Criteria

Text:
Affiliation:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 124
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Daniela Siano, Luigi Teodosio, Vincenzo De Bellis, Fabio Bozza
Abstract The present paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses of the air-filter box of a turbocharged VVA engine, aiming to predict and improve the gas-dynamic noise emissions through a partial re-design of the device. First of all, the gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth is measured during a dedicated experimental campaign. The developed 1D and 3D models are then validated at full load operation, based on experimental data. In particular, 1D model provides a preliminary evaluation of the radiated noise and simultaneously gives reliable boundary conditions for the unsteady 3D CFD simulations. The latter indeed allow to better take into account the geometrical details of the air-filter and guarantee a more accurate gas-dynamic noise prediction. 3D CFD analyses put in evidence that sound emission mainly occur within a frequency range of 350 to 450 Hz. Starting from the above result, the original air-box design is modified through the installation of a single Helmholtz resonator, taking into account layout constraints and the influence on engine performance, as well.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Pierpaolo Napolitano, Valentina Fraioli, Carlo Beatrice, Marianna Migliaccio, Chiara Guido
Abstract An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction in the amount of emitted carbon dioxide and is intrinsically cleaner, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the high duty engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields: the release of high amounts of unburned fuel, the risk of engine knock, the possible thermal efficiency reduction are some factors regarding the fuel combustion aspect. DF configuration examined in the present paper corresponds to Port Fuel Injection of natural gas and direct injection of the Diesel Fuel. The paper reports a theoretical study on the adoption of natural gas for the specific application of the DF concept to Light Duty Diesel Engines for automotive applications.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Stefano Fontanesi, Elena Severi, Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza, Vincenzo De Bellis
In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™. Particularly, information between the two simulation tools are at first exchanged under motored conditions to tune an “in-house developed” turbulence sub-model included in the 1D software. 1D results are then validated against the experimental data under fired full load operations, by employing a further “in-house developed” combustion sub-model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
Abstract The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Silvana Di Iorio, Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract This paper deals with the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with conventional diesel fuel and a biodiesel blend, in particular a 20% v/v concentration of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) mixed with diesel fuel. The investigation was carried out on a prototype three-cylinder engine with 1000 cc of displacement for quadricycle applications. The engine is equipped with a direct common-rail injection system that reaches a maximum pressure of 1400 bar. The engine was designed to comply with Euro 4 and BS IV exhaust emission regulations without a diesel particulate filter. Both in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces were analyzed at different engine speeds and loads. Gaseous emissions were measured at the exhaust. A smoke meter was used to measure the particulate matter concentration. The sizing and the counting of the particles were performed by means of an engine exhaust particle sizer spectrometer. It was found that the number-size distribution of particles is strongly dependent on the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the effect of the fuel properties and the comparison of a PFI and GDI injection system on the performances and on particle emission in a Spark Ignition engine. Experimental investigation was carried out in a small single cylinder engine for two wheel vehicles. The engine displacement was 250 cc. It was equipped with a prototype GDI head and also with an injector in the intake manifold. This makes it possible to run the engine both in GDI and PFI configurations. The engine was fuelled with neat gasoline and ethanol, and ethanol/gasoline blends at 10% v/v, 50% v/v and 85% v/v. The engine was equipped of a quartz pressure transducer that was flush-mounted in the region between intake and exhaust valves. Tests were carried out at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load and two different lambda conditions. These engine points were chosen as representative of urban driving conditions. The gaseous emissions and particle concentration were measured at the exhaust by means of conventional instruments.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Alessandro Montanaro, Marianna Migliaccio, Luigi Allocca, Valentina Fraioli, Seong-Young Lee, Anqi Zhang, Jeffrey Naber
