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2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0058
Makoto Hasegawa, Takanobu Kaneko
ISO 26262, a international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. And it is expected that motorcycle will be included in its scope at the next revision scheduled in 2018. Prior to its revision, Publicly Available Specification, ISO/PAS 19695 was published in 2015 and this is the adaptation of ISO 26262 for motorcycles. It is foreseen that the essences of this PAS will be the main potion of the revision of ISO 26262 related to motorcycle inclusion. Exposure is one of the factor that determines Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL) defined in the PAS. It indicates the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0057
Yuji Arai, Makoto Hasegawa, Takeshi Harigae
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of safety-related electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0059
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
In applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, C class evaluation by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests in terms of safety restrictions (avoid the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is close to the performance limit of the vehicle. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class classification method by an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. First, we confirmed the possibility that expert riders can evaluate C class. The riding maneuvers of expert and ordinary riders on the test were compared, assuming normal running. The comparison result demonstrated that expert riders could evaluate C class from an ordinary rider’s perspective. Next, we considered a test procedure that used an evaluation sheet as the C class evaluation technique for an actual hazardous event.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0746
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Controllability (C class) represents the level of the ability to avoid harm and is one of the parameters that determine the Automotive Safety Integrity Level in the ISO 26262 functional safety standard, which applies to the electrical and/or electronic systems. This study aimed to consider an appropriate C class evaluation technique for expert riders in applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles. This study attempted to show a C class evaluation method without deviation by the riders and presented examples of the evaluation of three hazardous events in actual vehicle tests. In addition, riders' comments regarding their understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the evaluation were collected, and the correspondence of these comments was examined. We selected “unintended acceleration” or “unintended deceleration” due to the malfunction of the electronic throttle control system as hazard examples and conducted tests to reproduce hazardous events.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0714
Yuji Arai, Makoto Hasegawa, Takeshi Harigae
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for passenger cars. In this standard, ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for passenger cars are determined by evaluating the hazardous events associated with each item constituting an electrical and/or electronic safety-related system according to three evaluation criteria including injury severity. On the other hand, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. It is expected that a severity evaluation for motorcycles will be needed because motorcycles are clearly different from passenger cars in vehicle mass and structure. Therefore, this study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0794
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
ISO 26262, a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply automotive safety integrity levels (ASILs) to motorcycles because the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. In our previous study, we newly defined safety integrity levels for motorcycles (MSILs) and proposed that the levels of MSILs should correspond to levels one step lower than those of ASILs; however, we did not investigate the validity of their connections. Accordingly, in this research, we validated the connections. We defined the difference of levels of SILs between motorcycles and motor vehicles as the difference of target values of random hardware failure rates specified in ISO 26262-5.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1195
Kiyotaka Maeda, Masashi Takahashi
Abstract To verify the appropriateness of the vibration test conditions of ISO 12405, we performed tailoring to derive power spectrum densities and test durations as vibration test conditions. Vehicles used for tailoring included two electric vehicles and one plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. Those vehicles were equipped with accelerometers and were run on seven different road types at different speeds while data on the acceleration of the battery packs were recorded. The power spectrum densities for three axes that were derived from the obtained acceleration data were similar in form to the power spectrum densities of ISO 12405, and almost the same root mean square accelerations were obtained, confirming that they are appropriate. However, both experiments and theory suggest that the test duration for the Z-axis exceeds those of the X- and Y-axes.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1470
Takahiro Isshiki, Atsuhiro Konosu, Yukou Takahashi
Abstract Current legform impact test methods using the FlexPLI have been developed to protect pedestrians from lower limb injuries in collisions with low-bumper vehicles. For this type of vehicles, the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb is compensated by setting the impact height of the FlexPLI 50 mm above that of pedestrians. However, neither the effectiveness of the compensation method of the FlexPLI nor the influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian has been clarified with high-bumper vehicles. In this study, therefore, two computer simulation analyses were conducted in order to analyze: (1) The influence of the upper body on the bending load generated in the lower limb of a pedestrian when impacted by high-bumper vehicles and (2) The effectiveness of the compensation method for the lack of the upper body by increasing impact height of the FlexPLI for high-bumper vehicles.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0039
Ryuzo Hayashi, Hajime Tsuyuki, Masao Nagai
Abstract This study proposes a method for presenting maneuver request information of accelerator pedal to a driver via the accelerator pedal itself. By applying periodic force like vibration on an accelerator pedal, information is transferred to the driver without displacing the accelerator pedal. In this study, the authors focus on a saw-tooth wave as the periodic force. When the saw-tooth-waved force is applied on the accelerator pedal, a human driver feels as if the accelerator pedal is knocked by someone periodically. In addition, information about the quantity of requested maneuver can be transferred by the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave. Based on these facts, the saw-tooth wave is modified and optimized empirically with ten human drivers so that the information of direction is transferred most reliably. In addition, the relationship between the amplitude of the saw-tooth wave and requested quantity of the pedal maneuver that the drivers feel is formulated.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0016
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0025
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0236
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0421
Yohsuke Tamura, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Noriaki Ohtsuka, Kenji Sato
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0428
Masashi Takahashi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Shouma Nakagawa
Electric vehicles have become more popular and may be involved in fires due to accidents. However, characteristics of fires in electric vehicles are not yet fully understood. The electrolytic solution of lithium-battery vehicles is inflammable, so combustion characteristics and gases generated may differ from those of gasoline cars. Therefore, we conducted fire tests on lithium-ion battery vehicles and gasoline vehicles and investigated the differences in combustion characteristics and gases generated. The fire tests revealed some differences in combustion characteristics. For example, in lithium-ion battery vehicles, the battery temperature remained high after combustion of the body. However, there was almost no difference in the maximum CO concentration measured 0.5 to 1 m above the roof and 1 m from the side of the body. Furthermore, HF was not detected in either type of vehicle when measured at the same positions as for CO.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0211
Yohsuke Tamura, Takeuchi Masayuki, Kenji Sato
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1545
Masashi Takahashi, Masaru Takabayashi, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi
ISO 12405-1,2 specifies international testing standards for lithium-ion batteries for vehicles. In the mechanical shock test is used to determine if the battery is damaged due to the shock imposed when the vehicle runs over a curb or similar minor accidents. Therefore, we conducted minor collision tests against a curb using an actual vehicle and compared the test results with the conditions specified in ISO 12405-1,2. The results confirmed that the impulse wave obtained using an actual vehicle within the range of the test in this study differs from the shape of the impulse wave specified in ISO 12405-1,2.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0050
Motoyuki Akamatsu, HIroshi Hashimoto, Shinji Shimaoka
Seat belts for rear passengers are not commonly used, even though they can significantly reduce fatalities. A passenger seat belt reminder (PSBR) is installed in order to encourage seat belt use, but the effectiveness of PSBRs on the rear seat passenger has not yet been proven. We have developed a methodology to assess PSBR effectiveness. There are two pathways to encourage seat belt use. The first is that PSBR directly facilitates the passenger's use. The second is to motivate the driver request passengers to use seat belts. In the experiment, we asked participants sitting in the driver's seat to select one of five ranks of likelihood to encourage the passenger when a PSBR was presented. We also asked participants sitting in the rear passenger seat to select the rank of likelihood to use the belt voluntarily with PSBR and that to use the belt when the driver requested. The degree of likelihood was quantified by averaging the assigned percentage values to the ranks.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0987
Yohsuke Tamura, Masaru Takabayashi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Nobuaki Ohtuka, Takashi Nakajima, Kenji Sato
We have developed a new propane burner that satisfies the requirements of localized fire test which was presented in SAE technical paper 2011-01-0251. This paper introduces the specifications of this burner and reports its characteristics as determined from various fire exposure tests that we conducted in order to gather data. These tests included temperature and heat flux distribution on cylinder surfaces, which would be useful for the design of automotive compressed fuel cylinders. Our fire exposure tests included localized and engulfing fire tests to compare TPRD activation time, cylinder burst pressure and other parameters between different flame configurations and tests to identify the effects of an automotive compressed fuel cylinder on localized fire test results.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1930
Ken-ichi Okamoto, Takashi Kaneko, Tomoaki Kakihara, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Masanori Okada, Kiminobu Hirata, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Yoshiro Egashira, Masahiko Shibuya, Keiichi Koseki, Toru Kawatani, Ken Matsuura, Kyouji Hosono, Mamoru Miyazaki
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1987
Toshiyuki Hirose, Osamu Nakamura, Nobuhiro Okabe, Yukihiro Tsukasaki, Keiichi Koseki, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masashi Iizuka, Tadahide Sone, Hideaki Ando, Atsushi Kameoka, Hideki Komada, Makoto Hasegawa, Tatsuya Murakami, Mamoru Miyazaki
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2058
Tomoya Nakajo, Kenji Tsuchiya, Mitsuru Konno
The demands of application of dual-axis chassis dynamometers (4WD-CHDY) have increased recently due to the improvement of performance of 4WD-CHDY and an increase in the number of 4WD vehicles which are difficult to convert to 2WD. However, there are few evaluations of any differences between fuel economy and exhaust emission levels in the case of 2WD-CHDY with conversion from 4WD to 2WD (2WD-mode) and 4WD-CHDY without conversion to 2WD (4WD-mode). Fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicle equipped with a typical 4WD mechanism were performed to investigate any differences between the case of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode. In these tests, we measured ‘work at wheel’ (wheel-work) using wheel torque meters. A comparison of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode reveals a difference of fuel economy (2WD-mode is 1.5% better than that of 4WD-mode) and wheel-work (2WD-mode is 3.9% less than that of 4WD-mode). However, there are almost no differences of exhaust emission levels.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-39-7220
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kazuki Shimamura, Yasumasa Maeda
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0254
Yohsuke Tamura, MASARU TAKABAYASHI, Jinji Suzuki, Takashi Nohmi, Maya Maekawa, Kenji Sato
Hydrogen concentration during combustion in a confined space with a ceiling was investigated. The results indicated that steady-state hydrogen concentration was highest at the ceiling surface for all hydrogen flow rates. When hydrogen concentration was 10-20%, weak flame propagation occurred at the ceiling surface, with the most easily burnable spots being dented areas such as seams, pores and creases on the ceiling surface. The unstable and limited nature of flame propagation at the ceiling surface was attributed to the relationship between temperature and hydrogen concentration in a confined space.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0251
Glenn W. Scheffler, Matt McClory, Michael Veenstra, Naoki Kinoshita, Hajime Fukumoto, Tommy Wei-Lii Chang, Marcel L. Halberstadt, Livio Gambone, Gini Sage
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0014
David Lessley, Greg Shaw, Daniel Parent, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, Matthew Kindig, Patrick Riley, Sergey Purtsezov, Mark Sochor, Thomas Gochenour, James Bolton, Damien Subit, Jeff Crandall, Shinichi Takayama, Koshiro Ono, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2207
Kenichi Akiyama, Akemi Nakayama
Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0134
Yohsuke Tamura, Masaru Takabayashi, Jun-ichi Tomioka, Jinji Suzuki, Kenji Sato
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0131
Glenn W. Scheffler, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, Naoki Kinoshita, Matt McClory, Hajime Fukumoto, Marcel Halberstadt, Jesse Schneider
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1292
Kenichi Okamoto, Masaru Kohakura, Takashi Kaneko, Kazuki Fukuda, Katsuro Furui, Masanori Okada, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Kiminobu Hirata, Hiromitsu Baba, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Akira Hozumi, Masahiko Shibuya, Kei-ichi Koseki, Toru Kawatani, Atsushi Kameoka, Kyouji Hosono
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
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