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2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1748
Hrishikesh A. Saigaonkar, Mohammadreza Nazemi, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Abstract In this study, the effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on the performance of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine are analyzed by developing a computationally efficient modeling approach for the HCCI engine cycle. A full engine cycle model called Sequential Model for Residual affected HCCI (SMRH) is developed using a multi zone thermo-kinetic combustion model coupled with flow dynamic models. The SMRH utilizes CHEMKIN®-PRO and GT-POWER® software along with an in-house exhaust gas flow model. Experimental data from a single cylinder HCCI engine is used to validate the model for different operating conditions. Validation results show a good agreement with experimental data for predicting combustion phasing, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency as well as CO emission. The experimentally validated SMRH is then used to investigate the effects of intake and exhaust valve timing on residual affected HCCI engine combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
James M. Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott Miers, Jeff Wasil
Abstract In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1044
Kiran C. Premchand, Krishnan Raghavan, John H. Johnson
Abstract Numerical models of aftertreatment devices are increasingly becoming indispensable tools in the development of aftertreatment systems that enable modern diesel engines to comply with exhaust emissions regulations while minimizing the cost and development time involved. Such a numerical model was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU) [1] and demonstrated to be able to simulate the experimental data [2] in predicting the characteristic pressure drop and PM mass retained during passive oxidation [3] and active regeneration [4] of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) on a Cummins ISL engine. One of the critical aspects of a calibrated numerical model is its usability - in other words, how useful is the model in predicting the pressure drop and the PM mass retained in another particulate filter on a different engine without the need for extensive recalibration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1059
Harsha Shankar Surenahalli, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson
Abstract Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) are used on heavy duty diesel engine applications and experience large internal temperature variations from 150 to 600°C. The DOC oxidizes the CO and HC in the exhaust to CO2 and H2O and oxidizes NO to NO2. The oxidation reactions are functions of its internal temperatures. Hence, accurate estimation of internal temperatures is important both for onboard diagnostic and aftertreatment closed loop control strategies. This paper focuses on the development of a reduced order model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state estimator for a DOC. The reduced order model simulation results are compared to experimental data. This is important since the reduced order model is used in the EKF estimator to predict the CO, NO, NO2 and HC concentrations in the DOC and at the outlet. The estimator was exercised using transient drive cycle engine data. The closed loop EKF improves the temperature estimate inside the DOC compared to the open loop estimator.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Abstract High-speed spray-to-spray liquid impingement could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O'Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation. The paper includes three parts: First, a single spray injected into an initially quiescent constant volume chamber using the Lagrangian approach is simulated to identify the breakup region, which will be considered as a reference to study two-hole impinging jet nozzles.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0250
Meghraj Bhagat, Khanh Cung, Jaclyn Johnson, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Sam Barros
Water spray characterization of a multi-hole injector under pressures and temperatures representative of engine-relevant conditions was investigated for naturally aspirated and boosted engine conditions. Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible pressure vessel using a high-speed Schlieren imaging to visualize the transient water spray. The experimental conditions included a range of injection pressures of 34, 68, and 102 bar and ambient temperatures of 30 - 200°C, which includes flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling conditions. Transient spray tip penetration and spray angle were characterized via image processing of raw Schlieren images using Matlab code. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate the water spray obtained experimentally in the vessel. CFD parameters were tuned and validated against the experimental results of spray profile and spray tip penetration measured in the combustion vessel (CV).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0319
Khanh Cung, Meghraj Bhagat, Anqi Zhang, Seong-Young Lee
Particular matter (PM) has been greatly concerned over the recent decades due to the constantly increasing restriction on its effect on environmental aspect. Oxygenated fuel such as dimethyl ether (DME) has been known to have beneficial impact on diesel engine emissions in terms of zero soot formation. In current study, under several ambient conditions including surrounding gas temperature and oxygen percentages, soot and emission formation of DME spray is investigated to provide a comparison with other diesel surrogate (n-heptane) and JP-8 surrogate fuels. One important work is to develop a number of chemical kinetic mechanisms with soot chemistry including the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro oxides (NOx) formation. Using the developing detailed mechanisms, several numerical approaches were introduced to provide an integrated picture of emission formations.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0312
Vaibhav Kale, Yeliana Yeliana, Jeremy Worm, Jeffrey Naber
Estimating internal residual during engine operation is essential to robust control during startup, steady state, and transient operation. Internal residual has a significant effect on combustion flame propagation, combustion stability and emissions. Accurate residual estimate also provides a better foundation for optimizing open loop fuel control during startup, while providing a basis for reducing emissions during closed loop control. In this paper we develop an improved model to estimate residual gas fraction by means of isolation and characterization of the physical processes in the gas exchange. Examining existing residuals model as the base, we address their deficiencies making changes to appropriate terms to the model. Existing models do not work well under wide angle dual independent cam phasing. The improved residual estimation model is not limited by the initial data set used for its calibration and does not need cylinder pressure data.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1573
Andrew Stevens, Yannan Sun, Jianming Lian, Maruthi Devarakonda, Gordon Parker
In this paper, we develop a method for optimizing urea dosing to minimize the downstream readings from a production NO x sensor that has cross-sensitivity to ammonia. This approach favors high NO x conversion and reduced ammonia slip. The motivation for this work is to define a process to identify the maximum selective catalytic reduction SCR performance bounds for a given drive cycle. The approach uses a model structure that has a closed-form optimal solution for the urea injection. Every aftertreatment system has its own, unique model, which must be identified and validated. To demonstrate the approach, a model is identified and validated using experimental SCR input/output NO x sensor data from a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB production engine. The optimal control law is then simulated and its performance compared against the simulated performance of the SCR using experimental data for its inlet conditions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1581
Harsha Shankar Surenahalli, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson
This paper focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter for estimating internal species concentration and storage states of an SCR using NOX and NH₃ sensors. The motivation for this work was twofold. First, knowledge of internal states may be useful for onboard diagnostic strategy development. In particular, significant errors between the outlet NOX or NH₃ sensors, reconstructed from estimated states, and the measured NOX or NH₃ concentrations may aid OBD strategies that attempt to identify particular system failure modes. Second, the EKF described estimates not only stored ammonia but also NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas concentrations within and exiting the SCR. Exploiting knowledge of the individual species concentrations, instead of lumping them together as NOX, can yield improved closed loop urea controller performance in terms of reduced urea consumption and better NOX conversion.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1594
Jaclyn Johnson, Hai-Wen Ge, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Eric Kurtz, Nan Robarge
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1627
Anqi Zhang, Khanh Cung, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Garlan Huberts, Michael Czekala, Qiuping Qu
An operational scheme with fuel-lean and exhaust gas dilution in spark-ignited engines increases thermal efficiency and decreases NOx emission, while these operations inherently induce combustion instability and thus large cycle-to-cycle variation in engine. In order to stabilize combustion variations, the development of an advanced ignition system is becoming critical. To quantify the impact of spark-ignition discharge, ignitability tests were conducted in an optically accessible combustion vessel to characterize the flame kernel development of lean methane-air mixture with CO₂ simulating exhaust diluent. A shrouded fan was used to generate turbulence in the vicinity of J-gap spark plug and a Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) capable of producing a varied set of spark discharge patterns was developed and used as an ignition source.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1073
Vaibhav Kale, Halim Santoso, Craig Marriott, Jeremy Worm, Jeffrey Naber
An experimental study and analysis was conducted to investigate cold start robustness of an ethanol flex-fuel spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) engine. Cold starting with ethanol fuel blends is a known challenge due to the fuel characteristics. The program was performed to investigate strategies to reduce the enrichment requirements for the first firing cycle during a cold start. In this study a single-cylinder SIDI research engine was used to investigate gasoline and E85 fuels which were tested with three piston configurations (CR11F, CR11B, CR15.5B - which includes changes in compression ratio and piston geometry), at three intake cam positions (95, 110, 125 °aTDC), and two fuel pressures (low: 0.4 MPa and high: 3.0 MPa) at 25°C±1°C engine and air temperature, for the first cycle of an engine start.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0742
Lei Feng, Wenjia Liu, Bo Chen
The vehicle driving cycles affect the performance of a hybrid vehicle control strategy, as a result, the overall performance of the vehicle, such as fuel consumption and emission. By identifying the driving cycles of a vehicle, the control system is able to dynamically change the control strategy (or parameters) to the best one to adapt to the changes of vehicle driving patterns. This paper studies the supervised driving cycle recognition using pattern recognition approach. With pattern recognition method, a driving cycle is represented by feature vectors that are formed by a set of parameters to which the driving cycle is sensitive. The on-line driving pattern recognition is achieved by calculating the feature vectors and classifying these feature vectors to one of the driving patterns in the reference database. To establish reference driving cycle database, the representative feature vectors for four federal driving cycles are generated using feature extraction method.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1662
Chad Walber, Jason R. Blough, Mark Johnson, Carl Anderson
When testing dynamic structures, it is important to note that the dynamic system in question may be submerged into a fluid during operation and to properly test the structure under the same condition in order to understand the true dynamic parameters of the system. In this way, the mass and stiffness coupling to the particular fluid, for the case of this study, automatic transmission fluid, may be taken into account. This is especially important in light structures where the coupling between the fluid mass and the structural mass may be great. A structure was tested with a laser vibrometer using several impact methods in open air to determine which impact method would be most suitable for submerged testing. The structure was then submerged in transmission fluid with an accelerometer attached and subsequently tested and compared to the previous results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1242
Harsha Shankar Surenhalli, Kiran Premchand, John H. Johnson, Gordon Parker
The catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), used in conjunction with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important aftertreatment device used to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) heavy-duty diesel emission standards for particulate matter (PM). Numerical modeling of these exhaust after-treatment devices decreases the time and cost of development involved. Modeling CPF active regeneration gives insight into the PM oxidation kinetics, which helps in reducing the regeneration fuel penalty. As seen from experimental data, active regeneration of the CPF results in a significant temperature increase into the CPF (up to 8°C/sec) which affects the oxidation rate of particulate matter (PM). PM oxidation during active regeneration was determined to be a function of filter PM loading, inlet temperature and inlet hydrocarbon concentration.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0126
Scott A. Miers, Christopher Green, Jay Meldrum, Matt Chmielewski
Alternative and renewable fuels show tremendous promise for addressing concerns of energy security, energy supply, and CO₂ emissions. However, the new fuels have the potential to produce non-regulated exhaust components that may be as detrimental or worse, than currently regulated emissions components. For the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC), a commercially available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to sample raw exhaust from eight student teams' snowmobiles for comparative analysis with a conventional emissions bench. The levels of CO₂, CO, NO , O₂, and THC were compared for the five operating modes, which included both gasoline- and diesel-powered snowmobiles. The fuel was either an ethanol blend for spark-ignition engines or a biodiesel for compression-ignition engines. Final emissions result scores varied by less than 2% between the conventional emissions bench and the FTIR.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0042
Scott A. Miers, Christopher A. Green, Jay S. Meldrum, Christine Lundberg, William Silvis, Harry Pankratz
Recent increases in emissions regulations within the snowmobile industry have led to significant advancements in fuel, exhaust, and control systems on snowmobiles. However, particulate matter is currently an unregulated exhaust component of snowmobile engines. The measurement of dry soot as well as particulate matter from snowmobiles is the focus of this paper. Two industry-representative snowmobiles were chosen for this research which included a 2006 Yamaha Nytro carbureted four-stroke and a 2009 Ski-Doo MX-Z direct-injected two-stroke. Measurements for each snowmobile included gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, NOx, O₂, and THC), particulate matter collected on quartz filters, and dry soot measured using an AVL Micro Soot Sensor. Each snowmobile was tested over the industry-standard five-mode emissions certification test cycle to determine the emissions, dry soot, and particulate matter levels from idle to wide open throttle (full-load).
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821091
Dave Lewis, Dan Pobuda, D. L. Abata
The Super Mileage Competition is an annual event sponsored by the Western Michigan Section of the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Eaton Corporation and the Briggs and Stratton Corporation. The purpose of this competition is to give engineering students “hands on” experience with the design and manufacture of a competitive vehicle and to increase public awareness of fuel efficient vehicles. This paper describes the engine modifications, testing procedure and results of these modifications made to the super mileage vehicle entered by Michigan Technological University in the 1982 Super Mileage Competition. These modifications resulted in greater than a twenty-five percent increase in specific fuel consumption over the stock engine. With this modified engine, the completed vehicle achieved over 440 miles per gallon in the final competition.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821194
David N. Anderson, Christopher J. Hubert, John H. Johnson
Several sources of variation in quantitative analytical ferrography are investigated. A standard ferrography analysis procedure is developed. Normalization of ferrographic data to account for the amount of oil used to make the ferrograms is discussed. Procedures to minimize the errors involved with calculating three quantitative ferrography parameters: the area covered by the large particles, AL (%/ml of oil), the area covered by the small particles, AS (%/ml of oil) and Area Under the Curve, AUC, (%-mm/ml of oil) are outlined. Ferrographic data are presented which show that the volume and dilution ratio of the oil sample being analyzed have a major effect on the accuracy of the analysis. Several variables which influence the area covered readings of the particle deposit on a ferrogram are discussed. The accuracy of quantitative analytical ferrography is assessed.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821048
Edward C. Chiang, Vincent J. Ursini, John H. Johnson
A computer simulation program was developed to simulate the thermal responses of an on-highway, heavy duty diesel powered truck in transient operation for evaluation of cooling system performance. Mathematical models of the engine, heat exchangers, lubricating oil system, thermal control sensors (thermostat and shutterstat), auxiliary components, and the cab were formulated and calibrated to laboratory experimental data. The component models were assembled into the vehicle engine cooling system model and used to predict air-to-boil temperatures. The model has the capability to predict real time coolant, oil and cab temperatures using vehicle simulation input data over various routes.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
821049
Vincent J. Ursini, Edward C. Chiang, John H. Johnson
A Vehicle-Engine-Cooling (VEC) system computer simulation model was used to study the transient performance of control devices and their temperature settings on oil, coolant and cab temperatures. The truck used in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and aftercooler. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the VEC system computer simulation model. The control devices investigated were the standard thermostat, the Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. The effect of shutterstat location on shutter performance along with thermostat, shutter and fan activation temperature settings were investigated for ambient temperatures of 32, 85 and 100°F.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820071
C. L Anderson, O. A. Uyehara, P. S. Myers
A technique for making a radiometric measurement of the deposit surface temperature in a methane-fired engine was developed. The wavelength region between 3.5 and 4.1 μm was investigated. It was determined that while the combustion gases were relatively transparent, the surface temperature measurements would contain some gas radiation. A method of averaging the measurements of many cycles and correcting these data for the gas radiation was developed. Time-averaged surface temperature was used in a steady-state heat transfer analysis to determine deposit thermal conductivity. Deposit thermal diffusivity was determined from a transient experiment in which the engine’s ignition system was turned off and the cooling response of the deposit and wall were measured.
1981-10-01
Technical Paper
811192
G. Hunter, J. Scholl, F. Hibbler, S. Bagley, D. Leddy, D. Abata, John H. Johnson
The effect of fuel changes on diesel oxidation catalyst performance was studied by comparing the physical, chemical and biological character of the particulate emissions using three different fuels. Baseline (uncatalyzed) emissions were also compared for these same fuels. The fuels used for this study were: a typical No. 2 fuel, a No. 1 fuel, and a shale oil-derived diesel fuel. Comparisons of NOX, NO, NO2, HC and particulate mass emissions using each fuel were made using selected modes from the EPA 13 mode cycle. Changes in the chemical and biological character of the soluble organic fraction (SOF) were also studied. Fuel properties, most notably fuel sulfur content, were found to affect the performance of the oxidation catalyst used. Fuel sulfur content should be kept as low as possible if catalytic converters are used on diesel powered equipment.
1980-09-01
Technical Paper
800956
Vincent J. Ursini, Lawrence W. Evers, Raymond W. Kauppila, David A. Carlson
The 1980 SAE sponsored Midwest Baja was attended by thirteen schools. The Michigan Technological University vehicle finished fourth overall in the competition but first of the first year entries. Participation in this event requires a considerable investment of time and resources on the part of the students and faculty but the rewards are great. The student chapter faculty advisor sees the activity as an enjoyable competitive experience for the SAE student members to learn first hand and in a responsible way what it means to be an engineer. The design professor sees the project as one of the best tools for teaching and learning the interrelation of product design, manufacture, time schedules, costs and project management. The technical advisors see the activity as an opportunity for the participating students to operate in a complex coordinated group effort that is a realistic model of industry. The students see the activity as an important part of their education.
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