the road driving data recording, and used machine learning and neural networks to explore the underlying relationships. In this paper we report on research that shows how in-vehicle, on-the-road driver physiological measures can be used to predict the driver’s intention to change lanes, even before such a lane-change is initiated.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraint, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point vehicle belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven different body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Magnesium alloys have low weldability, thus self-piercing rivet (SPR) joint is one of options for joining them. This research investigates the fatigue performance of SPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31, AM30, and AM60. Lap-shear and coach peel specimens for these alloys are fabricated and tested for understanding fatigue performance of the joint. Structural stress – life (S-N) curves are developed with the test results. This approach is validated with simple structural specimens that include three or two joints in each specimen. It is also intensively studied to identify the proper representation of the joint in finite element models.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Amir Chator, Bruno Barthelemy, Michael Lee, Shawn Morgans, Jeffrey Laya, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Sreekanth Reddy Gondipalle
Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as the design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH. Several iterations of MDO have been performed at different milestones in the design cycle leading to significant weight savings of more than 11kg.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Being the world’s largest auto producer and consumer, China is becoming the most promising but complex market given the country’s rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. Advanced multivariate analysis techniques are then employed to reduce a set of survey responses to key measures of customer preference. Finally, a new network analysis approach is proposed to model customer cross-shopping behavior that can inform the firm about the implied market structure and product competitive positioning. Our proposed approach is demonstrated by using a rich set of market data collected in China.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0525
Constantin Chiriac, Ming F. Shi
Automotive structural parts made out of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) are often produced in a multistage forming process using progressive dies or transfer dies. During each forming stage the steel is subjected to work hardening, which affects the formability of the steel in the subsequent forming operation. Edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching operations are forming modes that are typically employed in the last stage of the multistage forming processes. In this study, the multistage forming process was simulated by pre-straining a DP980 steel in a biaxial strain path with various strain levels followed by edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching. The biaxial prestrains were obtained using the Marciniak stretch test and edge flanging and in-plane edge stretching were accomplished by the hole expansion test using a flat punch and a conical punch, respectively.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0570
Horst Lanzerath, Markus Tuerk
Tubular designs for the body structure enable a significant weight saving versus the conventional, stamped sheet metal designs. There are several manufacturing processes on the market than can deliver tubular structures, e.g. hydroforming. But currently the processes are limited to material grades up to 1000MPa UTS for body structure parts. Similar to the development in stamping, the target is the have tubular designs available with Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS) properties (1500MPa) that are known from hot-stamping parts. Within stamping the development was going from Mild Steels (MS) to Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and finally to hot-formed steels with 1500MPa UTS, enabling a significant weight saving potential compared to MS or AHSS. Analogous to this there are some new processes upcoming which are able to produce tubular designs with 1500 MPa strength.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0573
Tau Tyan, Yu-Kan Hu, Dana Sun, Leonard Shaner, Matt Niesluchowski, Nand Kochhar, Guofei Chen, Ming Shi
Motivated by a combination of increasing consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles, more stringent greenhouse gas and 2025 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automotive manufacturers are working to innovate in all areas of vehicle design to optimize fuel efficiency. In addition to improved aerodynamics, enhanced powertrain technologies and alternative fuel vehicles, reducing vehicle weight by using lighter materials has been identified as one of the most important strategies in future vehicle development. Weight reduction in vehicle components, sub-systems and systems not only reduces the energy needed to overcome inertia forces but also can trigger additional mass reduction elsewhere and enable significant mass reduction in full vehicle levels.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0339
Aimon Allouache, Smith Leggett, Matthew J. Hall, Ming Tu, Chad Baker, Haiyan Fateh
Abstract The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) that recovers heat from the exhaust of a heavy-duty diesel engine was simulated. The work was an extension of a prior study that simulated the performance of an experimental ORC system developed and tested at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). The experimental data were used to set model parameters and validate the results of that simulation. For the current study the model was adapted to consider a 15 liter turbocharged engine versus the original 1.9 liter light-duty automotive turbodiesel studied by ORNL. Exhaust flow rate and temperature data for the heavy-duty engine were obtained from Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads without EGR. Because of the considerably higher exhaust gas flow rates of the heavy-duty engine, relative to the engine tested by ORNL, a different heat exchanger type was considered in order to keep exhaust pressure drop within practical bounds.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0297
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Finn Tseng
This paper studies the problem of characterizing the driving behavior during steady-state and transient car-following. An approach utilizing the online learning of an evolving Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model that is combined with a Markov model is used to characterize the multi-model and evolving nature of the driving behavior. Such an approach is targeted for real-time implementation instead of the traditional off-line approach to driver characterization. The approach is validated by testing on a test vehicle during different driving conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1240
James Kearns, Soon Park, John Sabo, Dusan Milacic
Paper Title: MMLV - Lightweight Transmission Components Author: John Sabo, Magna International Abstract: The Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (“MMLV”) is a lightweight vehicle development project between Ford and Magna International, 50% co-funded by US Department of Energy (DOE) and Canadian Provincial grants. The goal of the project is to use lightweight material systems and manufacturing technologies to achieve significant overall weight reduction and demonstrate viability of such design by component-level testing. This paper presents a summary of the MMLV design development for lightweight transmission and driveline components, supported by extensive use of CAE analysis and component-level testing of prototype parts. A total mass reduction of 14kg (13.8%) relative to the 2012 Fusion baseline vehicle transmission and driveline components was achieved.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Abstract Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
MMLV: Vehicle Durability Design, Simulation and Testing Nikhil Bolar1, Allen T. Li2, Jeff Wallace2 1Magna International 2Ford Motor Company Magna International, Ford Motor Company, and the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Multi Materials Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project in 2012. A mass reduction of 23.5% relative to a baseline 2013 Ford Fusion has been achieved. The three key attributes of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are Safety, Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) and Durability. This paper presents the full vehicle durability assessment of the MMLV Mach-I Concept Vehicle using CAE simulation of the body-in-white structure, subframe and closure designs, as well as the full vehicle field durability test at the Ford Motor Company Michigan Proving Ground.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1617
Brien Fulton, Simon Petrovic, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Jon Dixon, Daniel Roettger, Andres Arevalo
Exhaust pressures (P3) are easy parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature environment that the exhaust system creates, makes the implementation of the exhaust pressure sensor a costly endeavor. Accurate exhaust pressure inputs in vehicle and engine control systems are important for performance, fuel economy, emissions, OBD monitoring and aftertreatment control. The contention with modelling exhaust pressure is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. The paper presents a turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1657
Ahsanul Karim, Meisam Mehravaran, Brian Lizotte, Keith Miazgowicz, Yi Zhang
A computational aero-acoustics simulation on the aerodynamic noise generation of an automotive radiator fan assembly is carried out. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the unsteady flow field was performed including the entire impeller and shroud to obtain the source of an audible broad-band flow noise between 2 to 4 kHz. Static pressure probes placed around the outer-periphery and at the center of the impeller inlet side and, at the shroud cavities to capture the noise sources. The static pressure at all probe locations were FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) processed and sound pressure level (SPL) was calculated. The sound pressure levels from the fan outer-periphery probes show the dominant source of blade passing frequency (BPF) and the broad-band noise. The BPF level is the strongest in fan outer-peripheral region because of large pressure fluctuations as a result of blade-passing.
2015-01-14
Journal Article
2015-26-0104
Santhoji Katare, Carolyn Hubbard, Seha Son
Abstract Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
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