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Viewing 1 to 30 of 37
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0113
William Buller, Rini Sherony, Brian Wilson, Michelle Wienert
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1189
Arya Yazdani, Mehran Bidarvatan
Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) have been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and on-line implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model and the results are compared in terms of energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge-sustaining mode in Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0815
Meysam Razmara, Mehran Bidarvatan, Mahdi Shahbakhti, Rush Robinett
Exergy or availability is the potential of a system to do work. In this paper, an innovative exergy-based control approach is presented for Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). An exergy model is developed for a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. The exergy model is based on quantification of the Second Law of Thermodynamic (SLT) and irreversibilities which are not identified in commonly used First Law of Thermodynamics (FLT) analysis. An experimental data set for 175 different ICE operating conditions is used to construct the SLT efficiency maps. Depending on the application, two different SLT efficiency maps are generated including the applications in which work is the desired output, and the applications where Combined Power and Exhaust Exergy (CPEX) is the desired output. The sources of irreversibility and exergy loss are identified for a single cylinder Ricardo HCCI engine.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1082
Behdad Afkhami, Yu Zhao, Scott Miers, Jon loesche
The effect of air surge tank volume on the performance parameters of a carbureted, 674-cm3 four-stroke engine was studied in this paper. Tests results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit might have reverse effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling with proper AFR are difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine increased due to increase in the tank volume, the air-fuel mixture got leaner while the tank volume was less. A simulation model with the help of GT-Power was generated and validated to study the traveling waves in the air surge tank. Simulation results showed that tanks with different volumes show different wave patterns while these waves can travel into the engine intake manifold. This phenomenon showed its greatest influence when the throttle valve was approaching the wide-open position.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0840
Le Zhao, Sanjeet Limbu, Sathya prasad Potham, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Spray structure has a significant effect on the emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate spray structures based on four different multiple jet impingement injectors. These four different multiple jet-to-jet impingement injectors include 1). 4-hole injector, which has symmetric inwardly opening nozzles; 2). 5-1-hole; 3). 6-2-hole; and 4). 7-3-hole which corresponding to 1, 2, 3 numbers of adjacent holes blocked in a 5-hole, 6-hole, and 7-hole symmetrical drill pattern, respectively. All these configurations are basically 4-holes but with different post-collision spray structure. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work of these sprays has been performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling approach. First, the present work visualizes spray structures and explores the trend of ‘post collision’ and ‘bend’ angles of four different injectors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0847
Le Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Impingement of jets has been found to give improved spray penetration characteristics and higher vaporization rates when compared to industrially utilized multi-hole outwardly injecting fuel injectors. The current work studies a non-reacting spray by using a 5-hole colliding-jet style direct-injection (DI) injector. The jet-to-jet collision induced by the inwardly opening nozzles of the multi-hole injector produces rapid and short jet breakup which is fundamentally different from how traditional fuel injectors operate. A non-reacting spray study is performed using a 5-hole colliding jet injector and a traditional Bosch HDEV-5 injector with gasoline as a fuel injected at 172 bar pressure at two different start of injection (SOI) timings of a spark-ignition gasoline engine. The engine-like thermodynamic conditions of were generated in a constant-volume high pressure-temperature pre-burn type combustion vessel for the two corresponding conditions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0609
Anqi Zhang, Riccardo Scarcelli, Seong-Young Lee, Thomas Wallner, Jeffrey Naber
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insights into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0159
Luting Wang, Chong Cao, Bo Chen
