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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1207
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2302
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, David Wagner
Lightweighting of vehicle panels enclosing vehicle cabin causes NVH degradation since engine, road, and wind noise acoustic sources propagate to the vehicle interior through these panels. In order to reduce this NVH degradation, there is a need to develop new NVH sound package materials and designs for use in lightweight vehicle design. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model can be an effective CAE design tool to develop NVH sound packages for use in lightweight vehicle design. Using SEA can help engineers recover the NVH deficiency created due to sheet metal lightweighting actions. Full vehicle SEA model was developed to evaluate the high frequency NVH performance of “Vehicle A” in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 10 kHz. This correlated SEA model was used for the vehicle sound package optimization studies. Full vehicle level NVH laboratory tests for engine and tire patch noise reduction were also conducted to demonstrate the performance of sound package designs on “Vehicle A”.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2334
David Bogema, Gary Newton, Mark Stickler, Chris Hocking, Frank Syred
Abstract Realistically experiencing the sound and vibration data through actually listening to and feeling the data in a full-vehicle NVH simulator remarkably aids the understanding of the NVH phenomena and speeds up the decision-making process. In the case of idle vibration, the sound and vibration of the idle condition are perceived simultaneously, and both need to be accurately reproduced simultaneously in a simulated environment in order to be properly evaluated and understood. In this work, a case is examined in which a perceived idle quality of a vehicle is addressed. In this case, two very similar vehicles, with the same powertrain but somewhat different body structures, are compared. One has a lower subjective idle quality rating than the other, despite the vehicles being so similar.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2343
Jian Pan, Yuksel Gur
Abstract OEMs are racing to develop lightweight vehicles as government regulations now mandate automakers to nearly double the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks by 2025. Lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites are being used as structural members in vehicle body and suspension components. The reduction in weight in structural panels increases noise transmission into the passenger compartment. This poses a great challenge in vehicle sound package development since simply increasing weight in sound package components to reduce interior noise is no longer an option [1]. This paper discusses weight saving approaches to reduce noise level at the sources, noise transmission paths, and transmitted noise into the passenger compartment. Lightweight sound package materials are introduced to treat and reduce airborne noise transmission into multi-material lightweight body structure.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2228
Kalyan Chakravarthy Addepalli, Natalie Remisoski, Anthony Sleath, Shyiping Liu
Abstract Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2171
Winston Spencer, Djamel Bouzit, Joseph Pace, Sudeep Dhillon
Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2273
Curtis Jones, Zhengyu Liu, Suhas Venkatappa, James Hurd
Abstract This paper presents the methodology of predicting vehicle level automotive air-handling system air-rush noise sound quality (SQ) using the sub-system level measurement. Measurement setup in both vehicle level and sub-system levels are described. To assess the air-rush noise SQ, both 1/3 octave band sound pressure level (SPL) and overall Zwicker's loudness are used. The “Sound Quality Correlation Functions (SQCF)” between sub-system level and vehicle level are developed for the specified climate control modes and vehicle segment defined by J.D. Power & Associates, while the Zwicker's loudness is calculated using the un-weighted predicted 1/3 octave band SPL. The predicting models are demonstrated in very good agreement with the measured data. The methodology is applied to the development of sub-system SQ requirement for upfront delivery of the optimum design to meet global customer satisfaction
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2245
Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani
Abstract A CAE method has been developed to address engine tonal noise and whine due to the excitation from a gerotor oil pump. The method involves a multidisciplinary approach including CFD, frequency-response structural analysis and acoustic analysis. The results from the application of the method applied to a couple of pumps with different designs are discussed. Engine tonal noise improvement through reduction in the excitation source from the pump and also stiffening the excitation path from the pump to the engine are studied. The effect of component modal alignment with oil pump orders is addressed as well.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2276
