Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 295
Technical Paper
2013-12-15
Darrell Robinette
This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
Technical Paper
2013-10-07
Ney Q. Pereira, Brian Callaghan
The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), introduced in 1979 by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, is a vehicle safety rating system that conducts crash test and provides motoring consumers with an assessment of the safety performance of new cars. Similar programs were then developed around the world, initially for Europe (EuroNCAP), Australia (ANCAP), Japan (JNCAP), China (CNCAP) and Korea (KNCAP). NCAP most recently reached Latin America (LatinNCAP) and Southeast Asia (AseanNCAP). Although the roots are similar, many NCAP programs have significant differences on the test procedures and rating schemes. This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent NCAP protocols to highlight the most important technical differences.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jyh-Shin Chen
Simscape is a physical modeling language developed by Mathworks Inc. The language uses equation statements instead of assignment statements to describe physical systems. The paper focuses on the Simscape language itself instead of using components in the Simscape libraries. The language will be introduced from a perspective different from the Mathworks' Physical Network point of view. Our perspective focuses on two types of variables at the connectors. In additional, internal variables are not separated into through and across variables. The alternative perspective is more general and easier to understand. The paper also illustrates how to develop components in a powertrain library following the proposed new perspective.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Tao Ye
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation. The strategy in our design process is to use a simplified CFD cabin model correlated with available test results for rapid routine design analysis.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jason Coryell, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Sushil Mishra
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of regions close to the fracture area were used to explain the observed temperature variations of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 0.2% yield strength (0.2%YS), uniform elongation (UE) and total elongation (TE).
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Tinghui Shi, Robert Nisonger
During braking events, a brake corner sustains high brake torque, generating a large amount of heat in the process. This is most significant during mountain descent events and vehicle race track events. The brake thermal events not only reduce brake friction coefficient and lining life, but also produce elevated brake fluid temperature. Traditionally, brake hardware testing is warranted to evaluate brake fluid temperature for high speed flat track and mountain descent. These tests are costly and time-consuming. A CAE process to predict brake fluid temperature early in the vehicle development process before hardware exists, and to reduce and to replace testing will greatly benefit the vehicle development process. To this end, multiple analyses can be run. The heat transfer coefficients and cooling coefficients were evaluated from relevant CFD analyses. Then BrakePro and CarSim were run to evaluate appropriate brake flat track temperature profiles and simulated mountain schedule temperatures of rotors.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ibrahim A. Badiru, Michael W. Neal
This paper presents subjective and objective methods for evaluating transient vehicle dynamics characteristics in four sections: (1) Definition of transient behavior in terms of four traits-agility, stability, precision, and roll support; (2) Description of subjective evaluation methods; (3) Implementation of Design for Six Sigma principles to the development of a steering robot controlled objective test for transient performance; (4) The final section of this paper uses data from simulation and road tests to demonstrate how chassis design parameters can affect transient handling performance.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ayyoub Rezaeian, Reza Zarringhalam, Saber Fallah, William Melek, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiarr Litkouhi
This paper proposes a model-based “Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter” (CDEKF) for combined vehicle state estimation, namely, tire vertical forces and parameter identification. A sensitivity analysis is first carried out to recognize the vehicle inertial parameters that have significant effects on tire normal forces. Next, the combined estimation process is separated in two components. The first component is designed to identify the vehicle mass and estimate the longitudinal forces while the second component identifies the location of center of gravity and estimates the tire normal forces. A Dual extended Kalman filter is designed for each component for combined state estimation and parameter identification. Simulation results verify that the proposed method can precisely estimate the tire normal forces and accurately identify the inertial parameters.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Sankar Rao Nallapati, Jason Miller, Balakrishna Chinta, John Morley
Developing a robust model that can simulate all real world conditions a vehicle can experience can be extremely difficult to predict. When working through the engineering process, Computer Aided Engineers (CAE) traditionally set modeling parameters and conditions to a nominal setting. This is done to simplify the models so that it avoided inputting too much tedious details into the system and wasting so much engineering time preparing the work. It was soon realized that this strategy did not capture all the possible conditions a hood on a vehicle could experience. There was a need to develop a formal approach and method to correlate an analysis model to real world conditions. The Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) process was utilized to develop robustness in the techniques used to accurately understand the vehicle environment. The DFSS process is normally used to design and develop robustness into physical parts. This project took a different approach by applying the techniques in a virtual setting to create a process that can continuously improve correlation [1, 2, 3].