Abstract This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel. The predictive capabilities of the Lib-ICE code, which is a set of applications and libraries for IC engine simulations developed using the OpenFOAM® technology, were evaluated in describing fuel sprays.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ezio Mancaruso, Renato Marialto, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Abstract In recent years, several studies on the efficiency of modern diesel engines have focused on the modeling of combustion process in its different phases. Here, analytical equations are used to describe the physical phenomena that occur in the cylinder. The good agreement between the experimental and simulated data could improve the predictive capabilities of the computational code and reduce the cost of experimental activities. For the modeling of a diesel spray, the first step has been to investigate its behavior in a non-combusting environment; in particular, Musculus and Kattke proposed a model for the simulation of the injection of fuel in non-reacting still environment. Starting from that knowledge, the authors apply the injection model to a compression ignition research engine. By means of an optical engine, injection phase has been investigated via 2D digital imaging. The main jet characteristics like penetration and dispersion angle have been measured. The penetration data were compared with those provided by the 1D model with the same in-cylinder conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Anqi Zhang, Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
High pressure diesel sprays were visualized under vaporizing and combusting conditions in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Near-simultaneous visualization of vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution were acquired using a hybrid shadowgraph/Mie-scattering imaging setup. This imaging technique used two pulsed LED's operating in an alternative manner to provide proper light sources for both shadowgraph and Mie scattering. In addition, combustion cases under the same ambient conditions were visualized through high-speed combustion luminosity measurement. Two single-hole diesel injectors with same nozzle diameters (100μm) but different k-factors (k0 and k1.5) were tested in this study. Detailed analysis based on spray penetration rate curves, rate of injection measurements, combustion indicators and 1D model comparison have been performed. It is concluded that the nozzle geometry is causing the velocity and liquid flow area to vary at the nozzle outlet, which has an impact on air entrainment into the spray and results different combustion behavior.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Gabriele Di Blasio, Mauro Viscardi, Michela Alfè, Valentina Gargiulo, Anna Ciajolo, Carlo Beatrice
Abstract Nowadays, alcohol fuels are of increasing interest as alternative transportation biofuels even in compression ignition engines because they are oxygenated and producible in a sustainable way. In this paper, the experimental research activity was conducted on a single cylinder research engine provided with a modern architecture and properly modified in a dual-fuel (DF) configuration. Looking at ethanol the as one of the future environmental friendly biofuels experimental campaign was aimed to evaluate in detail the effect of the use of the ethanol as port injected fuel in diesel engine on the size, morphology, reactivity and chemical features of the exhaust emitted soot particles. The engine tests were chosen properly in order to represent actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits on in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, fuel efficiency and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Simona Silvia Merola, Stefano Iannuzzi, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino
Optical diagnostic was applied to undiluted engine exhaust to supply a low cost and real time evaluation of the oil dilution tendency of selected fuels. Specifically, UV-visible-near IR extinction spectroscopy was applied in the exhaust line of a Euro 5 turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel. The proposed experimental methodology allowed to identify the contribution to the multi-wavelength extinction of soot, fuel vapor, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Further, the evolution of each species for different post-injection interval settings was followed. On-line optical results were correlated with off-line liquid fuel absorption values. Moreover, spectroscopic measurements were linked to in-cylinder pressure related data and with HC and smoke exhaust emissions. The late post injection activation and fuel amount increase did not affect the energy release within the cylinder for either fuels.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Daniela Siano, Fabio Bozza
During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one. The latter is based on the solution of a kinetic scheme in the end-gas zone, whose thermodynamic conditions are reconstructed by means of a two-zone inverse heat release analysis.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca
The performance and emission characteristics of the compression ignition engines are largely governed by the fuel atomization and air mixing, processes which in turn are strongly influenced by the flow dynamics inside the injector nozzle. This is controlled by dynamic (injection pressure, needle lift, etc.) and geometrical factors (orifice conicity, hydro grinding, etc.). Moreover, the modern diesel fuel injection systems are susceptible of deposits formation that can occur in different locations, e.g. in nozzle spray-holes and inside the injector body. The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of injector coking on diesel spray formation for three injectors with different flow numbers. The characterization of the injection process has been carried out in terms of fuel injection rate as well as spatial and temporal fuel distribution in a quiescent chamber in non evaporative conditions. Three different injection pressures have been adopted namely 40, 80, and 160 MPa with 1.0, 0.6, and 0.3 ms solenoid energizing time.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Simona Silvia Merola, Luca Marchitto, Cinzia Tornatore, Gerardo Valentino, Adrian Irimescu
