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Viewing 1 to 30 of 375
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1397
Charles Yuan, Erik Kane, Abid Rahman
New seal cross section development is very tedious and time consuming process if conventional analysis method is used. On top of it, it is very hard to predict the right dimension of all small features in the cross-section while meeting the sealing targets. In this study, a generic seal cross section is defined and different design constraints are given. The design optimization tool Isight is used to run the analysis in iterative loop and come up with a cross-section that meets all the design requirements. The process is simple and a new section can be obtained in a day.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0393
Kevin P. Barbash, William V. Mars
We demonstrate here an accounting of damage accrual under road loads for a filled natural rubber bushing. The accounting is useful to developers who wish to avoid the typical risks in development programs: either the risk of premature failure, or of costly overdesign. The accounting begins with characterization of the elastomer to quantify governing behaviors: stress-strain response, fatigue crack growth rate, crack precursor size, and strain crystallization. Finite Element Analysis is used to construct a nonlinear mapping between loads and strain components within each element. Multiaxial, variable amplitude strain histories are computed from road loads. Damage accrues in this reckoning via the growth of cracks. Crack growth is calculated via integration of a rate law from an initial size to a size marking end-of-life.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1169
Brendan Conlon, Mindy Barth, Charles Hua, Clifford Lyons, Dan Nguy, Margaret Palardy
GM has developed an all-new gasoline-electric hybrid powertrain for the model year 2016 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid vehicle, which was designed to achieve excellent real world fuel economy, performance, and drive quality. The powertrain shares the transmission architecture with the 2016 Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle, but includes changes to optimize the system for engine driven charge sustaining operation in the real world conditions represented by the US EPA 5 cycle fuel economy tests. In this paper, we describe the Malibu Hybrid propulsion system features and components, including the battery pack, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, engine, and thermal system. The modifications between the Volt and Malibu Hybrid propulsion systems are discussed and explained as resulting from the differences between the primarily electric and gasoline powered applications.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1205
Chih-Hung (Erik) Yen, Taeyoung Han, Shailendra Kaushik, Bahram Khalighi
The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) is a GM-led, US Department of Energy-funded multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. CAEBAT consists of three approaches for battery pack-level simulation. These approaches are used at different stages for automotive battery pack designs. The System Approach treats a full battery pack as a network of components. Each component is represented by a node in the network and individually modeled with mass, thermal, and electrochemical properties stored in the node. The thermal, electrical, and electrochemical interactions between neighboring components in the network are modeled and represented by a line connection between the nodes. This paper reports the application of the System Approach for a 24-cell liquid-cooled battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1217
Erik Yen, Kuo-huey Chen, Taeyoung Han, Bahram Khalighi
The Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) is a General Motors led, U.S. Department of Energy funded, multi-year project which is aimed at developing a complete CAE tool set for the automotive battery pack design. This paper reports the application of the Full Field Approach (one of the three pack-level tools in the CAEBAT package) for a full battery pack with liquid cooling system. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. CAEBAT consists of three approaches for battery pack-level simulation. These approaches are used at different stages for automotive battery pack development. The Full Field Approach solves mass, flow, energy, electrical, and electrochemical governing equations to obtain the complete field information such as the fluid, thermal, electrical, electrochemical parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1150
Alan Holmes, Jinming Liu, David Ames, Vijay Neelakantan, Khwaja Rahman, Timothy Grewe
This paper describes a new production electrically variable rear wheel drive transmission with 2 electric motors and hydraulic clutches that delivers four continuously variable transmission modes with 3 fixed gears. The transmission’s powerflow, motor designs, and tractive effort capability are explained, and simulation results and test data are provided. Providing all-electric launch, selectable regeneration, and power blending with the turbocharged engine, this transmission provides smooth and seamless power through the entire driving range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0463
Juan Sierra, Camilo Cruz, Luis Munoz, Santiago Avila, Elkin Espitia, Jaime Rodriguez
Brake systems are strongly related with safety of vehicles. Therefore a reliable design of the brake system is critical as vehicles operate in a wide range of environmental conditions, fulfilling different security requirements. Particularly, countries with mountainous geography expose vehicles to aggressive variations in altitude and road grade. These variations affect the performance of the brake system. In order to study how these changes affect the brake system, two approaches were considered. The first approach was centered on the development of an analytical model for the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. This model was developed at system-level, considering the whole vehicle. This allowed the understanding of the relation between the braking force and the altitude and road grade, for different fixed deceleration requirement scenarios. The second approach was focused on the characterization of the vacuum servo operation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1198
Pascal Schmalen, Peter Plapper, Wayne Cai
Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process impacts such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process impacts, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1220
Sinisa Jurkovic, Khwaja M. Rahman, Peter Savagian, Robert Dawsey
The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively in this paper. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both the motors. Induction motor A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor B winding is connected in wye. The choice of an induction motor for motor A enables a lower overall system cost and a rare earth free design while delivering desired performance. Low spin loss design of an induction rotor as compared to a permanent magnet rotor, especially at higher speeds, is the major enabler for the choice of an induction motor for motor A for this application. This paper presents advantages of induction machines (IMs) in automotive industry in the context of this application and an approach to design a cost-effective electric machine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1153
Jinming Liu, Mohammad Anwar, Peter Chiang, Shawn Hawkins, Youngsoo Jeong, Faizul Momen, Stephen Poulos, Seunghan Song
Building on the experience of the Chevrolet Spark EV battery electric vehicle, General Motors (GM) has developed a propulsion system with increased capability for its next generation Chevrolet Bolt EV. It propels a new larger electric vehicle with significantly greater electric driving range. Through extensive analysis the primary propulsion system components, which include the drive unit, traction electric motor, power electronics, energy storage, and on-board charging module, were optimized individually and as an integrated system to deliver improvements in propulsion system energy, power, torque and efficiency. The results deliver outstanding EV range and fun-to-drive acceleration performance.
2016-02-02
Article
24 million cars already have their own wireless connections. But now that most people have smart phones, why would anyone need wireless service in their car? In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Editor-In-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at three important features of the connected vehicle.  
2015-12-04
Article
Using CAE simulation tools early and often, hardware prototyping is slashed and complexity contained while developing the next generation of powertrains.
2015-11-19
Article
GM recently announced that its fuel-cell engineering team is working with the U.S. Army TARDEC to develop a prototype pickup truck with a commercial hydrogen fuel-cell powertrain that is capable of meeting U.S. military duty cycles. The vehicle will be put into daily use and driven by soldiers for 12 months.
2015-11-13
Article
Aerodynamic experts are cautiously optimistic that a long-awaited leap in vehicle fuel efficiency is advancing toward near-term production: the replacement of the two exterior mirrors with camera-based streaming-vision technology—at no overall cost penalty.
2015-11-13
Article
The mixed-materials construction and the new C1XX platform enabled the development team to reduce base curb weight by 278 lb versus its predecessor and undercut its closest competitor, the mass-efficient (and shorter) Audi Q5, by a claimed 100 lb.
2015-11-11
Article
The new $30 million facility at the Warren Technical Center uses a belt-type moving ground plane to simulate full driving conditions on clay models up to an indicated 155 mph (250 km/h).
2015-11-02
Article
The knock on fusion power is that “It is the energy source of the future, and it always will be.” It has seemed like the same criticism could be levied against fuel cell vehicles, as their seemingly magical ability to turn stored hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen into motive power for personal transportation — with only water as a by-product emission —has remained tantalizingly out of reach for decades.
2015-10-29
Article
General Motors and LG have announced they are co-developing the 2017 Chevrolet Bolt electric car and LG is supplying the entire powertrain, battery, and other electronic subsystems. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the GM and LG collaboration. 
2015-10-21
Article
General Motors announced on October 20 that it is partnering with Korean electronics giant LG Corp. in development of the 2017 Chevrolet Bolt EV’s entire powertrain and other vehicle subsystems, in a new business relationship that GM engineering executives said could point to a new model for electrified vehicle development.
2015-09-24
Article
The new Joint Light Tactical Vehicle program, worth $30 billion, brings superior survivability to the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. most prolific multi-mission mobility platform.
2015-07-13
Article
Tesla Motors was the first automaker to engineer wireless software upgrades into its cars. Now General Motors is developing the technology. In this episode of SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at GM's new electrical architecture for its vehicles.
2015-06-25
Article
GM's best-selling global product, the new Cruze shifts to the D2XX compact platform--a move helps create a roomier vehicle while weighing less than the outgoing model.
2015-05-18
Article
Using the benchmark Alpha mixed-materials architecture that it pioneered on Cadillac ATS, GM takes over 200 lb out of the admittedly overweight 2015 Camaro and adds its first turbocharged four-cylinder powertrain.
2015-04-24
Article
Initial focus is on battery, starter, and fuel pump to provide early warnings of impending issues with starting a car, as discussed in a 2015 SAE World Congress panel. The 4G connection in 2016 Chevrolets obtains data, cloud server holds the analysis algorithms.
2015-04-21
Article
Although 30% of traffic fatalities are alcohol-related, and electronic Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety has appeal, more targeted approaches to reducing them are being taken by car makers. Programs aimed at reducing teen driver accidents and death were described at the 25th annual World Traffic Safety Symposium during the New York Auto Show.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0944
Maryam Moulai, Ronald Grover, Scott Parrish, David Schmidt
Abstract A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1357
James A. Crowley
Abstract In the area of Human Factors and Usability research a desired output of many studies is identification of what value a specific Design Parameter should be set at to minimize customer dissatisfaction. A Customer Loss Function is a simple way to graphically display the probability customers will be dissatisfied at different levels of a given design parameter, due to a given failure mode. Many design parameters however, have two distinct but related Failure Modes (customer disatisfiers), typically representing two ends of the parameter (i.e. too much/too little; too hot/too cold; too fast/too slow). Each of these Failure modes is represented by its own unique Customer Loss Function. This paper will introduce a technique to combine these two One-Sided Loss Functions into a comprehensive Two Sided Loss Function. The mathematics behind the creation of both one sided and two sided loss functions is based on Binary Logistic Regression [1,2,3] Analysis Techniques.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0194
Hua Zeng, Isao Hoda, William Ivan, Andrew Baker, Syed Kadry, Hiroki Funato, Jia Li, Masayoshi Takahashi, Hideyuki Sakamoto, Ryuichi Saito
Abstract Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is becoming more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of the vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the electronic components for a vehicle are evaluated and validated at a component-level test bench; however, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of the components can be changed in a vehicle-level test due to differences in the vehicle's configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.). In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. The comparison between the simulation and measurement results is also presented and discussed.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1152
Brendan M. Conlon, Trevor Blohm, Michael Harpster, Alan Holmes, Margaret Palardy, Steven Tarnowsky, Leon Zhou
Abstract The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0680
Rong Zhang, Qian Zou, Gary Barber, Ben Zhou, Yucong Wang
Abstract In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 375

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