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Federico Millo, Fabio Mallamo, Theodoros Vlachos, Claudio Ciaravino, Lucio Postrioti, Giacomo Buitoni
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels. Afterwards, the effects of a biofuel blend usage on brake specific fuel consumption and on exhaust emissions were also evaluated at 7 different part load operating conditions, representative of the New European Driving Cycle.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Hu Hu, Urban De Souza
Generally linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict fatigue life of spot welded joints in a vehicle body structure. Therefore, the effect of plastic deformation at the vicinity of the spot welded joints is not included on fatigue prediction. This study introduces a simple technique to include the plastic deformation effect without performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The S-N curve obtained from fatigue test results is modified to consider this effect. Tensile strength test results of spot welded joint specimens were utilized to find the load range for FEA equivalent to the applied load range for fatigue tests. To demonstrate the proposed approach, fatigue test results of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for lap-shear and coach peel specimens were used. Both the specimen types were tested at various constant amplitudes with the load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.3.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Amit Gupta, Markus Jochim, Kenneth Orlando
FlexRay is a communication system targeted at, among other things, fault tolerant applications. In contrast to some other communication systems, FlexRay systems often contain a central device such as an active star. Due to their ability to isolate portions of the communication system central devices offer opportunities to mitigate certain faults. This paper presents several alternatives for the central device of a FlexRay system, specifically active stars, FlexRay switches, and Central Bus Guardians. The paper analyzes the fault detection, isolation and mitigation mechanisms of each central device based on available documentation and specifications.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Darrell Robinette, Ted Skrzycke
This paper presents an alternative launch device for layshaft dual clutch transmissions (DCT's). The launch device incorporates a hydrodynamic torque converter, a lockup clutch with controlled slip capability and two wet multi-plate clutches to engage the input shafts of the transmission. The device is intended to overcome the deficiencies associated with using conventional dry or wet launch clutches in DCT's, such as limited torque capacity at vehicle launch, clutch thermal capacity and cooling, launch shudder, lubricant quality and requirement for interval oil changes. The alternative device enhances drive quality and performance at vehicle launch and adds the capability of controlled capacity slip to attenuate gear rattle without early downshifting. Parasitic torque loss will increase but is shown not to drastically influence fuel consumption compared to a dry clutch system, however synchronizer engagement can become a concern at cold operating temperatures. The performance of the dual clutch torque converter is assessed in a 7 speed front wheel drive DCT application and compared against the dry clutch system in the areas of launch, start/stop, driveline torsional isolation, gear rattle mitigation and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Michael Russell, Jill Cummings, Timothy Cushing, William Studzinski
The U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) mandates the use of advanced renewable fuels such as cellulosic ethanol to be blended into gasoline in the near future. As such, determining the impact of these new fuel blends on vehicle performance is important. Therefore, General Motors conducted engine dynamometer evaluations on the impact of cellulosic ethanol blends on port fuel injected (PFI) intake valve deposits and gasoline direct injected (GDI) fuel injector plugging. Chemical analysis of the test fuels was also conducted and presented to support the interpretation of the engine results. The chemical analyses included an evaluation of the specified fuel parameters listed in ASTM International's D4806 denatured fuel ethanol specification as well as GC/MS hydrocarbon speciations to help identify any trace level contaminant species from the new ethanol production processes. While the cellulosic ethanol engine test results varied nominally depending on the type of feedstock used, the average cellulosic ethanol results were determined to be equivalent to corn-based ethanol samples tested.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Alok Warey, David Long, Sandro Balestrino, Patrick Szymkowicz, Anil Singh Bika
Cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is widely used in diesel engines to control engine-out NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions. A portion of the exhaust gases is re-circulated into the intake manifold of the engine after cooling it through a heat exchanger. EGR cooler heat exchangers, however, tend to lose efficiency and have increased pressure drop as deposit forms on the heat exchanger surface due to transport of soot particles and condensing species to the cooler walls. In this study, condensation of water vapor and hydrocarbons at the exit of the EGR cooler was visualized using a fiberscope coupled to a camera equipped with a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) color sensor. A multi-cylinder diesel engine was used to produce a range of engine-out hydrocarbon concentrations. Both surface and bulk gas condensation were observed with the visualization setup over a range of EGR cooler coolant temperatures. No condensation of water or hydrocarbons was observed above 40°C coolant temperature.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Anil Singh Bika, Alok Warey, Patrick Szymkowicz, Sandro Balestrino, David Long
Diesel engine developers are continually striving to reduce harmful NOx emissions through various calibration and hardware strategies. One strategy being implemented in production Diesel engines involves utilizing cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Although there is a significant NOx reduction potential by utilizing cooled EGR, there are also several issues associated with it, such as EGR cooler fouling and a reduction in cooler effectiveness that can occur over time. The exact cause of these issues and many others related to cooler fouling are not clearly understood. One such unanswered issue or phenomenon that has been observed in both field tested and lab tested EGR coolers is that of a recovery in EGR cooler effectiveness after a shutdown or after cycling between various conditions. The purpose of the current work was to show that an effectiveness restoration or effectiveness recovery can occur in an EGR cooler that has been exposed to soot-laden exhaust gases, through changes in operating conditions, with specific emphasis on exposure to high condensation conditions.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Paul Loeper, Youngchul Ra, Cory Adams, David Foster, Jaal Ghandhi, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, Russ Durrett