Detailed experimental information on the early stages of spark ignition process represent a substantial part for guiding the development of engines with higher efficiencies and reduced pollutant emissions. Flame kernel formation influences strongly combustion development inside the cylinder, especially for a direct injection spark ignition engine. This study presents the analysis of the evolution of spark-ignited flame kernels with detailed view upon cycle-to-cycle variations. Experiments are performed in a SI optical engine equipped with the cylinder head and injection system of a commercial turbocharged engine. Blend of commercial gasoline and butanol (40% by volume) is tested at stoichiometric and lean mixture conditions. Experiments are carried out at 2000 rpm through conventional tests (based on in-cylinder pressure measurements and exhaust emission analysis) and through optical diagnostics. In particular, UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy are applied. A post-detection procedure is used to evaluate flame kernel areas evolution and its correlation to the MFB.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Katarzyna Bizon, Gaetano Continillo, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
This study aims at building efficient and robust artificial neural networks (ANN) able to reconstruct the in-cylinder pressure of Diesel engines and to identify engine conditions starting from the signal of a low-cost accelerometer placed on the engine block. The accelerometer is a perfect non-intrusive replacement for expensive probes and is prospectively suitable for production vehicles. In this view, the artificial neural network is meant to be efficient in terms of response time, i.e. fast enough for on-line use. In addition, robustness is sought in order to provide flexibility in terms of operation parameters. Here we consider a feed-forward neural network based on radial basis functions (RBF) for signal reconstruction, and a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron network with tan-sigmoid transfer function for signal classification. The networks are trained using measurements from a three-cylinder real engine for various operating conditions. The RBF neural network is trained with time series from in-cylinder pressure signals and vibration signals measured on a cylinder which is distant from the one in which the pressure signal is measured.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Francesco Catapano, Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Stefano Bernardi, Dario Catanese, Marco Ferrari
The improvement in engines efficiency and reduction of emissions is the permanent aim of engine industry in order to meet European standards regulation. To optimize small internal combustion engines it is necessary to improve the basic knowledge of thermo-fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during the combustion. This paper describes the combustion process in an optically accessible two-stroke spark-ignition engine used in a commercial 43 cm3 chainsaw. Two different feeding systems were tested: standard and CWI one. The engine head was modified in order to allow the visualization of the combustion using endoscopic system coupled with a high spatial resolution ICCD camera. Flame front propagation was evaluated through an image processing procedure. The image visualization and chemiluminence allowed to follow the combustion process from the spark ignition to the exhaust phase at high engine speed. All the optical data were correlated with engine parameters and exhaust emissions. The effect of the injection system on deposits formed by fuel accumulation and on the flame front propagation and unburned hydrocarbons emission was investigated.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Carlo Beatrice, Natale Rispoli, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giorgos Patrianakos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Abdurrahman Imren, Ingemar Denbratt, Roberto Palacin
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle. The simulation results indicate that either EGR or SCR based solutions can be used to achieve Stage IIIB NOx limits for the 560 kW engine, with an acceptable trade-off regarding BSFC in the case of EGR solutions.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Simone Malaguti, Giuseppe Bagli, Alessandro Montanaro, Stefano Piccinini, Luigi Allocca
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation of the spray structure development for pure gasoline fuel and two different ethanol-gasoline blends (10% and 85% ethanol). A numerical methodology has been developed to improve the prediction of the pure and blends fuel spray. The fuel sprays have been simulated by means of a 3D-CFD code, adopting a multi-component approach for the fuel simulations. The vaporization behavior of the real fuel has been improved testing blends of 7 hydrocarbons and a reduced multi-component model has been defined in order to reduce the computational cost of the CFD simulations. Particular care has been also dedicated to the modeling of the atomization and secondary breakup processes occurring to the GDI sprays. The multi-hole jets have been simulated by means of a new atomization approach combined with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor hybrid model. At the nozzle hole exit an initial distribution of atomized droplets has been predicted by the numerical approach taking into account cavitation phenomena and turbulent effects.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Agnese Magno, Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Gianmarco Gioco, Elena Rebesco
The aim of this study is to investigate how the fouling that injectors undergo after several operating hours on a vehicle can affect the injection and combustion phases. The impact of the injector fouling on the pollutant formation has been also investigated. Moreover, the effects of the injector cleaning by deposits through the top quality diesel fuel commercialized by eni that is FAME free and contains multi performance additives have been investigated. The experimentation has been carried out on transparent compression ignition engine. It is a single cylinder equipped with a Euro 5 multi-cylinder head and a second-generation common rail injection system. Three indirect-acting piezoelectric injectors have been tested. The first one has been fouled with European commercial diesel fuel through the CEC DW10 injector-coking test. The second one has been fouled in the same way and, then, it has been cleaned with eni top quality diesel fuel. This fuel has fed the third injector too. Two operating conditions have been investigated; they represent the condition at 1500 rpm and 2 bar of Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) and at 2000 rpm and 5 bar of BMEP, respectively.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Katarzyna Bizon, Gaetano Continillo, Simone Lombardi, Ezio Mancaruso, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Flame luminosity fields can nowadays be collected from optically accessible engines, with high spatial and temporal resolution, and constitute a very powerful investigation means for the transient combustion phenomena taking place in the engine chamber. Interpretation of the impressive amount of collected data can be quite challenging, mainly due to the variety of coupled phenomena involved. Application of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) aims here at separating spatial structures related to different combustion events, and is coupled with the analysis of the statistics of the coefficients of the independent components, and of the measured in-cylinder parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of the application of ICA to 2D images of combustion-related luminosity collected from two different optically accessible engines: Diesel and spark ignition. Independent components and their coefficients are first extracted from sets of luminosity images, and then used to identify leading structures and to study the transient behavior of the combustion process.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Cinzia Tornatore, Luca Marchitto, Gerardo Valentino, Stefano Iannuzzi, Simona Merola
In this paper, a high temporal resolution optical technique, based on the multi-wavelength UV-visible-near IR extinction spectroscopy, was applied at the exhaust of an automotive diesel engine to investigate the post-injection strategy impact on the fuel vapor. Experimental investigations were carried out using three fuels: commercial diesel (B5), a blend of 80% diesel with 20% by vol. of gasoline (G20) and a blend of 80% diesel with 20% by vol. of n-butanol (BU20). Experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2500rpm and 0.8MPa of brake mean effective pressure exploring two post-injection timings and two EGR rates. The optical diagnostic allowed evaluating, during the post-injection activation, the evolution of the fuel vapor in the engine exhaust line. The investigation was focused on the impact of post-injection strategy and fuel properties on the aptitude to produce hydrocarbon rich gaseous exhaust for the regeneration of diesel particulate trap (DPF). The main results showed that advanced start of post-injection produced UV optical signal with a slightly lower intensity due to a tiny energy thermal activity that reduced the fuel vapor amount in the exhaust.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Jaclyn Johnson, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Anqi Zhang
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel. A pre-combustion of reactants filling the vessel generated the required high-temperature and high-pressure conditions typical of diesel engine at the injection time.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Claudio Ciaravino
Interest on the issue of diesel injector nozzle deposits is rising in the last years due to its effects on engine performance. The alteration of nozzles geometry can cause a difference in fuel mass flow and influence smoke emission. Investigation on the effects of nozzle coking in a diesel injector has been the topic of this paper. The experiments have been carried out in a single cylinder optical engine operating in premixed mode. The head of a Euro 5 production engine has been mounted on an elongated cylinder and the production CR injection system has been used. A sapphire window has been set in the piston head in order to have visible access to phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber. Three injectors with decreasing flow number (FN) have been tested. Engine has been fed with commercial diesel fuel. High spatial and temporal resolution camera has been used for the acquisition of in-cylinder injection and combustion images. It allowed obtaining interesting information about the process evolution in the bowl volume.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Luigi Allocca, Sultan Dabagov, Dariush Hampai, Luca Marchitto, Salvatore Alfuso
In this paper the investigation with X-ray Tomography on the structure of a gasoline spray from a GDI injector for automotive applications based on polycapillary optics is reported. Table-top experiment using a microfocus Cu Kα X-ray source for radiography and tomography has been used in combination with a polycapillary halflens and a CCD detector. The GDI injector is inserted in a high-pressure rotating device actuated with angular steps Δθ = 1° at the injection pressure of 8.0 MPa. The sinogram reconstruction of the jets by slices permits a 360° spray access to the fuel downstream the nozzle tip. A spatial distribution of the fuel is reported along the direction of six jets giving a measure of the droplet concentration in a circle of 16 mm2 below the nozzle tip at atmospheric backpressure and ambient temperature.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Glécia Virgolino da Silva Luz, Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Carlos Veras, Maria del Pilar Falla
