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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1154
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2362
Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy, Mark Stickler, Ming-Ran Lee
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, character-ization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Gener-ally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1111
David Cho, Rohit Gupta, Edward Dai, James McCallum, Gregory Pietron, Matthew Shelton, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky
Abstract A direct trajectory optimization approach is developed to assess the capability of a GTDI-DCT Powertrain, with a Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) engine and Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT), to satisfy stringent drivability requirements during launch. The optimization is performed directly on a high fidelity black box powertrain model for which a single simulation of a launch event takes about 8 minutes. To address this challenging problem, an efficient parameterization of the control trajectory using Gaussian kernel functions and a Mesh Adaptive Direct Search optimizer are exploited. The results and observations are reported for the case of clutch torque optimization for launch at normal conditions, at high altitude conditions and at non-zero grade conditions. The results and observations are also presented for the case of simultaneous optimization of multiple actuator trajectories at normal conditions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1153
Kingsly Samuel, David Brigham, Mark Jennings
Abstract The powersplit transaxle is a key subsystem of Ford Motor Company's hybrid electric vehicle line up. The powersplit transaxle consists of a planetary gear, four reduction gears and various types of bearings. During vehicle operation, the transaxle is continuously lubricated by a lube oil pump. All these components consume power to operate and they contribute to the total transaxle losses which ultimately influences energy usage and fuel economy. In order to enable further model-based development and optimization of the transaxle design relative to vehicle energy usage, it is essential to establish a physics-based transaxle model with losses distributed across components, including gears, bearings etc. In this work, such a model has been developed. The model accounts for individual bearing losses (speed, torque and temperature dependency), gear mesh losses, lube pump loss and oil churning loss.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1237
Xiaoming Chen, Jeff L. Conklin, Robert M. Carpenter, Jeff Wallace, Cynthia Flanigan, David A. Wagner, Vijitha Kiridena, Stephane Betrancourt, Jason Logsdon
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction. As part of this project, several automotive chassis components were selected for development and evaluation on the MMLV C/D segment passenger sedan.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1413
Louis Tijerina, Michael Blommer, Reates Curry, Radhakrishnan Swaminathan, Dev Kochhar, Walter Talamonti
Abstract This paper investigates the effects on response time of a forward collision event in a repeated-measures design. Repeated-measures designs are often used in forward collision warning (FCW) testing despite concerns that the first exposure creates expectancy effects that may dilute or bias future outcomes. For this evaluation, 32 participants were divided into groups of 8 for an AA, BB, AB, BA design (A= No Warning; B=FCW alert). They drove in a high-fidelity simulator with a visual distraction task. After driving 15 min in a nighttime rural highway environment, a forward collision threat arose during the distraction task (Period 1). A second drive was then run and the forward collision threat was repeated again after ∼10 min (Period 2). The response times from these consecutive events were analyzed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0466
Boxiao Chen, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor
Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets are becoming more stringent for both automakers and electricity generators. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles, transportation and electricity generation sectors become connected. This provides an opportunity for both sectors to work together to achieve the cost efficient reduction of CO2 emission. In addition, the abundant natural gas (NG) in USA is drawing increased attention from both policy makers and various industries due to its low cost and low carbon content. NG has the potential to ease the pressure from CO2 emission constraints for both the light duty vehicle (LDV) and the electricity generation sectors while simultaneously reducing their fuel costs. To quantify the benefit of this collaboration, an analytical model is developed to evaluate the total societal cost and CO2 emission for both sectors.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0511
Bradford Johnson, John Henshaw, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract Increasing fuel economy is a high priority of the automotive industry due to consumer demand and government regulations. High strength aluminum alloys such as AA7075-T6 can be used in strength-critical automotive applications to reduce vehicle weight and thus improve fuel economy. However, these aluminum alloys are known to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for thick plate. The level of susceptibility to SCC must be determined before a material is implemented. ASTM standards exist that generate semi-quantitative data primarily for use in screening materials for SCC. For the purposes of this work ASTM G139 (breaking load method) has been used to evaluate sheet AA7075-T6 for use in automotive applications. A tensile fixture applying a constant strain was used to quantitatively measure residual strength of the material after exposure to a corrosive environment.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Abstract Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1614
