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Viewing 1 to 30 of 73
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Eric Jaarda, Manish Chaturvedi
Basic automotive steering wheel armature design has been largely unchanged for years. A cast aluminum or magnesium armature is typically used to provide stiffness and strength with an overmolded polyurethane giving shape and occupant protection. A prototype steering wheel armature made from a unique recyclable thermoplastic eliminates the casting while meeting the same stiffness, impact, and performance criteria needed for the automotive market. It also opens new avenues for styling differentiation and flexibility. Prototype parts, manufacturing, and testing results will be covered.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Jeff Allred, Rene Allen, Dustin Armer
The automotive industry continues to strive for mold-in-color (MIC) solutions that can provide metallic flake appearances. These MIC solutions can offer a substantial cost out opportunity while retaining a balance of weathering performance and physical properties. This paper discusses a predictive engineering package used to hide, minimize and eliminate flow lines. Material requirements and the methods used to evaluate flowline reduction and placement for visual inspection criteria are detailed. The Nissan Quest® luggage-rack covers are used to illustrate this application. The paper also explores how evolving predictive packages offer expanding possibilities.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Alok Nanda, Gopikrishna Surisetty, Subhransu Mohapatra, Shaleena AD, Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman
This paper discusses a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) based methodology for designing an injection molded bumper energy absorber to help meet vehicle pedestrian protection requirements. The development process is described, and an example is presented of its use in designing an injection molded energy absorber for a range of various vehicle styling parameters. First, an idealized set-up incorporating the car styling parameters critical for pedestrian protection requirements was developed. Then, the vehicle and Energy Absorber (EA) geometries were parameterized and a DFSS process was employed to investigate the design space using Finite Element Impact Analysis with a commercially available Lower Leg Form Impactor.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman, Alok Nanda
This paper describes a bumper system designed to meet the current FMVSS (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard) and ECE42 legislation as well as the European Enhanced Vehicle Safety Committee (EEVC) requirements for lower leg pedestrian impact protection [1] (The EEVC was founded in 1970 in response to the US Department of Transportation's initiative for an international program on Experimental Safety Vehicles. The EEVC steering committee, consisting of representatives from several European Nations, initiates research work in a number of automotive working areas. These research tasks are carried out by a number of specialist Working Groups who operate for over a period of several years giving advice to the Steering Committee who then, in collaboration with other governmental bodies, recommends future courses of action designed to lead to improved safety in vehicles). A dual performance car bumper system - 4 km/hr barrier and pendulum combined with lower leg impact protection is achieved through a combination of material properties and design.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
George P. Diehl
To determine what effect (measured in haze), UV exposure has on polycarbonate inner lenses (coated and uncoated), when positioned behind qualifying (UV absorbent) and non-qualifying (UV transmitting) outer lens materials (clear and red). Plastic inner lenses are those covered by another material and are not exposed directly to sunlight.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Bart P. Terburg, Philippe Schottland, Marnie Currier, David S. Bryce
Currently, automobile manufacturers receive automotive headlamp assemblies from headlamp manufacturers with outer lenses produced of clear or slightly blue tinted polycarbonate. Such headlamp designed to provide optimized light output have very similar aesthetics, and leave little room to differentiate one car platform from another, using the outer lens color. With edge glow technology a car manufacturer can provide an appealing aesthetic look (edge glow effect) from the outer lens. Additionally, this technology can be used to improve the quality of the beam color emitted through the outer lens. Dependent on the chosen combination of halogen source and lens formulation, a range of beam colors spanning from halogen to HID is attainable, where the beam pattern and color continue to conform to the applicable SAE and ECE beam photometry and color standards and regulations. Headlamps manufactured using this technology can produce a lower cost alternative to the more expensive high intensity discharge (HID) lamps in terms of lighting performance while providing more comfort for the driver than regular halogen based systems.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Amy Meyers
OEM and Tier One integrated suppliers are in constant search of cockpit system components that reduce the overall number of breaks across smooth surfaces. Traditionally, soft instrument panels with seamless airbag systems have required a separate airbag door and a tether or steel hinge mechanism to secure the door during a deployment. In addition, a scoring operation is necessary to ensure predictable, repeatable deployment characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the development and performance of a cost-effective soft instrument panel with a seamless airbag door that results in a reduced number of parts and a highly efficient manufacturing process. Because of the unique characteristics of this material, a cost-effective, lightweight solution to meet both styling requirements, as well as safety and performance criteria, can be attained.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
John F. Graf, Venkatakrishnan Umamaheswaran
A model has been developed and implemented at GE Plastics that predicts a material's color shift when weathered. The material's color shift is due to the summation of color shifts from each individual component. By individually measuring the change in each component's optical coefficients upon weathering and using a multiple light scattering model, one can predict the color shift of a material composed of mixtures of these components. The model has been shown to have a standard deviation of 0.4 to 0.9 when predicting color shifts E*, for PC-polyester copolymers, ABS, and ABS/PC blends using an automotive exterior test, SAE J1885, ASTM D 4674, and ASTM D 4459.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Stephen Shuler, Frank Mooijman, Alok Nanda
This paper describes a bumper system design that satisfies both current FMVSS legislation as well as the European Enhanced Vehicle Safety Committee (EEVC) requirements for lower leg pedestrian impact protection. The dual performance solution is achieved through a combination of material properties and design. Using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modeling, the performance of an injection molded energy absorber (EA) was analyzed for pedestrian protection requirements of knee bending angle, knee shear displacement, and tibia acceleration, 4Kph pendulum and barrier impacts (ECE42, FMVSS), and 8Kph pendulum and barrier impacts (CMVSS, FMVSS). The results demonstrate how an injection molded EA using polycarbonate/polybutyelene terephthalate (PC/PBT) resin (Figure 1) can meet both FMVSS and pedestrian safety requirements and can do so within a packaging space typical of today's vehicle styling.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
David S. Bryce, Philippe Schottland, Chris Vicory, Bart P. Terburg
Automobile headlamps are highly controlled products that must meet various performance standards to be commercialized. The combination of the bulb and lens must emit acceptable color and light output. Commercially available headlamps use different types of bulbs but usually a clear or slightly tinted lens. In the past few years, high performance bulbs have been used. These are known as HID or xenon lamps and are characterized by their bluer color compared to standard halogen bulbs. This paper explores some of the possibilities that new lens material can offer in terms of design and aesthetics with little or no impact on lighting performance as tested per the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1383 [1]. Light stability of these new lens materials is also discussed. In addition, this paper illustrates the possibility of creating a system based on halogen bulbs in which the beam chromaticity appears to be similar to a HID system in all angles of the beam pattern that are not in direct view.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
James E. Pickett, V. Umamaheswaran
Current accelerated weathering protocols such as SAE J1960 or ASTM G26 do not provide reliable, predictive results for engineering thermoplastics. Correlation factors among resin types and even different colors of a single resin have variations that are 60-100% of the mean at the 95% confidence level, making these tests useless for lifetime prediction or even reliable ranking of materials. We have developed improved conditions using CIRA/sodalime-filtered xenon arc, a more rain-like water spray, and occasional sponge-wiping of the samples. The data for gloss loss and color shift agree very well with Florida data giving a correlation factor of 3100±680 kJ/m2 (at 340 nm) per Florida year at the 95% confidence level. The acceleration factor is 7.6x.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Daniel Woodman
The automotive industry is continually striving for opportunities to take additional cost and mass out of vehicle systems. Large parts such as an Instrument Panel retainer are good candidates because a small percent reduction in mass can translate into a significant material mass savings. Multiple requirements for a soft instrument panel including safety, stiffness, adhesion, etc. can make these savings difficult to achieve. This paper will describe how a new material and process development for the fabrication of a soft instrument panel can produce 50% weight savings with a 20% cost reduction potential. In addition, this new technology exhibits improved performance over existing materials during safety testing.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Dennis VanPoppelen, Jeff Allred, Maurice Biagini, Jason Leib
The aesthetic requirements for rear combination lamps have risen due to the increased use of optic free lens. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to characterize the relative aesthetic performance for thermoplastic resins utilized for rear combination lamp housings. This study focuses upon the use of a direct metallization process. The results of this study will allow project engineers to better understand the relative performance of various materials.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Nam Youl Kim, Jong Won Lee, Dan Woodman
An Instrument Panel (IP) cockpit is one of the most complex vehicle systems, not only because of the large number of components, but also because of the numerous design variations available. The OEM can realize maximum benefit when the IP cockpit is assembled as a module. This requires increased performance attributes including safety, durability, and thermal performance, while meeting styling and packaging constraints, and optimizing the program imperatives of mass and cost. The design concept discussed in this paper consists of two main injection molded parts that are vibration welded to form a stiff structure. The steering column is attached to the cowl and plastic structure by a separate steel column support. The plastic IP structure with integrated ducts is designed and developed to enable the IP cockpit to be a modular system while realizing the benefits of mass and cost reduction. The design has been screened and optimized using engineering tools such as finite element analysis (FEA) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to assess the structural, safety, noise-vibration-harshness (NVH), and airflow performance.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Stephen Shuler, Sri Santhanam, Tansen Chaudhari
Automotive styling and performance trends continue to challenge engineers to develop cost effective bumper systems that can provide efficient energy absorption and also fit within reduced package spaces. Through a combination of material properties and design, injection-molded engineering thermoplastic (ETP) energy absorption systems using polycarbonate/polybutylene terephthalate (PC/PBT) alloys have been shown to promote faster loading and superior energy absorption efficiency than conventional foam systems. This allows the ETP system to provide the required impact protection within a smaller package space. In order to make optimal use of this efficiency, the reinforcing beam and energy absorber (EA) must be considered together as an energy management system. This paper describes the development of a predictive tool created to simplify and shorten the process of engineering efficient and cost effective beam/EA energy management systems.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Adam Trappe, Michael Mahfet
There are several key issues to consider when designing a bumper system within today's automotive environment. These include impact efficiency, corporate average fuel economy (CAFE), federal requirements, and independent consumer agency requirements. Impact efficiency of a bumper system is critical for three reasons. First, it enables vehicles to absorb more energy in less packaging space. Second, with CAFE a high priority, thermoplastic bumper systems provide an excellent opportunity to reduce vehicle mass, and improve CAFE ratings when they replace conventional steel foam systems. Finally, the system needs to meet Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) part 581 and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) requirements. The bumper system described in this paper offers the ability to achieve each of these goals and remain cost competitive. This bumper system is comprised of a compression molded glass mat thermoplastic (GMT) (AZDEL ® C507® composite) I-beam bumper section that is coupled with a thermoplastic polycarbonate / polybutylene teraphthalate (PC/PBT) energy absorber (EA).
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Darin Evans, Stephen Shuler, Sri Santhanam
An efficient energy absorber (EA) will absorb impact energy through a combination of elastic and plastic deformation. However, the EA is typically coupled with a steel reinforcing beam, which can also elastically and plastically deform during an impact event. In order to design and optimize an EA/Beam system that will meet the specified vehicle impact requirements, the response of the entire assembly must be accurately predicted. This paper will describe a finite element procedure and material model that can be used to predict the impact response of a bumper system composed of an injection molded thermoplastic energy absorber attached to a steel beam. The first step in the process was to identify the critical material, geometric, and boundary condition parameters involved in the EA and Beam individually. Next, the two models were combined to create the system model. Actual test results for 8km/hr. FMVSS part 581 impact series and Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) test sequences will be presented and comparisons will be made to validate the loads and intrusions predicted by the computer analysis.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Dominic McMahon, Frank Mooijman, Stephen Shuler
This paper will describe an approach to satisfying proposed European Enhanced Vehicle Safety Committee (EEVC) legislation for lower leg pedestrian impact. The solution for lower leg protection is achieved through a combination of material properties and design. Using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) modeling, the performance of an energy absorber (EA) concept was analyzed for knee bending angle, knee shear displacement, and tibia acceleration. The modeling approach presented here includes a sensitivity analysis to first identify key material and geometric parameters, followed by an optimization process to create a functional design. Results demonstrate how an EA system designed with a polycarbonate/polybutyelene terephthalate (PC/PBT) resin blend, as illustrated in Figure 1, can meet proposed pedestrian safety requirements. Engineering thermoplastics offer higher energy absorption efficiency and a more consistent impact performance over a range of temperatures, than conventional foam systems.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Amy E. Rouse
There are a multitude of opportunities to utilize two-shot or overmolding technology in the automotive industry. Two-shot or overmolding a thermoplastic elastomer onto a rigid substrate can produce visually appealing, high quality parts. In addition, use of this technology can offer the molder significant reductions in labor and floor space consumption as well as a reduction in system cost. Traditionally, two-shot applications were limited to olefinbased TPE's and substrates, which often restricted rigidity, structure and gloss levels. With the development of thermoplastic elastomers that bond to engineering thermoplastics, two-shot molding can now produce parts that require higher heat, higher gloss and greater structural rigidity. This paper will outline engineering thermoplastics that bond with these new elastomers, discuss potential applications, and review circumstances that offer the best opportunity to call upon the advantages of two-shot and overmolding technology.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Patricia C. Tibbenham, David A. Dean
The history behind Polymer Class “A” Body Panels for automotive applications is very interesting. The driving factors behind these applications have not changed significantly over the past sixty years. Foremost among these factors is the need for corrosion and dent resistance. Beginning with Saturn in 1990, interest in polymer body panels grew and continues to grow up to the present day, with every new global application. Today, consumers and economic factors drive the industry trend towards plastic body panels. These include increased customization and fuel economy on the consumer side. Economic factors such as lower unit build quantities, reduced vehicle mass, investment cost, and tooling lead times influence material choice for industry. The highest possible performance, and fuel economy, at the lowest price have always been a goal. The following quote from Henry Ford states this goal very well, “…We build most of our vehicles as though dead-weight fat increased speed… I cannot imagine where the delusion that weight means strength came from.”
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Brian Baker, Brian Czopek, Isaac Kirbawy
This paper will discuss, compare, and contrast current materials, designs, and manufacturing options for fuel filler doors. Also, it will explore the advantages of using conductive thermoplastic substrates over other materials that are commonly used in the fuel filler door market today. At the outset, the paper will discuss the differences between traditional steel fuel filler doors, which use an on-line painting process, and fuel filler doors that use a conductive thermoplastic substrate and require an in-line or off-line painting process. After reviewing the process, this paper will discuss material options and current technology. Here, we will highlight key drivers to thermoplastics acceptance, and look at the cost saving opportunities presented by the inline paint process option using a conductive thermoplastic resin, as well as benefits gained in quality control, component storage and coordination.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Phil Ogren, Ganesh Padiyar, Tim Parkinson, Michael Rabideau, James F. Smithson
The drive to reduce weight, simplify assembly, and cut total system cost in today's vehicles is relentless. Replacing metal systems with thermoplastics has been of considerable interest in the engineering community. The current generations of engineering thermoplastic resins are enabling the use of plastic systems in demanding underhood applications. Technical data and discussion regarding the materials, design, molding, and assembly of lightweight composite throttle bodies will be presented in this paper. Comparisons with machined aluminum throttle housings are drawn to establish a baseline with the throttle body housing component that is most common in production today. Design flexibility and process simplification are some of the approaches highlighted. Much of the technical information provided in the paper applies to both cable driven mechanical throttle bodies as well as electronic throttle bodies under development.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Vauhini Telikapalli, Steve Patterson
The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that this conductive polymer blend provides painting performance equivalent to steel without compromising the finished product performance.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Joe Woods, Steve Patterson, Cindy Roberts
Automotive exterior paint systems can significantly affect the impact performance of thermoplastic body panels. To utilize the benefits of predictive engineering as a tool to assist in the design and development of thermoplastic body panels, thermoplastic body panel materials have been characterized with typical automotive paint systems for use for finite element modeling and analysis. Paint systems used for exterior body panels can vary from rigid to more flexible, depending on the vehicle manufacturer's specifications. Likewise, thermoplastics for body panels vary in mechanical properties, primarily depending on the heat performance requirements of the application. To understand the effects of paint systems on impact performance of thermoplastic body panels, two different paint systems, representing “rigid” and “more flexible,” were evaluated on two body panel grades of thermoplastics with different mechanical properties. A two-step process was followed to characterize the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic-paint system.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Russell Bloomfield
This paper examines a variety of thermocouple and infrared measurement techniques as means of obtaining accurate and consistent temperature measurements within a headlamp system. While measuring temperature is straightforward in principle, in practice, these measurements are fraught with potential error. The paper summarizes a succession of experiments conducted at our Parts Design Center (formerly the Application Development Resource Center) in Pittsfield, MA. These experiments lead to the ability to accurately measure temperature at a given location within a lamp assembly. Using these studies and the resulting transfer functions as a foundation, a Design of Experiment (D.O.E.) is presented which explores the effect of a variety of headlamp design factors on the surface temperature of a headlamp reflector at a given location.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Dan Woodman, Jaya Das, Sanjay Patel
As the need for plastic components with high-performance and low systems cost continues to escalate, the issues associated with bringing applications to automotive market have become more complex. Automotive applications such as seamless integral Passive Supplemental Inflatable Restraint (PSIR) systems can have tearseams that are either molded-in or laser scored. Molded-in tearseams in seamless Instrument Panels (IP) eliminate the secondary operation of laser scoring, but they warrant thin wall molding conditions. This paper describes material characterization under thinwall molding conditions wherein the effects of processing on mechanical properties are explored. This paper also discusses results from a proprietary finite element code developed at GE to predict the processing parameters, which affect the mechanical properties of the material at the tearseam in a seamless IP system. The purpose of the study is to create an accurate analytical material model for use in finite element analysis of thin-wall applications.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Chris Slaviero, Kurt Weiss, Daniel Woodman
As the global auto industry wrote the final chapter on its first century, we saw the average thickness of an automotive instrument panel drop from 3.0 mm-3.5 mm to 2.0 mm-2.3 mm, as found in the 1999 Volkswagen Jetta and Golf. By reducing the wall thickness of the instrument panel, Volkswagen started an industry trend: both OEMs and tiers are investigating technologies to produce parts that combine a lower cost-per-part via material optimization and cycle-time reduction with the superior performance of engineering thermoplastics. The goal is to produce parts that are positioned more competitively at every stage of the development cycle - from design, to manufacturing, to assembly, to “curb appeal” on the showroom floor. The key to this manufacturing and design “sweet spot” is a technology called thinwall - the molding of plastic parts from engineering thermoplastics with wall thicknesses thinner than conventional parts of similar geometry. The actual cutoff in thickness will vary based on a number of variables, including the size and flow length of the part.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Jaya Das
Automotive interiors are undergoing rapid transformation with the introduction of invisible PSIR integral systems. This styling trend requires continuous class A surface for the Instrument Panel (IP) and introduces complexities in the design and analysis of PSIR integral systems. The most important criterion for airbag doors is that it must open as intended, at the tearseam, within the deployment temperature range and without fragmentation. Consequently it is imperative that in analytical simulations, the finite element model of the tearseam is accurate. The accuracy of the model is governed by (a) optimal level of refinement, (b) surface geometry representation and (c) material model. This paper discusses modeling methodology for tearseams with respect to mesh refinement and the effect of geometry. To accurately predict impact performance and failure of the tearseam, the material at the tearseam and the entire IP system has to be characterized and its failure criteria included in the analytical material model.
Technical Paper
2000-03-06
Erwin W. Liang, Kena K. Yokoyama, Jim Wilson
The thermal performance of an automotive forward-lighting assembly is predicted with a computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) program. A three-dimensional, steady-state heat-transfer model seeks to account for convection and radiation within the enclosure, conduction through the thermoplastic walls and lens, and external convection and radiation losses. The predicted temperatures agree well with experimental thermocouple and infrared data on the housing. Driven by the thermal expansion of the air near the bulb surface, counter-rotating recirculation zones are predicted within the enclosure. The highest temperatures in the plastic components are predicted on the inner surface of the shelf above the bulb where airflow rising from the hot bulb surface impinges. The thermal model can be used to assess the importance of different heat-transfer mechanisms, such as the effect of coating on thermal-radiation energy redistribution within the enclosure and the result of bulb shield design on hot-spot location and temperature due to the change in airflow passage.
Technical Paper
2000-03-06
Michael Bodón Andriuli, Robert R. Blanchard
The luggage-rack-system market has historically been dominated by nylon- (polyamide)-based resins. The recent design and development of the Xterra® luggagerack system (LRS) from Nissan represents a new trend in luggage-rack system design. Nissan utilized an ASA/PC weatherable thermoplastic resin to develop its special gray, molded-in-color luggage-rack components. The balance of weathering performance and physical properties that ASA/PC resin offers allowed the automaker to design these structural components and avoid the high cost of paint. This paper discusses the design and development of the luggage-rack system as well as the process utilized to evaluate ASA/PC resin for performance in static loading, heat resistance, vibration performance, etc. Furthermore, the paper explores how ASA/PC resin parts might be designed in for future luggage-rack-system applications.
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