A set of additives was selected to improve the durability of the physical-chemical and biological characteristics of mineral diesel and its blend with biodiesel. Two biodiesels were used: soybean (SME) and rapeseed (RME). Both physical-chemical properties and fuel dispersion of fuel blends and their mixtures with additives were measured that could have effects on the combustion process in diesel engines. The dispersion of the fuel is affected by the injection nozzle integrity, influencing the capacity of the fuel to vaporize, while the modification of the fuel molecular structure can cause changes in combustion reaction. A 7 hole Common Rail (CR) 2nd generation injector, 136 μm in diameter, was used at 80 MPa and 1.0 ms injection pressure and duration, respectively. The injection rate was determined using the Bosch's Method, while the fuel dispersion was measured by analyzing the images of spray evolving in an optical accessible quiescent vessel. The results showed that the additives have a great influence on the stability of the blends.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Luigi De Simio, Michele Gambino, Sabato Iannaccone, Luigi Borrelli, Alfredo Gimelli, Massimiliano Muccillo
The paper deals with experimental testing of a natural gas fueled engine. Break Specific fuel Consumption (BSFC), Average Mass Flow Rate, Instantaneous Cylinder Pressure and some wall temperatures have been measured at some full and part load operating conditions. The results of this experimental activity, still in progress, have been used to calibrate a 1D-flow engine's model. Then the effects of some VVA strategies have been theoretically studied through the validated model. With the aim of maximizing the full load engine's torque, a genetic algorithm was used to calculate the optimized intake and exhaust valves timing angles. Various VVA strategies were compared at part-load in order to reduce brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine. The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model. The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration. The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases. Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered. The model was used to analyze low load (BMEP = 2 bar at 1500 rpm) and medium load (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) operating conditions in an optical single cylinder engine sharing the combustion system configuration of the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Tommaso Lucchini, Marco Fiocco, Angelo Onorati, Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Francesco Catapano
This paper is focused on the development and application of a CFD methodology that can be applied to predict the fuel-air mixing process in stratified charge, sparkignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to model the spray evolution together with a liquid film model that properly takes into account its effects on the fuel-air mixing process into account. However, numerical simulation of stratified combustion in SI engines is a very challenging task for CFD modeling, due to the complex interaction of different physical phenomena involving turbulent, reacting and multiphase flows evolving inside a moving geometry. Hence, for a proper assessment of the different sub-models involved a detailed set of experimental optical data is required. To this end, a large experimental database was built by the authors. In particular, the spray morphology was characterized in detail inside a constant volume vessel, where images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post-processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone-angles.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Gabriele Di Blasio, Giuseppe Bonura, Francesco Frusteri, Carlo Beatrice, Catia Cannilla, Mauro Viscardi
In this paper the characteristics of a mixture of glycerol-based ethers usable in a compression ignition engine are investigated, in terms of efficiency and emissions. Alternative pathways for the energetic exploitation of biodiesel derived glycerol became of increasing interest as the biodiesel production was increased worldwide. Because of its detrimental physical and chemical properties, raw glycerol is hardly usable in conventional internal combustion engines (ICE). However, etherification of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol and isobutylene allows obtaining a mixture mainly composed of higher glycerol ethers (GEM) suitable for compression ignition engines. Thus, the aim of this research study was to test a mixture of mono-, di- and tri-tert-butyl ethers of glycerol in blend with a commercial diesel fuel in a compression ignition engine, evaluating the fuel efficiency and the impact on the pollutant emissions. The tests were performed on a single cylinder research engine derived from a Euro5 compliant four cylinder engine.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Giovanni Meccariello, Livia Della Ragione, Maria Vittoria Prati, Maria Antonietta Costagliola, Valerio Saccoccia
An experimental campaign was carried out to evaluate the influence of CNG and gasoline on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a bi-fuel passenger car over on-road tests performed in the city of Naples. The chosen route is very traffic congested during the daytime of experimental measurements. An on-board analyzer was used to measure CO, CO2, NOx tailpipe concentrations and the exhaust flow rate. Throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust pollutants, the fuel consumption was estimated. The exact spatial position was acquired by a GPS which allowed to calculate vehicle speed and the traffic condition was monitored by a video camera. Whole trip realized by the vehicle was subdivided in succession of kinematic sequences and the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption were analyzed and presented as value on each kinematic sequence. Moreover, throughout a multivariate statistical analysis of sequences, the driving cycles characterizing the use of vehicle were identified. Finally, comparison between regulated emissions of CNG and gasoline configurations was performed qualitatively by the analysis of speed and emission profiles belonging to the same cluster of cycles.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 124

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: