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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1151
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1237
Xiaoming Chen, Jeff L. Conklin, Mike Carpenter, Jeff Wallace, Cynthia Flanigan, David Wagner, Vijitha Kiridena, Stephane Betrancourt, Jason Logsdon
As part of the Ford and Vehma collaborative efforts on the DOE sponsored project on Multi Materials Lightweight Vehicle, several automotive chassis components were identified for development and evaluation on a lightweight passenger vehicle. The lightweight prototype chassis parts included composite and hollow steel coil springs, carbon fiber wheels, tires with a tall and narrow design, hollow steel stabilizer bars, and an aluminum front cradle. The lightweight chassis parts development included mixed and multi materials to investigate potential weight savings. The glass fiber reinforced composite front spring and hollow steel rear springs achieved 59% and 37% weight savings respectively. Both springs passed required component tests and survived proving ground durability test with no issues detected. For the lightweight tall narrow tires, evaluations were conducted on three distinct sets of tires with varying material constructions and final weight in the range of 17 pounds per tire.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1236
John Jaranson, Meraj Ahmed
This paper describes the design, prototyping, and validation approaches for interior subsystems of the Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV). Case studies are presented for two of the interior subsystems: the instrument panel/cross-car beam and the front seat structures. Both of these subsystems took advantage of the weight saving opportunities presented by carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. Analytical methodologies are detailed along with prototype build techniques for each. Design weight savings of 30% for the instrument panel/cross-car beam and 17% for the seat structures are achieved. Physical test results are presented that validate the design and the weight savings.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0981
Patrick Phlips
A first order analytical vehicle fuel consumption model is developed, based on an input/output description of engine fuel consumption and transmission efficiency. The model for the engine sub-system has been described previously for naturally aspirated spark ignition engines. Here it is shown that the model also applies for boosted engines in the lower half of the load range and for Diesel engines at all loads. The fuel consumption is expressed in units of Mean Effective Pressure (MEP), which normalizes for engine size and speed. At typical operating conditions, the Fuel MEP is nearly independent of engine speed and increases approximately linearly with engine load (Willans line). The slope reflects the indicated efficiency and the pumping trend, and the offset reflects engine combustion, friction, and pumping losses at zero load. The magnitude of the slope and offset are shown to follow from established engine properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1153
Kingsly Samuel, David Brigham, Mark Jennings
The Powersplit transaxle is a key subsystem of Ford Motor Company’s hybrid electric vehicle line up. The powersplit transaxle consists of a planetary gear, four reduction gears and various types of bearings. During vehicle operation, the transaxle is continuously lubricated by a lube oil pump. All these components consume power to operate and they contribute to the total transaxle losses which ultimately influences energy usage and fuel economy. In order to enable further model-based development and optimization of the transaxle design relative to vehicle energy usage it is essential to establish a physics-based transaxle model with losses distributed across components, including gears, bearings etc. In this work, such a model has been developed. The model accounts for individual bearing losses (speed, torque and temperature dependency), gear mesh losses, lube pump loss and oil churning loss.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Objective: Investigate statistical effects of repeated measures design in FCW (warning vs. no-warning ) evaluation Background: Repeated measures designs are often used in FCW testing despite concerns that 1st exposure creates expectancy effects which may dilute or bias outcomes Method: 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= no warning; B=FCW). They drove in a high-fidelity, motion-base simulator with a visual distraction task. After some 25 minutes of driving a simulated nighttime rural highway, a high-intensity forward collision threat arose during the distraction task. Response time was analyzed. Results: There was evidence of differential carryover and significant Period 1 vs. 2 effects which dilute the magnitude of difference between FCW and no warning relative to 1st exposure only. Also there was a trend toward slower response with no-warning after FCW exposure as first exposure than after no-warning as first exposure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0511
Bradford Johnson, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Increasing fuel economy is a high priority of the automotive industry due to consumer demand and government regulations. High strength aluminum alloys such as AA7075-T6 can be used in strength-critical automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight and thus improve fuel economy. However, these aluminum alloys are known to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for thick plate. The level of susceptibility to SCC must be determined before a material is implemented. ASTM standards exist that generate semi-quantitative data primarily for use in screening materials for SCC. For the purposes of this work ASTM G139 (breaking load method) has been used to evaluate sheet AA7075-T6 for use in automotive applications. A tensile fixture applying a constant strain was used to quantitatively measure residual strength of the material after exposure to a corrosive environment.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0466
Boxiao Chen, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor
Greenhouse gas emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, the light duty vehicle (LDV) and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries recently due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the LDV and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. An analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal costs and CO2 emissions for both sectors. The model includes electric vehicles, as well as conventional, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles that can be fueled by either gasoline or NG.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1615
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, John Huber, Jeff Wallace
