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Viewing 1 to 30 of 299
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0274
John Thomas, John Sgueglia, Dajiang Suo, Nancy Leveson, Mark Vernacchia, Padma Sundaram
Abstract The introduction of new safety critical features using software-intensive systems presents a growing challenge to hazard analysis and requirements development. These systems are rich in feature content and can interact with other vehicle systems in complex ways, making the early development of proper requirements critical. Catching potential problems as early as possible is essential because the cost increases exponentially the longer problems remain undetected. However, in practice these problems are often subtle and can remain undetected until integration, testing, production, or even later, when the cost of fixing them is the highest. In this paper, a new technique is demonstrated to perform a hazard analysis in parallel with system and requirements development. The proposed model-based technique begins during early development when design uncertainty is highest and is refined iteratively as development progresses to drive the requirements and necessary design features.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1144
Kumaraswamy Hebbale, Farzad Samie, Jonathan Kish
Abstract Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT) for passenger cars are being developed by OEMs and suppliers. The driving force is the improvement in fuel economy available from manual transmissions together with the comfort of automatic transmissions. A dry clutch system (dDCT) is currently the subject of research, development, and production implementation. One of the key issues in the development of a dDCT is clutch durability. In dry clutches with current linings, above a critical temperature, the friction system starts to suffer permanent damage. In addition, the clutch friction characteristics are a function of the clutch interface temperature. Because a reliable, low-cost temperature sensor is not available for this application, the clutch control engineers rely on a good thermal model to estimate the temperature of the clutches. A thermal model was developed for dry dual clutch transmissions to predict operating temperature of both pressure and center plates during all maneuvers.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0796
Stephen Busch, Kan Zha, Paul C. Miles, Alok Warey, Francesco Pesce, Richard Peterson, Alberto Vassallo
Abstract A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1272
Jeffrey Jocsak, David White, Cedric Armand, Richard S. Davis
Abstract General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5 L range extender engine for use in the 2016 next generation Voltec propulsion system. This engine is part of a new Ecotec family of small displacement gasoline engines introduced in the 2015 model year. Major enhancements over the range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system include the adoption of direct injection (DI), cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and a high 12.5:1 geometric compression ratio (CR). Additional enhancements include the adoption of high-authority phasers on both the intake and exhaust camshafts, and an integrated exhaust manifold (IEM). The combination of DI with cooled EGR has enabled significant thermal efficiency gains over the 1.4 L range extender engine in the current generation Voltec propulsion system at high engine loads.
2013-12-15
Journal Article
2013-01-9042
Darrell Robinette
This paper details the design and operating attributes of a triple input clutch, layshaft automatic transmission (TCT) with a torque converter in a rear wheel drive passenger vehicle. The objectives of the TCT design are to reduce fuel consumption while increasing acceleration performance through the design of the gearing arrangement, shift actuation system and selection of gear ratios and progression. A systematic comparison of an 8-speed TCT design is made against a hypothetical 8-speed planetary automatic transmission (AT) with torque converter using an energy analysis model based upon empirical data and first principles of vehicle-powertrain systems. It was found that the 8-speed TCT design has the potential to provide an approximate 3% reduction in fuel consumption, a 3% decrease in 0-100 kph time and 30% reduction in energy loss relative to a comparable 8-speed planetary AT with an idealized logarithmic ratio progression.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0499
Ney Q. Pereira, Brian Callaghan
The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), introduced in 1979 by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, is a vehicle safety rating system that conducts crash test and provides motoring consumers with an assessment of the safety performance of new cars. Similar programs were then developed around the world, initially for Europe (EuroNCAP), Australia (ANCAP), Japan (JNCAP), China (CNCAP) and Korea (KNCAP). NCAP most recently reached Latin America (LatinNCAP) and Southeast Asia (AseanNCAP). Although the roots are similar, many NCAP programs have significant differences on the test procedures and rating schemes. This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent NCAP protocols to highlight the most important technical differences.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0610
Jason Coryell, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Sushil Mishra
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0618
Jin-Woo Lee, Shilpa Prabhuswamy
Today many vehicles are being developed with advanced computing and sensing technologies. These new technologies have contributed in enhancing driving safety and convenience. As an example, the Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) can automatically adjust the vehicle speed to driver's set speed and maintain the driver-requested headway distance to the lead vehicle. In this paper, we further consider the automatic control of speed according to the road attributes, e.g., the speed limit and curve of the road. Two new features, ‘speed limit follower’ and ‘curve speed control’ algorithms, are proposed in this paper. These new features communicate with the conventional ACC system and control the vehicle speed while traveling across different curved roads and speed limit zones. These new features were developed as an independent function, so they can be integrated with any other existing ACC systems.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0976
Q. Ma, B. Li, A.L. Oppedal, P.T. Wang, Alan Luo, Mark Horstemeyer
An extruded Mg-Al-Mn (AM30) magnesium alloy was subjected to uniaxial compression along the extrusion direction (ED) and the extrusion radial direction (RaD) at 450 °C and different strain rates. The microstructure and texture of the AM30 alloy under different deformation conditions were examined. Texture evolution was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The activity of different deformation modes including twinning were simulated using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) and the simplistic Sachs polycrystal plasticity models. The results show that the microstructure and the mechanical property of the Mg alloy strongly depend on the strain rate, with twinning activated at strain rates >0.5 s−1. Dynamic recrystallization and twinning interacted with each other and affected the final microstructure and mechanical property of the magnesium alloy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1185
Amit Gupta, Markus Jochim, Kenneth Orlando
FlexRay is a communication system targeted at, among other things, fault tolerant applications. In contrast to some other communication systems, FlexRay systems often contain a central device such as an active star. Due to their ability to isolate portions of the communication system central devices offer opportunities to mitigate certain faults. This paper presents several alternatives for the central device of a FlexRay system, specifically active stars, FlexRay switches, and Central Bus Guardians. The paper analyzes the fault detection, isolation and mitigation mechanisms of each central device based on available documentation and specifications.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1355
Ibrahim Badiru, W. Bradley Cwycyshyn
This paper discusses subjective and objective approaches to quantifying ride performance in three sections: (1) Separates overall ride quality into five components-impact feel, shake, isolation, motion control, and smoothness; (2) Discusses approaches to objectively quantifying ride performance; (3) Provides analytical and test data to illustrate trade-offs in performance between the components of ride. The final section of this paper presents customer clinic data indicating customer preferences for the trade-off balance between ride performance attributes, specifically motion control versus smoothness.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0691
Ayyoub Rezaeian, Reza Zarringhalam, Saber Fallah, William Melek, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiarr Litkouhi
This paper proposes a model-based “Cascaded Dual Extended Kalman Filter” (CDEKF) for combined vehicle state estimation, namely, tire vertical forces and parameter identification. A sensitivity analysis is first carried out to recognize the vehicle inertial parameters that have significant effects on tire normal forces. Next, the combined estimation process is separated in two components. The first component is designed to identify the vehicle mass and estimate the longitudinal forces while the second component identifies the location of center of gravity and estimates the tire normal forces. A Dual extended Kalman filter is designed for each component for combined state estimation and parameter identification. Simulation results verify that the proposed method can precisely estimate the tire normal forces and accurately identify the inertial parameters.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0708
Ibrahim A. Badiru, Michael W. Neal
This paper presents subjective and objective methods for evaluating transient vehicle dynamics characteristics in four sections: (1) Definition of transient behavior in terms of four traits-agility, stability, precision, and roll support; (2) Description of subjective evaluation methods; (3) Implementation of Design for Six Sigma principles to the development of a steering robot controlled objective test for transient performance; (4) The final section of this paper uses data from simulation and road tests to demonstrate how chassis design parameters can affect transient handling performance.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0857
Bing Xu, Michael Leffert, Brian Belanger
This paper investigates changes in fuel economy of a mid-size sedan at various engine cooling fan power levels and front grille opening areas. A full vehicle model was built using MATLAB Simulink to calculate the fuel economy (MPG). The model utilized inputs from aerodynamic wind tunnel testing as well as FTP and MVEG dynamometer tests results. Simulation and testing was carried out at three front opening areas and three engine cooling fan power levels. The results provide a guideline for optimizing the front grille opening vs. engine cooling fan power combination at various driving conditions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1388
Sankar Rao Nallapati, Jason Miller, Balakrishna Chinta, John Morley
Developing a robust model that can simulate all real world conditions a vehicle can experience can be extremely difficult to predict. When working through the engineering process, Computer Aided Engineers (CAE) traditionally set modeling parameters and conditions to a nominal setting. This is done to simplify the models so that it avoided inputting too much tedious details into the system and wasting so much engineering time preparing the work. It was soon realized that this strategy did not capture all the possible conditions a hood on a vehicle could experience. There was a need to develop a formal approach and method to correlate an analysis model to real world conditions. The Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) process was utilized to develop robustness in the techniques used to accurately understand the vehicle environment. The DFSS process is normally used to design and develop robustness into physical parts.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1090
Ronald O. Grover, Jr., David Cleary
A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1208
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Hu Hu, Urban De Souza
Generally linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict fatigue life of spot welded joints in a vehicle body structure. Therefore, the effect of plastic deformation at the vicinity of the spot welded joints is not included on fatigue prediction. This study introduces a simple technique to include the plastic deformation effect without performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The S-N curve obtained from fatigue test results is modified to consider this effect. Tensile strength test results of spot welded joint specimens were utilized to find the load range for FEA equivalent to the applied load range for fatigue tests. To demonstrate the proposed approach, fatigue test results of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for lap-shear and coach peel specimens were used. Both the specimen types were tested at various constant amplitudes with the load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.3.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0854
Tao Ye
A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) statistical approach is presented in this report to correlate a CFD cabin model with test results. The target is the volume-averaged hot-soak terminal temperature. The objective is to develop an effective correlation process for a simplified CFD cabin model so it can be used in practical design process. It is, however, not the objective in this report to develop the most accurate CFD cabin model that would be too expensive computationally at present to be used in routine design analysis. A 3-D CFD model of a vehicle cabin is the central part of the computer modeling in the development of automotive HVAC systems. Hot-soak terminal temperature is a thermal phenomenon in the cabin of a parked vehicle under the Sun when the overall heat transfer reaches equilibrium. It is often part of the simulation of HVAC system operation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0896
Paul Loeper, Youngchul Ra, Cory Adams, David E. Foster, Jaal Ghandhi, Michael Andrie, Roger Krieger, Russ Durrett
The light-medium load operating range (4-7 bar net IMEP) presents many challenges for advanced low temperature combustion strategies utilizing low cetane fuels (specifically, 87-octane gasoline) in light-duty, high-speed engines. The overly lean overall air-fuel ratio (Φ≺0.4) sometimes requires unrealistically high inlet temperatures and/or high inlet boost conditions to initiate autoignition at engine speeds in excess of 1500 RPM. The objective of this work is to identify and quantify the effects of variation in input parameters on overall engine operation. Input parameters including inlet temperature, inlet pressure, injection timing/duration, injection pressure, and engine speed were varied in a ~0.5L single-cylinder engine based on a production General Motors 1.9L 4-cylinder high-speed diesel engine.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1679
Federico Millo, Fabio Mallamo, Theodoros Vlachos, Claudio Ciaravino, Lucio Postrioti, Giacomo Buitoni
The effects of using blended renewable diesel fuel (30% vol.), obtained from Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. The hydraulic behavior of the common rail injection system was verified in terms of injected volume and injection rate with both RME and HVO blends fuelling in comparison with commercial diesel. Further, the spray obtained with RME B30 was analyzed and compared with diesel in terms of global shape and penetration, to investigate the potential differences in the air-fuel mixing process. Then, the impact of a biofuel blend usage on engine performance at full load was first analyzed, adopting the same reference calibration for all the tested fuels.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0674
Abtin Athari, Saber Fallah, Bin Li, Amir Khajepour, Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiar Litkouhi
This paper presents the implementation of an off-line optimized torque vectoring controller on an electric-drive vehicle with four in-wheel motors for driver assistance and handling performance enhancement. The controller takes vehicle longitudinal, lateral, and yaw acceleration signals as feedback using the concept of state-derivative feedback control. The objective of the controller is to optimally control the vehicle motion according to the driver commands. Reference signals are first calculated using a driver command interpreter to accurately interpret what the driver intends for the vehicle motion. The controller then adjusts the braking/throttle outputs based on discrepancy between the vehicle response and the interpreter command.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0428
A. C. Rajeev, Swarup Mohalik, S. Ramesh
Model-Based Development processes in the automotive industry typically use high-level modeling languages to build the reference models of embedded controllers. One can use formal verification tools to exhaustively verify these design models against their requirements, ensuring high quality models and a reduction in the cost and effort of functional testing. However, there is a gap, in terms of processes and tools, between the informal requirements and the formal specifications required by the verification tools. In this paper, we propose an approach that tries to bridge this gap by (i) identifying the verifiable requirements through a categorization process, (ii) providing a set of templates to easily express the verifiable requirements, and (iii) generating monitors that can be used as specifications in design verification tools. We demonstrate our approach using the Simulink Design Verifier tool for design verification of Simulink/Stateflow models.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0175
Reza Zarringhalam, Ayyoub Rezaeian, Saber Fallah, Amir Khajepour, William Melek, Shih-Ken Chen, Baktiarr Litkouhi
This paper discusses observability of the vehicle states using different sensor configurations as well as fault-tolerant estimation of these states. The optimality of the sensor configurations is assessed through different observability measures and by using a 3-DOF linear vehicle model that incorporates yaw, roll and lateral motions of the vehicle. The most optimal sensor configuration is adopted and an observer is designed to estimate the states of the vehicle handling dynamics. Robustness of the observer against sensor failure is investigated. A fault-tolerant adaptive estimation algorithm is developed to mitigate any possible faults arising from the sensor failures. Effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant estimation scheme is demonstrated through numerical analysis and CarSim simulation.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0361
Michael P. Kirk, Thomas D'Anna, William Seldon, Andreas Perakes, Craig Ross
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0842
Kuo-Huey Chen, James Johnson, Parviz Merati, Charles Davis
Numerical results are presented for simulating buoyancy driven flow in a simplified full-scale underhood with open enclosure in automobile. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the underhood soak condition, when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with power shut-down after enduring high thermal loads due to performing a sequence of operating conditions, such as highway driving and trailer-grade loads in a hot ambient environment. The experimental underhood geometry, although simplified, consists of the essential components in a typical automobile underhood undergoing the buoyancy-driven flow condition. It includes an open enclosure which has openings to the surrounding environment from the ground and through the top hood gap, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The calculated temperature and velocity were compared with the measured data at different locations near and away from the hot exhaust plumes.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1374
Randy Gu, Lianxiang Yang, Leonid Lev, George Harmon, Nan Xu, Xin Xie
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6].
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1357
W. Bradley Cwycyshyn, Joseph Fedullo
With deflected-disc dampers, digressive force-velocity shapes are achieved via the combined effects of disc stack stiffness and hub-offset. The degree of digressiveness can be adjusted to alter vehicle performance by changing the proportion of these parameters. Optimizing this relationship can yield substantial vehicle performance improvements, but the time consuming iterative process of developing a new disc stack for each hub-offset discourages experimentation. To enable more efficient digressiveness comparisons, a regression-based computational method has been developed which converts disc stack stiffness from one hub-offset to other offsets directly, without iteration. Once an initial disc stack for one offset has been tuned by traditional methods, stacks for other offsets can be calculated that maintain overall damper control.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0652
Nancy Zeng, Cheryl L. O'Brien, Carole M. Wolfe, Craig O'Brien
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0822
Jyh-Shin Chen
Simscape is a physical modeling language developed by Mathworks Inc. The language uses equation statements instead of assignment statements to describe physical systems. The paper focuses on the Simscape language itself instead of using components in the Simscape libraries. The language will be introduced from a perspective different from the Mathworks' Physical Network point of view. Our perspective focuses on two types of variables at the connectors. In additional, internal variables are not separated into through and across variables. The alternative perspective is more general and easier to understand. The paper also illustrates how to develop components in a powertrain library following the proposed new perspective.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0216
Bingbing Nie, Yong Xia, Qing Zhou, Jun Huang, Bing Deng, Mark Neal
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
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