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine. With constraints of combustion efficiency, noise level (pressure rise rate) and emissions, engine operation sensitivity due to changes in inlet temperature between 50-90C was first examined for fixed fueling rates.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ronald O. Grover, Jr., David Cleary
A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes. These detailed flow parameters are compared to the measured combustion data and correlations between the calculated and measured results are explored.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jin-Woo Lee, Shilpa Prabhuswamy
Today many vehicles are being developed with advanced computing and sensing technologies. These new technologies have contributed in enhancing driving safety and convenience. As an example, the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) can automatically adjust the vehicle speed to driver's set speed and maintain the driver-requested headway distance to the lead vehicle. In this paper, we further consider the automatic control of speed according to the road attributes, e.g., the speed limit and curve of the road. Two new features, ‘speed limit follower’ and ‘curve speed control’ algorithms, are proposed in this paper. These new features communicate with the conventional ACC system and control the vehicle speed while traveling across different curved roads and speed limit zones. These new features were developed as an independent function, so they can be integrated with any other existing ACC systems. The key enabler for these features is sensing the speed limit and the curvature of upcoming roads using the OnStar GPS and a digital Map.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Karl William Steffke, Sudhakar Inguva, Daniel Van Cleve, James Knockeart
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Drew D. Brennan, Jeremy Worm, Christopher Morgan
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ibrahim Badiru, W. Bradley Cwycyshyn
This paper discusses subjective and objective approaches to quantifying ride performance in three sections: (1) Separates overall ride quality into five components-impact feel, shake, isolation, motion control, and smoothness; (2) Discusses approaches to objectively quantifying ride performance; (3) Provides analytical and test data to illustrate trade-offs in performance between the components of ride. The final section of this paper presents customer clinic data indicating customer preferences for the trade-off balance between ride performance attributes, specifically motion control versus smoothness.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Bing Xu, Michael Leffert, Brian Belanger
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Robert Foley, Rajesh Nagappala, Galen Ressler, Peter Andres, Brian Martel
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications. The usage of the definitions in the standards for voltages, pollution degree and the rationale for selection of the insulation required will be discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Elana Chapman, Jill Cummings, Douglas Conran
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels (Ethanol Fuel Blends), were studied for their chemical compositions, and their impact on valves for a naturally aspirated port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Shailesh Martin Lopes, Robert Furey, Pat Geng
Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects the vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb calorimeter, this analytical laboratory testing is time consuming and expensive. It would be more convenient to estimate the energy content from other commonly measured fuel properties.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Michael P. Kirk, Thomas D'Anna, William Seldon, Andreas Perakes, Craig Ross
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects. The resultant procedure is proposed as a new SAE J-standard (Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice) for release by the AWD Standards Committee.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Kuo-Huey Chen, James Johnson, Parviz Merati, Charles Davis
Numerical results are presented for simulating buoyancy driven flow in a simplified full-scale underhood with open enclosure in automobile. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the underhood soak condition, when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with power shut-down after enduring high thermal loads due to performing a sequence of operating conditions, such as highway driving and trailer-grade loads in a hot ambient environment. The experimental underhood geometry, although simplified, consists of the essential components in a typical automobile underhood undergoing the buoyancy-driven flow condition. It includes an open enclosure which has openings to the surrounding environment from the ground and through the top hood gap, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The calculated temperature and velocity were compared with the measured data at different locations near and away from the hot exhaust plumes. The numerical predictions reveal a complex flow structure under the buoyancy condition, and the results show very favorable comparisons with the experimental velocity and temperature measurements.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Randy Gu, Lianxiang Yang, Leonid Lev, George Harmon, Nan Xu, Xin Xie
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6]. In a forward problem, we are provided with known material model, well-defined boundary conditions, and specific loading conditions - mechanical as well as thermal.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
W. Bradley Cwycyshyn, Joseph Fedullo
With deflected-disc dampers, digressive force-velocity shapes are achieved via the combined effects of disc stack stiffness and hub-offset. The degree of digressiveness can be adjusted to alter vehicle performance by changing the proportion of these parameters. Optimizing this relationship can yield substantial vehicle performance improvements, but the time consuming iterative process of developing a new disc stack for each hub-offset discourages experimentation. To enable more efficient digressiveness comparisons, a regression-based computational method has been developed which converts disc stack stiffness from one hub-offset to other offsets directly, without iteration. Once an initial disc stack for one offset has been tuned by traditional methods, stacks for other offsets can be calculated that maintain overall damper control. This paper will present background information on deflected disc valving and curve shaping, describe development of the computational method, and show an example of a typical comparison, graphically.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 295

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: