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Viewing 1 to 30 of 1145
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1617
Brien Fulton, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Jon Dixon, Daniel Roettger, Simon Petrovic, Andres Arevalo
Exhaust pressures (P3) are easy parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature environment that the exhaust system creates, makes the implementation of the exhaust pressure sensor a costly endeavor. Accurate exhaust pressure inputs in vehicle and engine control systems are important for performance, fuel economy, emissions, OBD monitoring and aftertreatment control. The contention with modelling exhaust pressure is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. The paper presents a turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1006
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the ability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations for gasoline applications. Initial target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were determined. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum volume of LNT/SCR that satisfied the NOx target. Temperature studies were performed to determine the temperature ranges for the TWC and LNT/SCR that satisfied the HC, CO, and NOx targets. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during the rich purge periods through steam reforming was crucial for maintaining the HC slip below the target level. The temperature of the LNT/SCR needed to be maintained between 300 and 350 C to satisfy the NOx slip target during lean/rich cycling while minimizing the slip of NH3, N2O, and HC during the rich purges.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0677
Marcin Marek Okarmus, Rifat Keribar, Rob Zdrodowski, Arup Gangopadhyay
Valvetrain friction can represent a substantial portion of overall engine friction, especially at low operating speed. This paper describes the methodology for predictive modeling of frictional losses in the direct-acting mechanical bucket tappet–type valvetrain. The proposed modeling technique combines advanced mathematical models based on established theories of Hertzian contact, elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), asperity contact of rough surfaces, flash temperature, and lubricant rheology with detailed measurements of lubricant properties and surface finish. A detailed analysis of valvetrain system kinematics and dynamics was carried out. The contributions of individual friction components to the overall valvetrain frictional loss were identified and quantified. Calculated valvetrain friction was validated against motored valvetrain friction torque measurements on two engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1236
John Jaranson, Meraj Ahmed
This paper describes the design, prototyping, and validation approaches for interior subsystems of the Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV). Case studies are presented for two of the interior subsystems: the instrument panel/cross-car beam and the front seat structures. Both of these subsystems took advantage of the weight saving opportunities presented by carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. Analytical methodologies are detailed along with prototype build techniques for each. Design weight savings of 30% for the instrument panel/cross-car beam and 17% for the seat structures are achieved. Physical test results are presented that validate the design and the weight savings.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0602
Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Jagadish Sorab, Cagri Sever
In this paper, the evolution equation for the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process based on the pressure-sensitive Drucker–Prager yield function and a recently developed anisotropic hardening rule with a non-associated flow rule is first presented. A user material subroutine based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relation was written and implemented into the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A two-dimensional plane strain finite element analysis of a crankshaft section under fillet rolling was conducted. After the release of the roller, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the material with consideration of pressure sensitivity typically for cast irons is smaller than that without consideration of pressure sensitivity. In addition, the magnitude of the compressive residual hoop stress for the pressure-sensitive material with the non-associated flow rule is smaller than that with the associated flow rule.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0329
Mark Hepokoski, Allen Curran, Richard Burke, John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Clay Maranville
Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprising of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1004
Joseph R. Theis, Jeong Kim, Giovanni Cavataio
A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of passive TWC+SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2 Bin 2 emission regulations on lean-burn gasoline applications. After accounting for cold-start emissions, stoichiometric emissions, and engineering tolerances, target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. 30 s lean/10 s rich tests were performed on a reduced-OSC Pd/Rh TWC operating at 550oC and different volumes of a Cu/zeolite SCR catalyst operating at 330 C, where the NO concentration was held at 220 ppm during the lean periods and varied from 500 to 2000 ppm during the rich periods. The NOx slip target was satisfied with the equivalent of 3.3L of SCR volume and 1500 ppm NO rich. Reducing the OSC in the TWC would increase its NH3 yield, but some OSC is needed for stoichiometric NOx lightoff, warmed-up 3-way activity, steam reforming of the HC during the rich purge periods, and diagnostic capabilities.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0721
Li Lu, Stacey Raines, Sean West, Jane Zhou, Paul Hoke
Traditionally, knee air bags (KAB) are made of a fabric consisting of nylon or polyester. More recently, Ford has developed an injection molded air bag system which can be integrated as a bladder that sandwiches between the glove box outer and inner doors. This new system is smaller and lighter. It also improves passenger’s safety numbers while increasing the roominess and other comfort features inside the cabin. The patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations of the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to the designers. The first application of this technology will be in all new Ford Mustang. It is a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the above mentioned system when there is no benchmark to compare the technology against. A CAE driven design methodology was chosen instead. This method gave engineers the ability to use an iterative approach to designing and analytically proving the capability of the system.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1544
Sunil patil, Robert Lietz, Sudesh Woodiga PhD, Hojun Ahn, Levon Larson, Ronald Gin, Michael elmore, Alexander simpson
One of the passive methods to reduce drag on the unshielded underbody of a passenger road vehicle is to use a vertical deflectors commonly called as air dams or chin spoilers. These deflectors reduce the flow rate through the non-streamlined underbody and thus reduce the drag caused by underbody components protruding in to the high speed underbody flow. Air dams or chin spoilers have traditionally been manufactured from hard plastics which could break upon impact with a curb or any solid object on the road. To alleviate this failure mode vehicle manufacturers are resorting to using soft plastics which deflect and deform under aerodynamic loading or when hit against a solid object without breaking in most cases. This report is on predicting the deflection of soft chin spoilers under aerodynamic loads. The aerodynamic loads deflect the chin spoiler and the deflected chin spoiler changes the fluid pressure field resulting in a drag change.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1735
Robert Wade, Jerry C. Hsieh
Exhaust manifold design is one of the more challenging engine components due to the harsh thermal and sever vibration environment. Extremely high exhaust gas temperatures and dynamic loading combine to subject the manifold to high cyclic stress with downgraded material fatigue strength. A long service life before a fatigue failure is the objective in exhaust manifold design. Accumulation of fatigue damage can occur from dynamic loading or thermal loading. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) is a primary mechanism for accumulating fatigue damage. TMF typically occurs when a vehicle driving cycles has operating conditions that repeatedly change the exhaust gas temperature between hot and cold. Another way to experience temperature cycling is through splash quenching. Splash quenching has been analyzed and found to rapidly accumulate fatigue damage. An experimental and analytical method is presented to quantify splash quenching and the impact on exhaust manifold durability.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0981
Patrick Phlips
A first order analytical vehicle fuel consumption model is developed, based on an input/output description of engine fuel consumption and transmission efficiency. The model for the engine sub-system has been described previously for naturally aspirated spark ignition engines. Here it is shown that the model also applies for boosted engines in the lower half of the load range and for Diesel engines at all loads. The fuel consumption is expressed in units of Mean Effective Pressure (MEP), which normalizes for engine size and speed. At typical operating conditions, the Fuel MEP is nearly independent of engine speed and increases approximately linearly with engine load (Willans line). The slope reflects the indicated efficiency and the pumping trend, and the offset reflects engine combustion, friction, and pumping losses at zero load. The magnitude of the slope and offset are shown to follow from established engine properties.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1592
Donald F. Tandy, Jason Colborn, Jung C. Bae, Clay Coleman, Robert Pascarella
The concept of vehicle understeer and oversteer has been well studied and equations, test methods, and test results have been published for many decades. This concept has a specific definition in the steady-state driving range as opposed to quantification in highly transient limit handling events. There has been at least one article published in the last several years relating to vehicle dynamic oversteer and understeer somehow measured in transient handling events. There have also been some researchers who have attempted to measure steady-state performance in a test where tires are sliding and spinning due to not enough available traction to maintain a constant speed required in the test protocol. These types of tests are a real challenge to some vehicles and therefore cannot measure a steady state metrics such as understeer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0702
Bita Ghaffari, Jonathan Dekam, Kevin Haddix, Kimberly Lazarz, Sergey Titov, Roman Maev
Adhesive bonding technology has gained increased significance in automotive industry, especially with the growing use of aluminum alloy body structures. The variability in thicknesses of the metal and adhesive layers, as well as the variability in joint geometry, of automotive components has presented challenges in nondestructive evaluation of adhesive joints. These issues have recently been resolved for steel-adhesive joints through the use of an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. The difference in acoustic impedance of steel and Al, however, leads to a lack of robustness in using the same technique for Al-adhesive joints. In this paper, we present the results from utilizing a modified version of this pulse-echo algorithm to inspect Al-adhesive joints in both laboratory and production environments. A 52-element, 10 mm X 10 mm, 15-MHz matrix array of ultrasonic transducers was used to obtain the echotrains, analysis of which produced a C-scan image of the adhesive bead.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1153
Kingsly Samuel, David brigham, Mark Jennings
The Powersplit transaxle is a key subsystem of Ford Motor Company’s hybrid electric vehicle line up. The powersplit transaxle consists of a planetary gear, four reduction gears and various types of bearings. During vehicle operation, the transaxle is continuously lubricated by a lube oil pump. All these components consume power to operate and they contribute to the total transaxle losses which ultimately influences energy usage and fuel economy. In order to enable further model-based development and optimization of the transaxle design relative to vehicle energy usage it is essential to establish a physics-based transaxle model with losses distributed across components, including gears, bearings etc. In this work, such a model has been developed. The model accounts for individual bearing losses (speed, torque and temperature dependency), gear mesh losses, lube pump loss and oil churning loss.
2014-09-22
Article
Last week, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke drove the sixth-generation Ford Mustang in a day-long test on California mountain roads. Surprisingly, his favorite model packs a 2.3-L four-cylinder turbo under the hood.
2014-07-23
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Tuesday that Paul Mascarenas, Chief Technical Officer and Vice President, Research and Advanced Engineering, will retire after 32 years at Ford, effective Oct. 1. Mascarenas, an SAE Fellow, joined Ford in 1982 and served in leadership positions in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States in product planning, program management, body engineering, and powertrain.
2014-07-10
Article
Ford Motor Co. announced Thursday the establishment of the Alan Mulally Leadership in Engineering Scholarship. The scholarship fund, a $1 million program that provides financial assistance to outstanding students pursuing degrees in automotive engineering, honors former CEO Alan Mulally.
2014-06-27
Article
Ford Motor Co. debuted this week the only five-row side-curtain airbag in the automotive industry, according to a company release. The airbag, which is featured in the 2015 Transit 15-passenger wagon, is the largest in any Ford vehicle. 
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0267
André Ricardo Marchezan, Mauro Andreassa
The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1170
Nia R. Harrison, Andrey Ilinich, Peter A. Friedman, Jugraj Singh, Ravi Verma
Traditional warm forming of aluminum refers to sheet forming in the temperature range of 200°C to 350°C using heated, matched die sets similar to conventional stamping. While the benefits of this process can include design freedom, improved dimensional capability and potentially reduced cycle times, the process is complex and requires expensive, heated dies. The objective of this work was to develop a warm forming process that both retains the benefits of traditional warm forming while allowing for the use of lower-cost tooling. Enhanced formability characteristics of aluminum sheet have been observed when there is a prescribed temperature difference between the die and the sheet; often referred to as a non-isothermal condition. This work, which was supported by the USCAR-AMD initiative, demonstrated the benefits of the non-isothermal warm forming approach on a full-scale door inner panel. Finite element analysis was used to guide the design of the die face and blank shape.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0469
Nancy C. Evans, Michael J. Leigh
In January 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a final rule establishing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 226 Ejection Mitigation, with the intent of reducing the occurrence of complete and partial ejections of vehicle occupants during crashes, especially rollover events. FMVSS 226 requires component-level tests to be conducted on ejection mitigation countermeasures (e.g., rollover-activated side curtain airbags). A guided, linear impactor is used to propel a headform into a rollover-activated countermeasure at up to four locations for each side daylight opening in the vehicle, for up to three seating rows. The impact tests are conducted at two energy levels (speeds) and associated impact times: 278 J (20 km/h) at 1.5 s after curtain activation and 178 J (16 km/h) at 6 s. The FMVSSS 226 compliance criterion is that the headform cannot travel more than 100 mm past the inside surface of the side window plane.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0517
Javier Castellano, Anita Chaudhari, Jim Bromham
The regeneration process of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists of an increase in the engine exhaust gas temperature by using post injections and/or exhaust fuel injection during a period of time in order to burn previously trapped soot. The DPF regeneration is usually performed during a real drive cycle, with continuously changing driving conditions. The quantity of post injection/exhaust fuel to use for regeneration is calculated using a combination of an open loop term based on engine speed, load and exhaust gas flow and a closed loop term based on an exhaust gas temperature target and the feedback from a number of sensors. Due to the nature of the system and the slow response of the closed loop term for correcting large deviations, the authority of the fuel calculation is strongly biased to the open loop. However, the open loop fuel calculation might not be accurate enough to provide adequate temperature tracking due to several disturbances in the system.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1105
Federico Perini, Adam Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz, Dipankar Sahoo, Benjamin Petersen, Paul C. Miles
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0283
Usman Asad, Prasad Divekar, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), smokeless rich combustion, and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) provide for cleaner combustion with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions from compression-ignition engines. However, these strategies vary significantly in their implementation requirements, combustion characteristics, operability limits as well as sensitivity to boundary conditions such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and intake temperature. In this work, a detailed analysis of the aforementioned LTC strategies has been carried out on a high-compression ratio, single-cylinder diesel engine. The effects of intake boost, EGR quantity/temperature, engine speed, injection scheduling and injection pressure on the operability limits have been empirically determined and correlated with the combustion stability and performance metrics.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0595
Ioan Felician Campean, Ed Henshall, Brian Rutter
Automotive Product Development organisations are challenged with ever increasing levels of systems complexity driven by the introduction of new technologies to address environmental concerns and enhance customer satisfaction within a highly competitive and cost conscious market. The technical difficulty associated with the engineering of complex automotive systems is compounded by the increase in sophistication of the control systems needed to manage the integration of technology packages. Most automotive systems have an electro-mechanical structure with control and software features embedded within the system. The conventional methods for design analysis and synthesis are engineering discipline focused (mechanical, electrical, electronic, control, software).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1397
Zohir Benrabah, Hicham Mir, Yi Zhang
Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1384
Zhen Jiang, Wei Chen, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) has been widely used to obtain a reliable design via an existing CAE model considering the variations of input variables. However, most RBDO approaches do not consider the CAE model bias and uncertainty, which may largely affect the reliability assessment of the final design and result in risky design decisions. In this paper, the Gaussian Process Modeling (GPM) approach is applied to statistically correct the model discrepancy which is represented as a bias function, and to quantify model uncertainty based on collected data from either real tests or high-fidelity CAE simulations. After the corrected model is validated by extra sets of test data, it is integrated into the RBDO formulation to obtain a reliable solution that meets the overall reliability targets while considering both model and parameter uncertainties.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0920
Harold Sun, David Hanna, Paul Niessen, Brien Fulton, Liangjun Hu, Eric W. Curtis, Jianwen Yi
For diesel engines to meet current and future emissions levels, the amount of EGR required to reach these levels has increased dramatically. This increased EGR has posed big challenges for conventional turbocharger technology to meet the higher emissions requirements while maintaining or improving other vehicle attributes, to the extent that some OEMs resort to multiple turbocharger configurations. These configurations can include parallel, series sequential, or parallel - series turbocharger systems, which would inevitably run into other issues, such as cost, packaging, and thermal loss, etc. This study, as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (USDoE) sponsored research program, is focused on the experimental evaluation of the emission and performance of a modern diesel engine with an advanced single stage turbocharger.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1321
Hosuk H. Jung, Thomas G. Leone, Michael H. Shelby, James E. Anderson, Travis Collings
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing E10, E20, and E30 splash-blended fuels in a Ford 3.5L EcoBoost direct injection (DI) turbocharged engine. The engine was tested with compression ratios (CRs) of 10.0:1 (current production) and 11.9:1. In this engine, E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR gave very similar knock performance to E10 (91 RON) fuel at 10:1 CR. Similarly, E30 (101 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR resulted in knock-limited performance equivalent to E20 at 10:1 CR, indicating that E30 could have been run at even higher CR with acceptable knock behavior. The data was used in a vehicle simulation of a 3.5L EcoBoost pickup truck, which showed that the E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR offers 5% improvement in U.S. EPA Metro-Highway (M/H) and US06 Highway cycle tank-to-wheels CO₂ emissions over the E10 fuel, with comparable volumetric fuel economy (miles per gallon) and range before refueling.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1635
Robert A. Stein, James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington
This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included. As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions.
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