Zhengyu Liu, Donald Wozniak, Manfred Koberstein, Curtis Jones, Jan Xu, Suhas Venkatappa
Abstract Refrigerant flow-induced gurgling noise is perceived in automotive refrigerant systems. In this study, the condition of the gurgling generation is investigated at the vehicle level and the fundamental root cause is identified as the two-phase refrigerant flow entering the TXV for system equipped with variable displacement compressors. By conducting literature reviews, the acoustic characteristics of the flow patterns and the parameters affecting the flow regimes in horizontal and vertical tubes are summarized. Then the gurgling mechanism is explained as the intermittent flow is developed at the evaporator inlet. In the end, the improved and feasible design for avoiding the intermittent flow (slug, plug or churn flow) or minimizing its formation is proposed and verified in refrigerant subsystem (RSS) level. Finally, the guidelines for the attenuation and suppression of the gurgle are provided.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2307
Neil Figurella, Rick Dehner, Ahmet Selamet, Keith Miazgowicz, Ahsanul Karim, Ray Host
Abstract The effect of aerodynamically induced pre-swirl on the acoustic and performance characteristics of an automotive centrifugal compressor is studied experimentally on a steady-flow turbocharger facility. Accompanying flow separation, broadband noise is generated as the flow rate of the compressor is reduced and the incidence angle of the flow relative to the leading edge of the inducer blades increases. By incorporating an air jet upstream of the inducer, a tangential (swirl) component of velocity is added to the incoming flow, which improves the incidence angle particularly at low to mid-flow rates. Experimental data for a configuration with a swirl jet is then compared to a baseline with no swirl. The induced jet is shown to improve the surge line over the baseline configuration at all rotational speeds examined, while restricting the maximum flow rate. At high flow rates, the swirl jet increases the compressor inlet noise levels over a wide frequency range.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2275
Manfred Koberstein, Zhengyu Liu, Curtis Jones, Suhas Venkatappa
Abstract In the thermal expansion valve (TXV) refrigerant system, transient high-pitched whistle around 6.18 kHz is often perceived following air-conditioning (A/C) compressor engagements when driving at higher vehicle speed or during vehicle acceleration, especially when system equipped with the high-efficiency compressor or variable displacement compressor. The objectives of this paper are to conduct the noise source identification, investigate the key factors affecting the whistle excitation, and understand the mechanism of the whistle generation. The mechanism is hypothesized that the whistle is generated from the flow/acoustic excitation of the turbulent flow past the shallow cavity, reinforced by the acoustic/structural coupling between the tube structural and the transverse acoustic modes, and then transmitted to evaporator. To verify the mechanism, the transverse acoustic mode frequency is calculated and it is coincided to the one from measurement.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2335
Scott Amman, Francois Charette, Paul Nicastri, John Huber, Brigitte Richardson, Gint Puskorius, Yuksel Gur, Anthony Cooprider
Abstract Hands-free phone use is the most utilized use case for vehicles equipped with infotainment systems with external microphones that support connection to phones and implement speech recognition. Critically then, achieving hands-free phone call quality in a vehicle is problematic due to the extremely noisy nature of the vehicle environment. Noise generated by wind, mechanical and structural, tire to road, passengers, engine/exhaust, HVAC air pressure and flow are all significant contributors and sources of noise. Other factors influencing the quality of the phone call include microphone placement, cabin acoustics, seat position of the talker, noise reduction of the hands-free system, etc. This paper describes the work done to develop procedures and metrics to quantify the effects that influence the hands-free phone call quality.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2284
Chris Hocking, Simon Antonov, Arsham Shahlari
Abstract The higher cylinder peak pressure and pressure rise rate of modern diesel and gasoline fueled engines tend to increase combustion noise while customers demand lower noise. The multiple degrees of freedom in engine control and calibration mean there is more scope to influence combustion noise but this must first be measured before it can be balanced with other attributes. An efficient means to realize this is to calculate combustion noise from the in-cylinder pressure measurements that are routinely acquired as part of the engine development process. This publication reviews the techniques required to ensure accurate and precise combustion noise measurements. First, the dynamic range must be maximized by using an analogue to digital converter with sufficient number of bits and selecting an appropriate range in the test equipment.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2289