This paper studies the bi-directional power flow control between Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) and an electrical grid. A grid-tied charging system that enables both Grid-to-Vehicle (G2V) and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging/discharging is modeled using SimPowerSystems in Matlab/Simulink environment. A bi-directional AC-DC converter and a bi-directional DC-DC buck-boost converter are integrated to charge and discharge PEV batteries. For AC-DC converter control, Predictive Current Control (PCC) strategy is employed to enable grid current to reach a reference current after one modulation period. In addition, Phase Lock Loop (PLL) and a band-stop filter are designed to lock the grid voltage phase and reduce harmonics. Bi-directional power flow is realized by controlling the mode of the DC-DC converter. Simulation tests are conducted to evaluate the performance of this bi-directional charging system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0582
Federico Perini, Youngchul Ra, Kenji Hiraoka, Kazutoshi Nomura, Akihiro Yuuki, Yuji Oda, Christopher Rutland, Rolf Reitz
Cycle-to-cycle variability in gas-fueled large-bore spark ignition engines with pre-chamber ignition is crucial to their controllability when advanced combustion strategies are operated. Geometric design of the pre-chamber and pre-chamber gas feeding assembly is a key parameter for optimizing fuel-air mixing prior to ignition. Computational fluid dynamics can speed up the design process provided that 1) the reliability of the results is not affected by poor meshing and 2) the time cost of the meshing process for many geometries does not negatively compensate for the advantages of running a computer simulation. In this work, a flame propagation model that could run with arbitrary hybrid meshes was developed and coupled with the KIVA4-MHI CFD solver, in order to address these aims.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0224
Robin Y. Cash, Edward Lumsdaine, Apoorv Talekar, Bashar AbdulNour
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting in reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the theoretical equations that define the process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0029
Chuanliangzi Liu, Bo Chen, Ming Cheng, Anthony Champagne, Keyur Patel
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of the Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to control the electric motor to provide assist while steering. The Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation will help identify early safety issues in the development phase of a project. The intent of this paper is to focus on vehicle dynamics simulation of the EPS using the HiL system. The EPS plant model, dSPACE Vehicle Dynamics model and dSPACE Motor Model interact with a dSPACE hardware platform and a real ECU. This paper includes the design of the EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors & actuators, the function of Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with the EPS model. The offline simulation of the integrated model is performed and the simulation results of different driving maneuvers are presented.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0806
James Sevik, Michael Pamminger, Thomas Wallner, Riccardo Scarcelli, Ronald Reese, Asim Iqbal, Brad Boyer, Steven Wooldridge, Carrie Hall, Scott Miers
In recent times, interest in natural gas as a fuel for light-duty transportation has increased due to its domestic availability and lower cost relative to gasoline. Natural gas, comprised mainly of methane, has a higher knock resistance than gasoline making it advantageous for high load operation. However, the higher resistance to knock can cause ignitability issues at part-load operation leading to an increase in the initial flame development process. Part-load exhaust gas recirculation tolerance can also be affected by the lower flame speed of natural gas. While port-fuel injection of natural gas can lead to a loss in power density due to the displacement of intake air, injecting natural gas directly into the cylinder can reduce such losses. A study was designed and performed to evaluate the potential of natural gas for use as a light-duty fuel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1748
Hrishikesh A. Saigaonkar, Mohammadreza Nazemi, Mahdi Shahbakhti
Abstract In this study, the effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on the performance of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine are analyzed by developing a computationally efficient modeling approach for the HCCI engine cycle. A full engine cycle model called Sequential Model for Residual affected HCCI (SMRH) is developed using a multi zone thermo-kinetic combustion model coupled with flow dynamic models. The SMRH utilizes CHEMKIN®-PRO and GT-POWER® software along with an in-house exhaust gas flow model. Experimental data from a single cylinder HCCI engine is used to validate the model for different operating conditions. Validation results show a good agreement with experimental data for predicting combustion phasing, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), thermal efficiency as well as CO emission. The experimentally validated SMRH is then used to investigate the effects of intake and exhaust valve timing on residual affected HCCI engine combustion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0965
James M. Sevik, Thomas Wallner, Scott Miers, Jeff Wasil
