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2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0025
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO26262 was intended only for passenger cars but can be applied to motorcycles if the Controllability (C) is subjectively evaluated by expert riders. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of both expert and ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders. The riding maneuvers and vehicle behavior of four expert riders and 16 ordinary riders were compared using the results of a test assuming normal running.
2014-11-11
Technical Paper
2014-32-0016
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
Abstract ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0421
Yohsuke Tamura, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Noriaki Ohtsuka, Kenji Sato
The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0428
Masashi Takahashi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Kiyotaka Maeda, Shouma Nakagawa
Electric vehicles have become more popular and may be involved in fires due to accidents. However, characteristics of fires in electric vehicles are not yet fully understood. The electrolytic solution of lithium-battery vehicles is inflammable, so combustion characteristics and gases generated may differ from those of gasoline cars. Therefore, we conducted fire tests on lithium-ion battery vehicles and gasoline vehicles and investigated the differences in combustion characteristics and gases generated. The fire tests revealed some differences in combustion characteristics. For example, in lithium-ion battery vehicles, the battery temperature remained high after combustion of the body. However, there was almost no difference in the maximum CO concentration measured 0.5 to 1 m above the roof and 1 m from the side of the body. Furthermore, HF was not detected in either type of vehicle when measured at the same positions as for CO.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0236
Maki Kawakoshi, Takanobu Kaneko, Toru Nameki
Abstract Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). C is classified qualitatively in ISO 26262. However, no specific method for classifying C is described. It is useful for C classification to define a specific classification based on objective data. This study assumed that C was classified using the percentage of drivers who could reduce Severity (S) in one or more classes compared with the S class in which the driver did not react to a hazardous event. An experiment simulated a situation with increased risk of collision with a leading vehicle due to insufficient brake force because of brake-assist failure when the experiment vehicle decelerated from 50 km/h on a straight road.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0211
Yohsuke Tamura, Takeuchi Masayuki, Kenji Sato
Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1545
Masashi Takahashi, Masaru Takabayashi, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi
ISO 12405-1,2 specifies international testing standards for lithium-ion batteries for vehicles. In the mechanical shock test is used to determine if the battery is damaged due to the shock imposed when the vehicle runs over a curb or similar minor accidents. Therefore, we conducted minor collision tests against a curb using an actual vehicle and compared the test results with the conditions specified in ISO 12405-1,2. The results confirmed that the impulse wave obtained using an actual vehicle within the range of the test in this study differs from the shape of the impulse wave specified in ISO 12405-1,2.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0022
Hironori Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Katayama
In this study, a scheme for controlling the deceleration rate required to alleviate shockwave propagation in a vehicle platoon is proposed. Assuming a three-vehicle platoon, the deceleration rates of the 2nd and the 3rd vehicles were modeled so as to minimize the speed of the shockwave that propagates through the platoon. The effect of the decelerating two vehicles on a 4th following vehicle was also evaluated. Numerical analysis showed that an earlier and slightly more rapid deceleration rate significantly decreased the speed of the shockwave propagated by the first three vehicles. Furthermore, even though the shockwave was amplified through the 2nd to 4th vehicles, this negative effect could be eliminated by applying the same control strategy to the 3rd and 4th vehicles.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0987
Yohsuke Tamura, Masaru Takabayashi, Masayuki Takeuchi, Nobuaki Ohtuka, Takashi Nakajima, Kenji Sato
We have developed a new propane burner that satisfies the requirements of localized fire test which was presented in SAE technical paper 2011-01-0251. This paper introduces the specifications of this burner and reports its characteristics as determined from various fire exposure tests that we conducted in order to gather data. These tests included temperature and heat flux distribution on cylinder surfaces, which would be useful for the design of automotive compressed fuel cylinders. Our fire exposure tests included localized and engulfing fire tests to compare TPRD activation time, cylinder burst pressure and other parameters between different flame configurations and tests to identify the effects of an automotive compressed fuel cylinder on localized fire test results.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0050
Motoyuki Akamatsu, HIroshi Hashimoto, Shinji Shimaoka
Seat belts for rear passengers are not commonly used, even though they can significantly reduce fatalities. A passenger seat belt reminder (PSBR) is installed in order to encourage seat belt use, but the effectiveness of PSBRs on the rear seat passenger has not yet been proven. We have developed a methodology to assess PSBR effectiveness. There are two pathways to encourage seat belt use. The first is that PSBR directly facilitates the passenger's use. The second is to motivate the driver request passengers to use seat belts. In the experiment, we asked participants sitting in the driver's seat to select one of five ranks of likelihood to encourage the passenger when a PSBR was presented. We also asked participants sitting in the rear passenger seat to select the rank of likelihood to use the belt voluntarily with PSBR and that to use the belt when the driver requested. The degree of likelihood was quantified by averaging the assigned percentage values to the ranks.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-1930
Ken-ichi Okamoto, Takashi Kaneko, Tomoaki Kakihara, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Masanori Okada, Kiminobu Hirata, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Yoshiro Egashira, Masahiko Shibuya, Keiichi Koseki, Toru Kawatani, Ken Matsuura, Kyouji Hosono, Mamoru Miyazaki
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
2011-08-30
Journal Article
2011-01-2058
Tomoya Nakajo, Kenji Tsuchiya, Mitsuru Konno
The demands of application of dual-axis chassis dynamometers (4WD-CHDY) have increased recently due to the improvement of performance of 4WD-CHDY and an increase in the number of 4WD vehicles which are difficult to convert to 2WD. However, there are few evaluations of any differences between fuel economy and exhaust emission levels in the case of 2WD-CHDY with conversion from 4WD to 2WD (2WD-mode) and 4WD-CHDY without conversion to 2WD (4WD-mode). Fuel economy and exhaust emission tests of 4WD vehicle equipped with a typical 4WD mechanism were performed to investigate any differences between the case of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode. In these tests, we measured ‘work at wheel’ (wheel-work) using wheel torque meters. A comparison of the 2WD-mode and the 4WD-mode reveals a difference of fuel economy (2WD-mode is 1.5% better than that of 4WD-mode) and wheel-work (2WD-mode is 3.9% less than that of 4WD-mode). However, there are almost no differences of exhaust emission levels.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1987
Toshiyuki Hirose, Osamu Nakamura, Nobuhiro Okabe, Yukihiro Tsukasaki, Keiichi Koseki, Hiroshi Tsuda, Masashi Iizuka, Tadahide Sone, Hideaki Ando, Atsushi Kameoka, Hideki Komada, Makoto Hasegawa, Tatsuya Murakami, Mamoru Miyazaki
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-39-7220
Tetsuya Suzuki, Kazuki Shimamura, Yasumasa Maeda
It is becoming more and more necessary to achieve a sustainable low-carbon society by mobility not depending on oil. Electric vehicles are appropriate for such a society, but expensive battery cost and long charging time prohibit the promotion of EVs. One of the solutions is minimizing battery usage by ultra-low fuel efficiency, so we developed an ultrahigh-efficient electric commuter concept car “C-ta”, which requires as small a battery as possible. We assumed that drivers would use the car as a second car for short-distance daily use, such as commuting, shopping, transportation of family, etc. In order to improve fuel efficiency, we mainly considered an ultra-light weight body and chassis, to which CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced plastic) greatly contributes, ultra-low rolling resistance tires, and highly accurate vehicle control technology with four in-wheel motors.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0251
Glenn W. Scheffler, Matt McClory, Michael Veenstra, Naoki Kinoshita, Hajime Fukumoto, Tommy Wei-Lii Chang, Marcel L. Halberstadt, Livio Gambone, Gini Sage
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0254
Yohsuke Tamura, MASARU TAKABAYASHI, Jinji Suzuki, Takashi Nohmi, Maya Maekawa, Kenji Sato
Hydrogen concentration during combustion in a confined space with a ceiling was investigated. The results indicated that steady-state hydrogen concentration was highest at the ceiling surface for all hydrogen flow rates. When hydrogen concentration was 10-20%, weak flame propagation occurred at the ceiling surface, with the most easily burnable spots being dented areas such as seams, pores and creases on the ceiling surface. The unstable and limited nature of flame propagation at the ceiling surface was attributed to the relationship between temperature and hydrogen concentration in a confined space.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0014
David Lessley, Greg Shaw, Daniel Parent, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, Matthew Kindig, Patrick Riley, Sergey Purtsezov, Mark Sochor, Thomas Gochenour, James Bolton, Damien Subit, Jeff Crandall, Shinichi Takayama, Koshiro Ono, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
2010-10-25
Technical Paper
2010-01-2207
Kenichi Akiyama, Akemi Nakayama
Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0609
Takaaki Kitamura, Takayuki Ito
This paper proposes a new mixing-controlled, low temperature combustion (LTC) approach for high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engines. The purpose of this approach is to avoid the excessively high pressure-rise rate (PRR) of premixed, kinetics-controlled LTC and to enable the low nitrogen oxides (NOx) combustion to operate over the wide speed and load range of the engine. To address the soot/noise trade-off at high load LTC operating conditions, the pressure modulated multiple-injection coupled with swirl control was applied. This injection strategy enables the injection of high pressure (HP) main spray into the local high temperature region of the already burning low pressure (LP) pilot spray injected from the neighboring injection hole. By employing this injection strategy, the equivalence ratio (φ) distribution of mixture is drastically varied during main combustion processes.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1014
Takashi Tagawa, Nobuyuki Uchida, Maki Kawakoshi, Masami Aga
Naturalistic driving data has been accumulated by driving data recorders to understand factors that contribute to collisions. Among the rear end conflicts at signalized intersections in the data, conflict data between the following vehicles and suddenly stopping lead vehicles were frequently observed just after their start. To investigate the following drivers' behavior in a realistic driving situation without collision danger, an instrumented vehicle equipped with a liquid-crystal display ahead of the windshield was developed, and an experiment reproducing such conflict on the display was conducted. It was found that a lead vehicle's rapid start (2.8 m/s₂ on average) before quitting its right turn caused the following vehicle's brake reaction time to be longer than a slow start (0.8 m/s₂ on average) did. This result suggests that a following driver's premature decision to start rapidly increases the risk of rear end collisions.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1292
Kenichi Okamoto, Masaru Kohakura, Takashi Kaneko, Kazuki Fukuda, Katsuro Furui, Masanori Okada, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Kiminobu Hirata, Hiromitsu Baba, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Akira Hozumi, Masahiko Shibuya, Kei-ichi Koseki, Toru Kawatani, Atsushi Kameoka, Kyouji Hosono
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0131
Glenn W. Scheffler, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, Naoki Kinoshita, Matt McClory, Hajime Fukumoto, Marcel Halberstadt, Jesse Schneider
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 10 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards associated with the integration of hydrogen and electrical systems onto the vehicle and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published in 2008 to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to SAE J2578 and J1766, the SAE FCV Safety Working Group also developed a Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0134
Yohsuke Tamura, Masaru Takabayashi, Jun-ichi Tomioka, Jinji Suzuki, Kenji Sato
To investigate the events that could arise when fighting fires in vehicles with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) hydrogen storage cylinders, we conducted experiments to examine whether a hydrogen jet diffusion flame caused by activation of the pressure relief device (PRD) can be extinguished and how spraying water influences the cylinder and PRD. The experiments clarified that the hydrogen jet flame cannot be extinguished easily with water or dry powder extinguishers and that spraying water during activation of the PRD may result in closure of the PRD, but is useful for maintaining the strength of CFRP composite cylinders for vehicles.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0011
Glenn W. Scheffler, Jake DeVaal, Gery J. Kissel, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, Naoki Kinoshita, Matt McClory, Hajime Fukumoto, Marcel Halberstadt, Jesse Schneider
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0007
Makoto Tsubokura, Takuji Nakashima, Kozo Kitoh, Yoshihiro Sasaki, Nobuyuki Oshima, Toshio Kobayashi
A numerical method specially designed to predict unsteady aerodynamics of road vehicle was developed based on unstructured Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) technique. The code was intensively optimized for the Earth Simulator in Japan to deal with the excessive computational resources required for LES, and could treat numerical meshes of up to around 120 million elements. Moving boundary methods such as the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) or the sliding method were implemented to handle dynamic motion of a vehicle body during aerodynamic assessment. The method can also model a gusty crosswind condition. The method was applied to three cases in which unsteady aerodynamics are expected to be crucial.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0387
Nicholas A. White, Paul C. Begeman, Warren N. Hardy, King H. Yang, Koshiro Ono, Fusako Sato, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, Michael J. Bey
A total of eight low-speed, rear-end impact tests using two Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a seated posture are reported. These tests were conducted using a HYGE-style mini-sled. Two test conditions were employed: 8 kph without a headrestraint or 16 kph with a headrestraint. Upper-body kinematics were captured for each test using a combination of transducers and high-speed video. A 3-2-2-2-accelerometer package was used to measure the generalized 3D kinematics of both the head and pelvis. An angular rate sensor and two single-axis linear accelerometers were used to measure angular speed, angular acceleration, and linear acceleration of T1 in the sagittal plane. Two high-speed video cameras were used to track targets rigidly attached to the head, T1, and pelvis. The cervical spine kinematics were captured with a high-speed, biplane x-ray system by tracking radiopaque markers implanted into each cervical vertebra.
2008-10-06
Technical Paper
2008-01-2494
Kazuki Fukuda, Masaru Kohakura, Takashi Kaneko, Katsuro Furui, Keiichi Tsuchihashi, Tsutomu Hasegawa, Kazuhisa Saitou, Hiromitsu Baba, Masahiko Shibuya, Osamu Nakamura, Masanori Okada, Kyouji Hosono, Kiminobu Hirata, Toru Kawatani, Gen Sugiyama
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0463
Toshihiro Terada, Hiroshi Yoshimura, Yohsuke Tamura, Hiroyuki Mitsuishi, Shogo Watanabe
If a compressed hydrogen tank for vehicles is filled with hydrogen gas more quickly, the gas temperature in the tank will increase. In this study, we conducted hydrogen gas filling tests using the TYPE 3 and TYPE 4 tanks. During the tests, we measured the temperature of the internal liner surface and investigated its relationship with the gas temperature in the tank. We found that the gas temperature in the upper portion of the TYPE 4 tank rose locally during filling and that the temperature of the internal liner surface near that area also rose, resulting in a temperature higher than the gas temperature at the center of the tank. To keep the maximum temperature in the tank below the designed temperature (85°C) during filling and examine the representative tank internal temperatures, it is important to examine filling methods that can suppress local rises of tank internal temperature.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0465
Eiji Kuroda, Noboru Yoshimura, Hisao Tagami, Masaru Yano, Shogo Watanabe, Masafumi Sasaki
The hydrogen consumption of fuel cell vehicles (FCV) can be measured by the gravimetric, pressure and flow methods within a ±1% error. These are the methods acknowledged by ISO and SAE [1, 2], but require the test vehicles to be modified in order to supply hydrogen from an external, rather than the onboard tank. Consequently, technical assistance of the vehicle manufacturer is necessary for this modification, while various components in the test vehicle must be readjusted. For these reasons, a measurement method free of vehicle modification is in great demand. The present study therefore developed an “oxygen balance method” which determines the amount of hydrogen that has reacted with oxygen in the fuel cell stack by measuring the oxygen concentration in exhaust gas.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0725
Glenn W. Scheffler, Jake DeVaal, Gery J. Kissel, Jesse Schneider, Michael Veenstra, Tommy Chang, Naoki Kinoshita, George Nicols, Hajime Fukumoto
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
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