Joseph L. Stout, Vincent Solferino, Simon Antonov
Abstract Powerplant NVH decisions are sometimes made looking only at how the change impacts either the source radiated noise level or the source vibration. Depending on the engine configuration, those can be good approximations, but they can also be very misleading. By combining both noise sources into a vehicle equivalent noise level a much better analysis can be made of the impact of any proposed design change on the customer perceived loudness. This paper will investigate several different scenarios and identify how the airborne and the structureborne paths combine for I4, V6 and V8 engine configurations. Similar relationships will be shown for path as well as the source contributions.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2288
Abdelkrim Zouani, Joseph Stout, Salah Hanim, Changshen Gan, Gabriela Dziubinschi, William Baldwin, Zhi Fu
Abstract A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0257
Jianbo Lu, Dimitar Filev, Sanghyun Hong
Abstract This paper proposes an approach to determine driver's driving behavior, style or habit during vehicle handling maneuvers and heavy traction and braking events in real-time. It utilizes intelligence inferred from driver's control inputs, vehicle dynamics states, measured signals, and variables processed inside existing control modules such as those of anti-lock braking, traction control, and electronic stability control systems. The algorithm developed for the proposed approach has been experimentally validated and shows the effectiveness in characterizing driver's handling behavior. Such driver behavior can be used for personalizing vehicle electronic controls, driver assistant and active safety systems, and the other vehicle control features.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0252
Ryan Ahmed, Javier Gazzarri, Simona Onori, Saeid Habibi, Robyn Jackey, Kevin Rzemien, Jimi Tjong, Jonathan LeSage
Abstract Electric vehicles are receiving considerable attention because they offer a more efficient and sustainable transportation alternative compared to conventional fossil-fuel powered vehicles. Since the battery pack represents the primary energy storage component in an electric vehicle powertrain, it requires accurate monitoring and control. In order to effectively estimate the battery pack critical parameters such as the battery state of charge (SOC), state of health (SOH), and remaining capacity, a high-fidelity battery model is needed as part of a robust SOC estimation strategy. As the battery degrades, model parameters significantly change, and this model needs to account for all operating conditions throughout the battery's lifespan. For effective battery management system design, it is critical that the physical model adapts to parameter changes due to aging.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0409
Larry Plourde, Michael Azzouz, Jeff Wallace, Mari Chellman
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper reviews the mass reduction and structural performance of aluminum, magnesium, and steel components for a lightweight multi material door design for a C/D segment passenger vehicle. Stiffness, durability, and crash requirements are assessed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1080
Eduardo J. Barrientos, Matti M. Maricq, Andre L. Boehman, James E. Anderson
Abstract A study and analysis of the relation of biodiesel chemical structures to the resulting soot characteristics and soot oxidative reactivity is presented. Soot samples generated from combustion of various methyl esters, alkanes, biodiesel and diesel fuels in laminar co-flow diffusion flames are analyzed to evaluate the impact of fuel-bound oxygen in fatty acid esters on soot oxidation behavior. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of soot samples collected from diffusion flames show that chemical variations in biodiesel ester compounds have an impact on soot oxidative reactivity and soot characteristics in contrast to findings reported previously in the literature. Soot derived from methyl esters with shorter alkyl chains, such as methyl butyrate and methyl hexanoate, exhibit higher reactivity than those with longer carbon chain lengths, such as methyl oleate, which are more representative of biodiesel fuels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0551
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, John V. Lasecki, John Hill, Xuming Su, John J. Bonnen
