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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1486
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0242
Yakov Fradkin, Michel Cordonnier, Andrew Henry, David Newton
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this talk we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0243
Zhenghui Sha, Veronica Saeger, Mingxian Wang, Yan Fu, Wei Chen
For achieving viable mass customization of products, product configuration is often performed that requires deep understanding on the impact of product features and feature combinations on customers’ purchasing behaviors. Existing literature has been traditionally focused on analyzing the impact of common customer demographics and engineering attributes with discrete choice modeling approaches. This paper aims to expand discrete choice modeling through the incorporation of optional product features, such as customers’ positive or negative comments and their satisfaction ratings of their purchased products, beyond those commonly used attributes. The paper utilizes vehicle as an example to highlight the range of optional features currently underutilized in existing models. First, data analysis techniques are used to identify areas of particular consumer interest in regards to vehicle selection. 
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0316
Kiran Mallela, Andrey Ilinich, S Luckey, Danielle Zeng, Yuan Gan
Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0364
Hiroko Ohtani, Kevin Ellwood, Gustavo Pereira, Thiago Chinen, Siddharthan Selvasekar
A variety of performance fluids and lubricants are used in automobiles and in automotive manufacturing processes. These include engine oils, driveline fluids, paints, forming lubricants, and many others. Controlling the rheological properties of these fluids is crucial to achieve desired performance and product qualities. In this study, we have applied Extensional Rheometry to gain a new insight on the performance of automotive fluids. Traditionally, rheological experiments focused on the study under shearing flow. However, the real operations contain both shear and ‘extensional’ (or ‘elongational’) flow components. In this paper, we have investigated the extensional behavior of automotive fluids using a Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometer. (The extensional viscosity express how “sticky” the fluid is, whereas shear viscosity means how “slimy” the fluid is.)
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1460
Nitesh Jadhav, Linda Zhao, Senthilkumar Mahadevan, Bill Sherwood, Krishnakanth Aekbote, Dilip Bhalsod
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility of cross-sector cooperation to cost-efficiently reduce these emissions. Specifically, we built a bi-level optimization model with renewable energy certificate (REC) purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of the REC purchasing policy. This policy allows the transportation sector to purchase RECs, which are created by renewable generators built by the electricity generation sector, in order to gain extra emission allowance. We conclude from simulations that REC purchasing policy helps to lower the total cost to society while reducing GHG emissions significantly. Simulation results also show that REC purchasing policy can create electricity capacity beyond demand, which can potentially be used to make clean fuel and further cut emissions from existing fossil fuel powered vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1696
John F. Locke, Stephen Schmidt
This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. This antenna design provides horizontal polarization and omni directional coverage along the horizon provided by an electrically small loop but with superior efficiencies. In addition, the design allows for relatively low profile mounting desired by automotive styling. Ideal for remote keyless entry application this antenna design can also be used as part of a diversity system for WiFi, V2V, V2X, cellular or Bluetooth.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0101
Alexandru Gurghian, Francois Charette
This paper presents the implementation of a 1/10th scale track with multiple vehicles that serves as a framework used for introducing new employees, interns or groups of student to autonomous vehicle and ADAS technologies. The framework allows new generations of potential engineers to experience software development at the intersection between computer science and engineering. Additionally, the framework can serve as a gentle and exciting introduction to automotive software development. The proposed system is based on an off the shelf 1/10th scale remote controlled car and is equipped with an Intel NUC, a full-fledged computer powered by an Intel i7 processor, providing sufficient compute power for computationally expensive perception and control algorithm. Steering and throttle actuators are accessible through a microcontroller connected to the Intel NUC via USB, which also acts as a safety controller that allows to override control signals with a remote control.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1688
Hassene Jammoussi, Imad Makki
The usage of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor to control the the air-fuel ratio (AFR) in gasoline engines allowed to significantly improve the efficiency of the combustion process and reduce tailpipe emissions. The diagnostics of this sensor is very important to ensure proper operation and indicate the need for service when the sensor fails to accurately determine the AFR upstream of the catalyst. California air resources board (CARB) has imposed several legislations around the operation of the UEGO sensor and particularly when specific faults would cause tailpipe emissions to exceed certain limits. In this paper, the possible sensor faults are reviewed, and a non-intrusive diagnostics monitor is proposed to detect, identify and estimate the magnitude of the fault present. This paper extends the approach in [1] where technical details are emphasized and algorithm improvements are discussed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0493
Li Lu, Sean West, Stacey Raines, Jin Zhou, Paul Hoke
Traditionally, Knee Air Bag (KAB) is constructed of a woven nylon or polyester fabric. Recently, Ford developed an injection molded air bag system for the passenger side called Active Glove Box (AGB). This system integrates a bladder welded between the glove box outer and inner door. This new system is smaller and lighter, thus improving the roominess and other creature comforts inside the passenger cabin, while providing equivalent restraint performance as traditional knee airbag system. This patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations within the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to designers. The first application of this technology will be standard equipment on the 2015 Ford Mustang. Given that this technology is first in industry, it was a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the system as there is no benchmark to compare the technology against. To overcome this challenge, a CAE driven design methodology was chosen.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0887
Dairene Uy, George Pranis, Anthony Morelli, Arup Gangopadhyay, Alexander Michlberger, Nicholas Secue, Mike Kinzel, Tina Adams, Kevin Streck, Michael Lance, Andrew Wereszczak
Deposit formation on the turbocharger compressor housing can lead to compressor efficiency degradation, which leads to loss of fuel economy and increase in CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in these deposits which arise from oil aerosols and particulates from the closed crankcase ventilation, fIve different lubricants were run in a fired engine test to evaluate turbocharger compressor efficiency. Basestock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and backplate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1149
Yanan Zhao, Ming Kuang, Bernard Nefcy, Dan Colvin, Stuart Ford, Zheng Liu
Regenerative braking in hybrid electric vehicles is an essential feature to achieve the maximum fuel economy benefit of hybridization. In response to the driver’s brake pedal application, the feature provides braking by operating the motor in the powertrain as a generator that converts the vehicle’s kinetic energy, otherwise lost to heat as in conventional vehicles, to electrical energy for charging the battery. The primary goal of regenerative braking controls is to maximize kinematic energy recuperation while achieving transparent and consistent braking performance to the driver’s brake request. The P2 type parallel hybrid vehicles refer to hybrid electric vehicles with an electric motor integrated in between an engine with a disconnect clutch and a step ratio transmission with a torque converter. Compared to power split hybrids, the P2 configuration introduces challenges for regenerative braking controls due to the torque converter and step ratio transmission.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1159
William D. Treharne, Charles Badger, Douglas Martin, Mohamed Mansour, Mark Smith
Hybrid and Electric vehicles present special challenges when developing a customer-selectable Economy mode, as the vehicles are already energy-efficient by design. This paper analyzes the sources of sub-optimal fuel economy in: energy generation, vehicle usage, and customer usage. The paper first reviews the effects on customer acceptance from other implementations of Economy Mode, using “Things Gone Wrong” data from customer surveys on competitive vehicles. This information was used as lessons learned for the new design. The paper then discusses which vehicle functional changes can be implemented to improve fuel economy while maintaining acceptable vehicle performance, along with acceptable noise, vibration, and harshness objectives. The vehicle parameters studied in this paper include: 12V loads, engine operating commands of torque and speed, EV operating limits, customer demand inputs, regenerative braking, cruise control operation, and climate control function.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1086
Cagri Sever, Todd Brewer, Scott Eeley, Xingfu Chen, Ruichen Jin, Emad Khalil, Michael Herr
For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is the thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes many different operating conditions while it is cold and during the warmed up condition. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Integrated exhaust manifold heads are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. For field risk assessment, the customer usage profiles are analyzed and corresponding duty cycles are built.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1076
Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Esra Demren
Engine and transmission oil pumps are one of the primary sources of tonal noise or whine inside the vehicles. The whine is specially a cause for NVH concern during vehicle coast down when the engine background noise acting as sound masking for the whine is decreasing. To prevent and/or reduce the risk of oil pump-induced tonal noise, upfront NVH evaluation of the oil pump is required. Through analytical CAE approach oil pump pressure pulsations corresponding to different orders of the pump can be evaluated. And modifications to the oil pump design can be studied in order to reduce the pressure peaks and/or breaking down the peaks over their frequency spectrums to introduce self-masking effect. In this presentation, a couple of CAE case studies addressing oil pump-induced whine in an I4 during coast down along with test data are reviewed. The studied pump is of a variable displacement vane type.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1082
Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Thomas Sanders, Mikhail A. Ejakov, Reda Adimi, Alexander Boucke, Jochen Lang, Gunter Knoll
Strict requirements for fuel economy and emissions are the main drivers for recent automotive engine downsizing and an increase of boosting technologies. For high power density engines, among other design challenges, valve and guide interactions are very important. Undesirable contact interactions may lead to poor fuel economy, engine noise, valve stem to valve guide seizure, and in a severe case, engine failure. In this paper, the valve stem and valve guide contact behavior is investigated using computational models for the camshaft drive in push and pull directions under several misalignment conditions for an engine with roller finger follower (RFF) valvetrain and overhead cam configuration. An engine assembly analysis with the appropriate assembly and thermal boundary conditions are first carried out using the finite element solver ABAQUS.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1171
Sury Janarthanam, Bhaskara Rao boddakayala, Neil Burrows
Automotive vehicle manufactures are implementing electrification technologies in many of their vehicle line ups to improve fuel economy and meet emission standards. As a part of electrification, High Voltage (HV) battery packs are being integrated alongside internal combustion engines. Recent generation HV batteries allow extensive power usage, by allowing greater charge & discharge currents & broader state of charge (SOC) ranges. The heat generated during the charge-discharge cycles has to be managed effectively to maintain battery cell performance as well as battery cell life. This situation requires a cooling system with higher efficiency. In general, HV battery packs are either air cooled using cabin interior air or liquid cooled using powertrain cooling systems. Each cooling system supports battery packs heat rejection using different methods and components. As known, each method has its own advantages and shortcomings.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0038
Corwin Stout, Milos Milacic, Fazal Syed, Ming Kuang
In recent years, we have witnessed increased discrepancy between fuel economy numbers reported in accordance with EPA testing procedures and real world fuel economy reported by drivers. The debates range from needs for new testing procedures to the fact that driver complaints create one-sided distribution; drivers that get better fuel economy do not complain about the fuel economy, but only the ones whose fuel economy falls short of expectations. In this paper, we demonstrate fuel economy improvements that can be obtained if the driver is properly sophisticated in the skill of driving. Implementation of SmartGauge with EcoGuide into the Ford C-MAX Hybrid in 2013 helped drivers improve their fuel economy on hybrid vehicles. Further development of this idea led to the EcoCoach that would be implemented into all future Ford vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0078
Alexander Katriniok, Peter Kleibaum, Christian Ress, Lutz Eckstein
Today, automated and autonomous vehicles mostly rely on ego vehicle sensors such as cameras, radar or LiDAR sensors that are limited in their sensing capability and range. Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication has the potential to appropriately complement these sensors and even allow for a cooperative, proactive interaction of vehicles. As such, V2X communication might play a vital role on the way to smart and efficient traffic solutions. In the public funded research project UK Autodrive, Ford is currently investigating and experimentally evaluating V2X based applications like Electronic Emergency Brake Light (EEBL), Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA), Emergency Vehicle Warning (EVW) and Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) based on dedicated short range communication (DSRC) in the 5.9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, the novel application Intersection Priority Management (IPM) is part of the research project.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0239
Seth Bryan, Maria Guido, David Ostrowski, N Khalid Ahmed
While excluding component changes, it is desirable to find methods to increase electric vehicle (EV) driving range and reduce performance variability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. One strategy to improve EV range could be to increase the charge power limit of the traction battery, which allows for more brake energy recovery. This paper investigates how increasing the charge power limit could affect EV range in real world usage with respect to driving behavior. Big Data collected from Ford employee vehicles in Michigan was analyzed to assess the impact of regenerative braking power on EV range. My Ford Mobile data was used to find correlation to drivers nationwide based on brake score statistics. Estimated results show incremental improvements in EV range from increased charge power levels. Subsequently, this methodology and process could be applied to make future design decisions based on evolving driving habits.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0588
Adithya P Reddy Ranga, Gopichandra Surnilla, Joseph Thomas, Ethan sanborn, Mark linenberg
Dual fuel injection systems, like PFI+DI (port fuel injection + direct injection system) are being increasingly used in gasoline engine applications to increase the engine performance, fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. At a given engine operating condition, the air/fuel error is a function of the fraction of fuel injected by each of the fuel systems. If the fraction of fuel from each of the fuel system is changed at a given operating condition, the fuel system error will change as well making it challenging to learn the fuel system errors. This paper aims at describing the adaptive fueling control algorithm to estimate the fuel error contribution from each individual fuel system. Considering the fuel injection system slope errors to be the significant cause for air-fuel errors, a model structure was developed to calculate the fuel system adaptive correction factor as a function of changing fraction of fueling between the fuel systems.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0605
Anthony D'Amato, Yan Wang, Dimitar Filev, Enrique Remes
Government regulations for fuel economy and emission standards have driven the development of technologies that improve engine performance and efficiency. These technologies are enabled by an increased number of actuators and increasingly sophisticated control algorithms. As a consequence, engine control calibration time, which entails sweeping all actuators at each speed-load point to determine the actuator combination that meets constraints and delivers ideal performance, has increased significantly. In this work we present two adaptive optimization methods, both based on an indirect adaptive control framework, which improve calibration efficiency by searching for the optimal process inputs without visiting all input combinations explicitly. The difference between the methods is implementation of the algorithm in steady-state vs dynamic operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0607
Nahid Pervez, Ace Koua Kue, Adarsh Appukuttan, John Bogema, Michael Van Nieuwstadt
Designing a control system that can robustly detect faulted emission control devices under any environmental and driving conditions is a very challenging task for any OEM. To gain confidence in the control strategy and the values of tunable parameters requires that the test vehicles are subjected to their limits during the development process. Complexity of modern powertrain systems along with the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) monitors with multidimensional thresholds make it very difficult to anticipate all the possible worst case situations. To find the optimum solution of this problem in traditional calibration process can be very time and resource intensive. One possible solution is to take a data driven calibration approach. In this method, large amount of data is collected by collaboration of different groups working on same powertrain. Later the collected data is mined to find the optimum values of tunable parameters for respective vehicle functions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1236
Shuitao Yang, Lihua Chen, Mohammed Alam, Fan Xu, Yan Zhou
Boost converter is used to boost the high voltage (HV) battery voltage to a higher dc-link voltage in some HEV traction inverter applications. The main advantages for the system with Boost converter are: 1) using the boost converter, traction inverter is de-coupled from battery voltage fluctuations causing it to be over-sized, 2) with higher dc-link voltage, traction inverter could achieve higher torque capability for motor especially at high speed condition. When designing this Boost converter, the switching frequency is a key parameter for the converter design. Switching frequency is directly related to the power loss (specifically switching loss) of IGBTs of a Boost converter. Moreover, it will also change the converter operation, causing different inductor ripple current, input battery ripple current as well as input capacitor ripple current. Therefore, the selection of switching frequency is very important to the performance of both active and passive components.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1246
Fan Xu, Lihua Chen, Shuitao Yang, Yan Zhou, Mohammed Alam
Power modules play a key role in traction inverters for vehicle electrification applications. The harsh automotive operating environment is a big challenge for power modules. The paper highlights the challenges for power modules usage in electrified vehicles (xEVs), and proposes a design verification procedure for such application in order to ensure safe and reliable operation under all conditions. First, power modules operate in all climate zones and are exposed to a wide ambient temperature range underhood from -40°C to 105°C. A typical automotive power module should therefore withstand a junction temperature from -40°C to 150°C without exceeding its safe operating area (SOA), e.g. avalanche breakdown voltage, maximum current, and thermal limit. Second, an inductive induced high voltage spike could be generated during the power semiconductor fast switching at high voltage and high current conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1265
Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey, Breana Cappuccilli, Ghassan Kridli
The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1271
David Wright, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
High-strength aluminum alloys such as 7075 can be formed using advanced manufacturing methods such as hot stamping. Hot stamping utilizes an elevated temperature blank and the high pressure stamping contact of the forming die to simultaneously quench and form the sheet. However, changes in the thermal history induced by hot stamping may increase this alloy’s stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility; a common corrosion concern of 7000 series alloys. This work applied the breaking load method for SCC evaluation of hot stamped AA7075-T6 B-pillar panels that had been artificially aged by two different artificial aging practices (one-step and two-step). The breaking load strength of the specimens provided quantitative data that was used to compare the effects of tensile load, duration, alloy, and heat treatment on SCC behavior.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1270
Xiaoming Chen
As future vehicles need to improve fuel economy, the use of magnesium for lightweight component is increasing to enable fuel consumption reductions. The finite element modeling of magnesium, especially at limit states can be improved by incorporating shear behavior. Three shear strain coupon test samples were developed for magnesium alloys. The samples generated shear failures in the specimens while using a uniaxial servo-hydraulic load frame. Three dimensional digital image correlation was used to optically measure the full-field strain on the surface of the test specimens. Finite element simulations were conducted on selected shear samples for steel and aluminum using magnesium material input to locate shear zones. Initiators were created to force material damage to initiate in the shear zones. The samples were tested using cast magnesium AM60 and extruded magnesium EZ20. The results showed that damage and material separation in all samples started at the initiators.
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