Yijung Chen, Derek Board, Omar Faruque, Cortney Stancato, James Cheng, Nikhil Bolar, Sreevidhya Anandavally
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy (DOE) project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while achieving frontal crash test performance comparable to the baseline vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364 kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0 liter three-cylinder engine, leading to the potential for reduced environmental impact and improved fuel economy.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1615
Yuksel Gur, Jian Pan, John Huber, Jeff Wallace
The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-1 vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364 kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1-liter 3-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) sound package design and testing. Lightweight design actions on radiating panels enclosing the vehicle cabin typically cause vehicle interior acoustic degradation due to the reduction of panel surface mass.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Abstract Adhesive bonding technology has gained ever-increasing significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum (Al) alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. Though these challenges were recently overcome for steel-adhesive joints using an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique, the difference in acoustic impedances of steel and Al leads to a lack of robustness in utilizing the same algorithm for Al-adhesive joints. Here, we present the results from using a modified version of this technique to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 15-MHz, 52-pixel, 10 mm × 10 mm matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain ultrasonic pulse echoes from joint interfaces, analysis of which produced C-scan images of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
Abstract In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker-Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1735
Robert Wade, Jerry C. Hsieh
Abstract Exhaust manifold design is one of the more challenging tasks for the engine engineer due to the harsh thermal and severe vibration environment. Extremely high exhaust gas temperatures and dynamic loading combine to subject the manifold to high cyclic stress when the material has reduced fatigue strength due to the high temperature. A long service life before a fatigue failure is the objective in exhaust manifold design. Accumulation of fatigue damage can occur from dynamic loading and thermal loading combined. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is a primary mechanism for accumulating fatigue damage. TMF typically occurs when a vehicle driving cycle has operating conditions that repeatedly change the exhaust gas temperature between hot and cold. Another way to experience temperature cycling is through splash quenching. Splash quenching was analyzed and found to rapidly accumulate fatigue damage.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1756
Daniel E. Toomey, Debora R. Marth, William G. Ballard, Jamel E. Belwafa, Roger Burnett, Robert W. McCoy
Abstract For more than 30 years, field research and laboratory testing have consistently demonstrated that properly wearing a seat belt dramatically reduces the risk of occupant death or serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. In severe rollover crashes, deformation to vehicle body structures can relocate body-mounted seat belt anchors altering seat belt geometry. In particular, roof pillar mounted shoulder belt anchors (“D-rings”) are subject to vertical and lateral deformation in the vehicle coordinate system. The ROllover Component test System (ROCS) test device was utilized to evaluate seat belt system performance in simulated severe rollover roof-to-ground impacts. A mechanical actuator was designed to dynamically relocate the D-ring assembly during a roof-to-ground impact event in an otherwise rigid test vehicle fixture. Anthropomorphic test device (ATD) kinematics and kinetics and seat belt tensions were compared between tests with and without D-ring relocation.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0407
Timothy W. Skszek, Matthew Zaluzec, Jeff Conklin, David Wagner
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance, occupant safety and utility of the baseline production vehicle. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine, resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper includes details associated with the MMLV project approach, mass reduction and environmental impact.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0677
Marcin Marek Okarmus, Rifat Keribar, Rob Zdrodowski, Arup Gangopadhyay
Abstract Valvetrain friction can represent a substantial portion of overall engine friction, especially at low operating speed. This paper describes the methodology for predictive modeling of frictional losses in the direct-acting mechanical bucket tappet-type valvetrain. The proposed modeling technique combines advanced mathematical models based on established theories of Hertzian contact, hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), asperity contact of rough surfaces, flash temperature, and lubricant rheology with detailed measurements of lubricant properties and surface finish, driven by a detailed analysis of valvetrain system kinematics and dynamics. The contributions of individual friction components to the overall valvetrain frictional loss were identified and quantified. Calculated valvetrain friction was validated against motored valvetrain friction torque measurements on two engines.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0981
Patrick Phlips
Abstract A normalized analytical vehicle fuel consumption model is developed based on an input/output description of engine fuel consumption and transmission losses. Engine properties and fuel consumption are expressed in mean effective pressure (mep) units, while vehicle road load, acceleration and grade are expressed in acceleration units. The engine model concentrates on the low rpm operation. The fuel mep is approximately independent of speed and is a linear function of load, as long as the engine is not knock limited. A linear, two-constant engine model then covers the speed/load range of interest. The model constants are a function of well-known engine properties. Examples are discussed for naturally aspirated and turbocharged SI engines and for Diesel engines. A similar model is developed for the transmission where the offset reflects the spin and pump losses, and the slope is the gear efficiency.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1236
John Jaranson, Meraj Ahmed
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper describes the concept design, prototyping, and validation for interior subsystems of the MMLV. Case studies are presented for two of the interior subsystems: the instrument panel/cross-car beam (IP/CCB) and the front seat structures.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. In this system, the TWC generates the NH3 for the SCR catalyst from the feedgas NOx during rich operation. Therefore, this approach benefits from high feedgas NOx during rich operation to generate high levels of NH3 quickly and low feedgas NOx during lean operation for a low rate of NH3 consumption. It was assumed that the exhaust system needed to include a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and an U/B SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards during the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
Abstract A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1592
Donald F. Tandy, Jason Colborn, Jung C. Bae, Clay Coleman, Robert Pascarella
Abstract The concept of vehicle understeer and oversteer has been well studied and equations, test methods, and test results have been published for many decades. This concept has a specific definition in the steady-state driving range as opposed to quantification in highly transient limit handling events. There have been specific test procedures developed and employed by automotive engineers for decades on how to quantify understeer. These include the constant radius method, the constant steering wheel angle/variable speed method, the constant speed/ variable radius method, and the constant speed/variable steer method. These methods are very good for calculating the understeer gradient but care must be taken in interpreting the result at the limits of tire traction since lateral tire forces can be reduced on a drive axle when significant throttle is applied.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1616
Lindita Bushi, Timothy Skszek, David Wagner
Abstract The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. The Regulation requirements such as the 2020 CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standard, growing public demand, and increased fuel prices are pushing auto manufacturers worldwide to increase fuel economy through incorporation of lightweight materials in newly-designed vehicle structures.
2015-03-31
Article
Michael Tinskey, Global Director of Vehicle Electrification and Infrastructure, talks about smart mobility experiments, connected vehicles, and Ford's electrified vehicle strategy in China.
2014-09-22
Article
Last week, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke drove the sixth-generation Ford Mustang in a day-long test on California mountain roads. Surprisingly, his favorite model packs a 2.3-L four-cylinder turbo under the hood.
2014-07-23
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Tuesday that Paul Mascarenas, Chief Technical Officer and Vice President, Research and Advanced Engineering, will retire after 32 years at Ford, effective Oct. 1. Mascarenas, an SAE Fellow, joined Ford in 1982 and served in leadership positions in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States in product planning, program management, body engineering, and powertrain.
2014-07-10
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Thursday the establishment of the Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship. The scholarship fund, a $1 million program that provides financial assistance to outstanding students pursuing degrees in automotive engineering, honors former CEO Alan Mulally.
2014-06-27
Article
Ford Motor Co. debuted this week the only five-row side-curtain airbag in the automotive industry, according to a company release. The airbag, which is featured in the 2015 Transit 15-passenger wagon, is the largest in any Ford vehicle. 
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0267
André Ricardo Marchezan, Mauro Andreassa
The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0517
Javier Castellano, Anita Chaudhari, Jim Bromham
The regeneration process of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists of an increase in the engine exhaust gas temperature by using post injections and/or exhaust fuel injection during a period of time in order to burn previously trapped soot. The DPF regeneration is usually performed during a real drive cycle, with continuously changing driving conditions. The quantity of post injection/exhaust fuel to use for regeneration is calculated using a combination of an open loop term based on engine speed, load and exhaust gas flow and a closed loop term based on an exhaust gas temperature target and the feedback from a number of sensors. Due to the nature of the system and the slow response of the closed loop term for correcting large deviations, the authority of the fuel calculation is strongly biased to the open loop. However, the open loop fuel calculation might not be accurate enough to provide adequate temperature tracking due to several disturbances in the system.
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