Abstract The fatigue strength and failure behavior of A5754-O adhesively bonded single lap joints by a hot-curing epoxy adhesive were investigated in this paper. The single lap joints tested include balanced substrate joints (meaning same thickness) and unbalanced substrate joints, involving combinations of different substrate thicknesses. Cyclic fatigue test results show that the fatigue strength of bonded joints increase with the increasing substrate thickness. SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) were employed to investigate the failure mode of the joints. Two fatigue failure modes, substrate failure and failure within the adhesive were found in the testing. The failure mode of the joint changes from cohesive failure to substrate failure as the axial load is decreased, which reveals a fatigue resistance competition between the adhesive layer and the aluminum substrate.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0537
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Xuming Su, Yung-Li Lee, Mingchao Guo, Chonghua Jiang, Zhen Li
Abstract Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1613
Nikhil Bolar, Thomas Buchler, Allen Li, Jeff Wallace
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The three key requirements of structural performance evaluation for vehicle development are NVH, durability and safety.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1490
Tony R. Laituri, Scott Henry, Kaye Sullivan
Abstract Injury distributions of belted drivers in 1998-2013 model-year light passenger cars/trucks in various types of real-world frontal crashes were studied. The basis of the analysis was field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). The studied variables were injury severity (n=2), occupant body region (n=8), and crash type (n=8). The two levels of injury were moderate-to-fatal (AIS2+) and serious-to-fatal (AIS3+). The eight body regions ranged from head/face to foot/ankle. The eight crash types were based on a previously-published Frontal Impact Taxonomy (FIT). The results of the study provided insights into the field data. For example, for the AIS2+ upper-body-injured drivers, (a) head and chest injury yield similar contributions, and (b) about 60% of all the upper-body injured drivers were from the combination of the Full-Engagement and Offset crashes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1489
Raed E. El-jawahri, Tony R. Laituri, Agnes S. Kim, Stephen W. Rouhana, Para V. Weerappuli
Abstract Transfer or response equations are important as they provide relationships between the responses of different surrogates under matched, or nearly identical loading conditions. In the present study, transfer equations for different body regions were developed via mathematical modeling. Specifically, validated finite element models of the age-dependent Ford human body models (FHBM) and the mid-sized male Hybrid III (HIII50) were used to generate a set of matched cases (i.e., 192 frontal sled impact cases involving different restraints, impact speeds, severities, and FHBM age). For each impact, two restraint systems were evaluated: a standard three-point belt with and without a single-stage inflator airbag. Regression analyses were subsequently performed on the resulting FHBM- and HIII50-based responses. This approach was used to develop transfer equations for seven body regions: the head, neck, chest, pelvis, femur, tibia, and foot.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0468
Mingxian Wang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Yong Yang
Abstract As the world's largest auto producer and consumer, China is both the most promising and complex market given the country's rapid economic growth, huge population, and many regional and segment preference differences. This research is aimed at developing data-driven demand models for customer preference analysis and prediction under a competitive market environment. Regional analysis is first used to understand the impact of geographical factors on customer preference. After a comprehensive data exploration, a customer-level mixed logit model is built to shed light on fast-growing vehicle segments in the Chinese auto market. By combining the data of vehicle purchase, consideration, and past choice, cross-shopping behaviors and brand influence are explicitly modeled in addition to the impact of customer demographics, usage behaviors, and attributes of vehicles.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0470
Joanna Rakowska, Amir Chator, Bruno Barthelemy, Michael Lee, Shawn Morgans, Jeffrey Laya, Gregory Zinn, Ching-Hung Chuang, Sreekanth Reddy Gondipalle
Abstract Designing a vehicle body involves meeting numerous performance requirements related to different attributes such as NVH, Durability, Safety, and others. Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) is an efficient way to develop a design that optimizes vehicle performance while minimizing the weight. Since a body design evolves in course of the product development cycle, it is essential to repeat the MDO process several times as a design matures and more accurate data become available. This paper presents a real life application of the MDO process to reduce weight while optimizing performance over the design cycle of the 2015 Mustang. The paper discusses the timing and results of the applied Multi-Disciplinary Optimization process. The attributes considered during optimization include Safety, Durability and Body NVH.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0510