Ford Motor Company and Magna International Inc., co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, have collaborated on a lightweight vehicle concept project that uses advanced material solutions to achieve a nearly 25% weight savings over the reference vehicle. Lightweight design actions on radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin generate vehicle interior acoustic degradation due to the reduction of panel surface mass. In order to reduce this deficiency, an MMLV vehicle sound package development study was conducted to improve NVH performance of MMLV with industry leading ultra-light weight sound package technologies. Our goal was to improve acoustical performance of MMLV by 2 dB without increasing the total sound package weight of the “Vehicle A” which is the baseline vehicle for MMLV.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1614
Derek Board, Yijung Chen, Omar Faruque, Cortney Stancato, James Cheng, Nikhil Bolar, Sreevidhya Anandavally
The Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (“MMLV”) is a joined lightweight vehicle development project between Ford and Magna International, 50% co-funded by US Department of Energy (DOE) and Canadian Provincial grants. The goal of the project is to use lightweight material systems and manufacturing technologies to achieve significant overall weight reduction and demonstrate viability of such design by manufacturing a limited number of prototypes and by proving out attribute performance through tests. This paper presents a summary of the MMLV design development for safety, supported by extensive use of CAE analysis and crash testing of prototypes. Safety design was focused to meet critical crash modes including NCAP full frontal impact, IIHS offset deformable barrier (ODB) impact, Low speed damageability (LSD), Side pole impact and Offset rear impact. A list of critical safety requirements pertaining to the response of the structure were chosen to drive MMLV design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0407
Timothy W. Skszek, Matthew Zaluzec, Jeff Conklin, David Wagner
Title: Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project Overview Authors: Magna International: Tim Skszek & Jeff Conklin Ford Motor Company: Matthew Zaluzec and David Wagner Abstract: The Multimaterial Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance, occupant safety and utility of the baseline production vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-1 vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1-liter 3 cylinder engine, resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0677
Marcin Marek Okarmus, Rifat Keribar, Rob Zdrodowski, Arup Gangopadhyay
Valvetrain friction can represent a substantial portion of overall engine friction, especially at low operating speed. This paper describes the methodology for predictive modeling of frictional losses in the direct-acting mechanical bucket tappet-type valvetrain. The proposed modeling technique combines advanced mathematical models based on established theories of Hertzian contact, hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), asperity contact of rough surfaces, flash temperature, and lubricant rheology with detailed measurements of lubricant properties and surface finish, driven by a detailed analysis of valvetrain system kinematics and dynamics. The contributions of individual friction components to the overall valvetrain frictional loss were identified and quantified. Calculated valvetrain friction was validated against motored valvetrain friction torque measurements on two engines.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
Abstract In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker-Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Abstract Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Abstract Adhesive bonding technology has gained ever-increasing significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum (Al) alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. Though these challenges were recently overcome for steel-adhesive joints using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, the difference in acoustic impedances of steel and Al leads to a lack of robustness in utilizing the same algorithm for Al-adhesive joints. Here, we present the results from using a modified version of this technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 15-MHz, 52-pixel, 10 mm × 10 mm matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain ultrasonic pulse echoes from joint interfaces, analysis of which produced C-scan images of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1616
Lindita Bushi, Timothy Skszek, David Wagner
Regulation requirements such as the 2020 CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standard, growing public demand, and increased fuel prices are pushing auto manufacturers worldwide to increase fuel economy through incorporation of lightweight materials in newly-designed vehicle structures. This paper is aimed at communicating the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) study which compares the lightweight auto parts of the new multi-material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) to the 2013 Ford Fusion baseline vehicle. The MMLV design comprised of materials and technologies which are commercially available, achieving an overall 364 kg (23%) mass reduction, enabling engine downsizing. The LCA results project a total life cycle mass-induced fuel savings of 3,642 liters (or 962 gallons) and combined cycle fuel economy of 34 mpg (6.9 l/100 km), as compared to 28 mpg (8.4 l/100 km) for the 2013 Ford Fusion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1111
David Cho, Rohit Gupta, Edward Dai, James McCallum, Gregory Pietron, Matthew Shelton, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky
Trajectory optimization (optimal control) techniques can be exploited to assess achievable performance and feasibility for a given powertrain to meet specified targets, define and cascade targets from system level to subsystem level, drive hardware design modifications, assess calibration and control algorithm improvement opportunities, and develop calibration guidelines. They can also reveal novel actuator coordination patterns and system operation strategies. Optimal control of transmission clutch engagement during launch has received much attention in the literature as it is critical for drivability of vehicles with automated manual and dual clutch transmission. Related problems of robust optimal control have also been studied. For turbocharged engines with dual clutch transmissions, intricate trade-offs exist between early clutch engagement to provide responsiveness and more gradual engagement to bring engine speed and boost pressure higher for faster overall acceleration.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations on lean-burn gasoline applications. After accounting for cold-start emissions, stoichiometric emissions, and engineering tolerances, target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. 30 s lean/10 s rich tests were performed on a reduced-OSC Pd/Rh TWC operating at 550oC and different volumes of a Cu/zeolite SCR catalyst operating at 330 C, where the NO concentration was held at 220 ppm during the lean periods and varied from 500 to 2000 ppm during the rich periods. The NOx slip target was satisfied with the equivalent of 3.3L of SCR volume and 1500 ppm NO rich. Reducing the OSC in the TWC would increase its NH3 yield, but some OSC is needed for stoichiometric NOx lightoff, warmed-up 3-way activity, steam reforming of the HC during the rich purge periods, and diagnostic capabilities.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1735
Robert Wade, Jerry C. Hsieh
Exhaust manifold design is one of the more challenging engine components due to the harsh thermal and sever vibration environment. Extremely high exhaust gas temperatures and dynamic loading combine to subject the manifold to high cyclic stress with downgraded material fatigue strength. A long service life before a fatigue failure is the objective in exhaust manifold design. Accumulation of fatigue damage can occur from dynamic loading or thermal loading. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is a primary mechanism for accumulating fatigue damage. TMF typically occurs when a vehicle driving cycles has operating conditions that repeatedly change the exhaust gas temperature between hot and cold. Another way to experience temperature cycling is through splash quenching. Splash quenching has been analyzed and found to rapidly accumulate fatigue damage. An experimental and analytical method is presented to quantify splash quenching and the impact on exhaust manifold durability.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1592
Donald F. Tandy, Jason Colborn, Jung C. Bae, Clay Coleman, Robert Pascarella
The concept of vehicle understeer and oversteer has been well studied and equations, test methods, and test results have been published for many decades. This concept has a specific definition in the steady-state driving range as opposed to quantification in highly transient limit handling events. There has been at least one article published in the last several years relating to vehicle dynamic oversteer and understeer somehow measured in transient handling events. There have also been some researchers who have attempted to measure steady-state performance in a test where tires are sliding and spinning due to not enough available traction to maintain a constant speed required in the test protocol. These types of tests are a real challenge to some vehicles and therefore cannot measure a steady state metrics such as understeer.
2014-09-22
Article
Last week, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke drove the sixth-generation Ford Mustang in a day-long test on California mountain roads. Surprisingly, his favorite model packs a 2.3-L four-cylinder turbo under the hood.
2014-07-23
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Tuesday that Paul Mascarenas, Chief Technical Officer and Vice President, Research and Advanced Engineering, will retire after 32 years at Ford, effective Oct. 1. Mascarenas, an SAE Fellow, joined Ford in 1982 and served in leadership positions in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States in product planning, program management, body engineering, and powertrain.
2014-07-10
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Thursday the establishment of the Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship. The scholarship fund, a $1 million program that provides financial assistance to outstanding students pursuing degrees in automotive engineering, honors former CEO Alan Mulally.
2014-06-27
Article
Ford Motor Co. debuted this week the only five-row side-curtain airbag in the automotive industry, according to a company release. The airbag, which is featured in the 2015 Transit 15-passenger wagon, is the largest in any Ford vehicle. 
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0267
André Ricardo Marchezan, Mauro Andreassa
The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0517
Javier Castellano, Anita Chaudhari, Jim Bromham
The regeneration process of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists of an increase in the engine exhaust gas temperature by using post injections and/or exhaust fuel injection during a period of time in order to burn previously trapped soot. The DPF regeneration is usually performed during a real drive cycle, with continuously changing driving conditions. The quantity of post injection/exhaust fuel to use for regeneration is calculated using a combination of an open loop term based on engine speed, load and exhaust gas flow and a closed loop term based on an exhaust gas temperature target and the feedback from a number of sensors. Due to the nature of the system and the slow response of the closed loop term for correcting large deviations, the authority of the fuel calculation is strongly biased to the open loop. However, the open loop fuel calculation might not be accurate enough to provide adequate temperature tracking due to several disturbances in the system.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1105
Federico Perini, Adam Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz, Dipankar Sahoo, Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0283
Usman Asad, Prasad Divekar, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), smokeless rich combustion, and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) provide for cleaner combustion with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions from compression-ignition engines. However, these strategies vary significantly in their implementation requirements, combustion characteristics, operability limits as well as sensitivity to boundary conditions such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and intake temperature. In this work, a detailed analysis of the aforementioned LTC strategies has been carried out on a high-compression ratio, single-cylinder diesel engine. The effects of intake boost, EGR quantity/temperature, engine speed, injection scheduling and injection pressure on the operability limits have been empirically determined and correlated with the combustion stability and performance metrics.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0595
Ioan Felician Campean, Ed Henshall, Brian Rutter
Automotive Product Development organisations are challenged with ever increasing levels of systems complexity driven by the introduction of new technologies to address environmental concerns and enhance customer satisfaction within a highly competitive and cost conscious market. The technical difficulty associated with the engineering of complex automotive systems is compounded by the increase in sophistication of the control systems needed to manage the integration of technology packages. Most automotive systems have an electro-mechanical structure with control and software features embedded within the system. The conventional methods for design analysis and synthesis are engineering discipline focused (mechanical, electrical, electronic, control, software).
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