Joy Hines Forsmark, Zachary Dowling, Kelsey Gibson, Caroline Mueller, Larry Godlewski, Jacob Zindel, James Boileau
Abstract Magnesium die-cast alloys are known to have a layered microstructure composed of: (1) An outer skin layer characterized by a refined microstructure that is relatively defect-free; and (2) A “core” (interior) layer with a coarser microstructure having a higher concentration of features such as porosity and externally solidified grains (ESGs). Because of the difference in microstructural features, it has been long suggested that removal of the surface layer by machining could result in reduced mechanical properties in tested tensile samples. To examine the influence of the skin layer on the mechanical properties, a series of round tensile bars of varying diameters were die-cast in a specially-designed mold using the AM60 Mg alloy. A select number of the samples were machined to different final diameters. Subsequently, all of the samples (as-cast as well as machined) were tested in tension.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0666
Chenguang Li, Fue-Sang Lien, Eugene Yee, Mike Dong
Abstract A deeper understanding of the complex phenomenology associated with the multiphase flow-induced noise and vibration in a dynamic valve is of critical importance to the automotive industry. To this purpose, a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model has been developed to simulate the complex processes that are responsible for the noise and vibration in a poppet valve. More specifically, an Eulerian multiphase flow model, a dynamic mesh and a user-defined function are utilized to facilitate the modeling of this complicated two-phase fluid-structure interaction problem. For a two-phase flow through the valve, our simulations showed that the deformation and breakup of gas bubbles in the gap between the poppet and the valve seat generates a vibration that arises primarily from the force imbalance between the spring and the two-phase fluid flow induced forces on the poppet.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1403
Yi lu Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar, Paul Watta, Xipeng Wang, Tianyu Wang
Abstract Side swipe accidents occur primarily when drivers attempt an improper lane change, drift out of lane, or the vehicle loses lateral traction. Past studies of lane change detection have relied on vehicular data, such as steering angle, velocity, and acceleration. In this paper, we use three physiological signals from the driver to detect lane changes before the event actually occurs. These are the electrocardiogram (ECG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and respiration rate (RR) and were determined, in prior studies, to best reflect a driver's response to the driving environment. A novel system is proposed which uses a Granger causality test for feature selection and a neural network for classification. Test results showed that for 30 lane change events and 60 non lane change events in on-the-road driving, a true positive rate of 70% and a false positive rate of 10% was obtained.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1280
Ahsanul Karim, Keith Miazgowicz, Brian Lizotte
The stable operation of turbocharger compressor at low flow rates is important to provide low end engine torque for turbocharged automotive engines. Therefore, it is important to be able to predict the lowest flow rates at different turbocharger speeds at which the surge phenomenon occurs. For this purpose, three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed on the turbocharger compressor including the entire compressor wheel and volute. The wheel consisted of six main and six splitter blades. Historically, flow bench and engine testing has been used to detect surge phenomenon. However a complete 3D CFD analysis can be performed upfront in the design to calculate low end compressor surge performance. The analyses will help understand the fundamental mechanisms of stalled flow, the surge phenomenon, and impact of compressor inlet conditions on surge.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1336
Meisam Mehravaran, Yi Zhang
Abstract Underhood thermal management is a challenging problem in automotive industry. In order to make sure that vehicle works efficiently, there should be enough airflow through the cooling system so that the consequent heat rejection would be adequate. In idle condition the required air flow is provided by the cooling fan so a better understanding and an accurate predictive CAE tool for fan is very beneficial. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been extensively used in predicting aerodynamic performance of automotive components. In the current work, the airflow performance of a fan, shroud and radiator assembly was simulated using Moving Reference Method (MRF) method. Although it is less expensive than Sliding Mesh (SM) method, the CAE results compare well with the test data. The simulation was carried out over 10+ different shrouds and the effect of geometrical parameters on airflow was investigated.
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