Abstract In 1990, Roy Douglas developed an analytical method to calculate the global air-to-fuel ratio of a two-stroke engine from exhaust gas emissions. While this method has considerable application to two-stroke engines, it does not permit the calculation of air-to-fuel ratios for oxygenated fuels. This study proposed modifications to the Roy Douglas method such that it can be applied to oxygenated fuels. The ISO #16183 standard, the modified Spindt method, and the Brettschneider method were used to evaluate the modifications to the Roy Douglas method. In addition, a trapped air-to-fuel ratio, appropriate for two-stroke engines, was also modified to incorporate oxygenated fuels. To validate the modified calculation method, tests were performed using a two-stroke carbureted and two-stroke direct injected marine outboard engine over a five-mode marine test cycle running indolene and low level blends of ethanol and iso-butanol fuels.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1044
Kiran C. Premchand, Krishnan Raghavan, John H. Johnson
Abstract Numerical models of aftertreatment devices are increasingly becoming indispensable tools in the development of aftertreatment systems that enable modern diesel engines to comply with exhaust emissions regulations while minimizing the cost and development time involved. Such a numerical model was developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU) [1] and demonstrated to be able to simulate the experimental data [2] in predicting the characteristic pressure drop and PM mass retained during passive oxidation [3] and active regeneration [4] of a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) on a Cummins ISL engine. One of the critical aspects of a calibrated numerical model is its usability - in other words, how useful is the model in predicting the pressure drop and the PM mass retained in another particulate filter on a different engine without the need for extensive recalibration.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0948
Le (Emma) Zhao, Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sam Barros, William Atkinson
Abstract High-speed spray-to-spray liquid impingement could be an effective phenomenon for the spray propagation and droplet vaporization. To achieve higher vaporization efficiency, impingement from two-hole nozzles is analyzed in this paper. This paper focuses on investigating vaporization mechanism as a function of the impingement location and the collision breakup process provided by two-hole impinging jet nozzles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is adopted to do simulation. Lagrangian model is used to predict jet-to-jet impingement and droplet breakup conditions while KH-RT breakup and O'Rourke collision models are implemented for the simulation. The paper includes three parts: First, a single spray injected into an initially quiescent constant volume chamber using the Lagrangian approach is simulated to identify the breakup region, which will be considered as a reference to study two-hole impinging jet nozzles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1059
Harsha Shankar Surenahalli, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson
Abstract Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC) are used on heavy duty diesel engine applications and experience large internal temperature variations from 150 to 600°C. The DOC oxidizes the CO and HC in the exhaust to CO2 and H2O and oxidizes NO to NO2. The oxidation reactions are functions of its internal temperatures. Hence, accurate estimation of internal temperatures is important both for onboard diagnostic and aftertreatment closed loop control strategies. This paper focuses on the development of a reduced order model and an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) state estimator for a DOC. The reduced order model simulation results are compared to experimental data. This is important since the reduced order model is used in the EKF estimator to predict the CO, NO, NO2 and HC concentrations in the DOC and at the outlet. The estimator was exercised using transient drive cycle engine data. The closed loop EKF improves the temperature estimate inside the DOC compared to the open loop estimator.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0250
Meghraj Bhagat, Khanh Cung, Jaclyn Johnson, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Sam Barros
Water spray characterization of a multi-hole injector under pressures and temperatures representative of engine-relevant conditions was investigated for naturally aspirated and boosted engine conditions. Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible pressure vessel using a high-speed Schlieren imaging to visualize the transient water spray. The experimental conditions included a range of injection pressures of 34, 68, and 102 bar and ambient temperatures of 30 - 200°C, which includes flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling conditions. Transient spray tip penetration and spray angle were characterized via image processing of raw Schlieren images using Matlab code. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate the water spray obtained experimentally in the vessel. CFD parameters were tuned and validated against the experimental results of spray profile and spray tip penetration measured in the combustion vessel (CV).
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0319
Khanh Cung, Meghraj Bhagat, Anqi Zhang, Seong-Young Lee
Particular matter (PM) has been greatly concerned over the recent decades due to the constantly increasing restriction on its effect on environmental aspect. Oxygenated fuel such as dimethyl ether (DME) has been known to have beneficial impact on diesel engine emissions in terms of zero soot formation. In current study, under several ambient conditions including surrounding gas temperature and oxygen percentages, soot and emission formation of DME spray is investigated to provide a comparison with other diesel surrogate (n-heptane) and JP-8 surrogate fuels. One important work is to develop a number of chemical kinetic mechanisms with soot chemistry including the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro oxides (NOx) formation. Using the developing detailed mechanisms, several numerical approaches were introduced to provide an integrated picture of emission formations.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0312
Vaibhav Kale, Yeliana Yeliana, Jeremy Worm, Jeffrey Naber
Estimating internal residual during engine operation is essential to robust control during startup, steady state, and transient operation. Internal residual has a significant effect on combustion flame propagation, combustion stability and emissions. Accurate residual estimate also provides a better foundation for optimizing open loop fuel control during startup, while providing a basis for reducing emissions during closed loop control. In this paper we develop an improved model to estimate residual gas fraction by means of isolation and characterization of the physical processes in the gas exchange. Examining existing residuals model as the base, we address their deficiencies making changes to appropriate terms to the model. Existing models do not work well under wide angle dual independent cam phasing. The improved residual estimation model is not limited by the initial data set used for its calibration and does not need cylinder pressure data.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1573
Andrew Stevens, Yannan Sun, Jianming Lian, Maruthi Devarakonda, Gordon Parker
In this paper, we develop a method for optimizing urea dosing to minimize the downstream readings from a production NO x sensor that has cross-sensitivity to ammonia. This approach favors high NO x conversion and reduced ammonia slip. The motivation for this work is to define a process to identify the maximum selective catalytic reduction SCR performance bounds for a given drive cycle. The approach uses a model structure that has a closed-form optimal solution for the urea injection. Every aftertreatment system has its own, unique model, which must be identified and validated. To demonstrate the approach, a model is identified and validated using experimental SCR input/output NO x sensor data from a 2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB production engine. The optimal control law is then simulated and its performance compared against the simulated performance of the SCR using experimental data for its inlet conditions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1594
Jaclyn Johnson, Hai-Wen Ge, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Eric Kurtz, Nan Robarge
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1581
Harsha Shankar Surenahalli, Gordon Parker, John H. Johnson
This paper focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter for estimating internal species concentration and storage states of an SCR using NOX and NH₃ sensors. The motivation for this work was twofold. First, knowledge of internal states may be useful for onboard diagnostic strategy development. In particular, significant errors between the outlet NOX or NH₃ sensors, reconstructed from estimated states, and the measured NOX or NH₃ concentrations may aid OBD strategies that attempt to identify particular system failure modes. Second, the EKF described estimates not only stored ammonia but also NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas concentrations within and exiting the SCR. Exploiting knowledge of the individual species concentrations, instead of lumping them together as NOX, can yield improved closed loop urea controller performance in terms of reduced urea consumption and better NOX conversion.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1627
Anqi Zhang, Khanh Cung, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber, Garlan Huberts, Michael Czekala, Qiuping Qu
An operational scheme with fuel-lean and exhaust gas dilution in spark-ignited engines increases thermal efficiency and decreases NOx emission, while these operations inherently induce combustion instability and thus large cycle-to-cycle variation in engine. In order to stabilize combustion variations, the development of an advanced ignition system is becoming critical. To quantify the impact of spark-ignition discharge, ignitability tests were conducted in an optically accessible combustion vessel to characterize the flame kernel development of lean methane-air mixture with CO₂ simulating exhaust diluent. A shrouded fan was used to generate turbulence in the vicinity of J-gap spark plug and a Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) capable of producing a varied set of spark discharge patterns was developed and used as an ignition source.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1073
Vaibhav Kale, Halim Santoso, Craig Marriott, Jeremy Worm, Jeffrey Naber
An experimental study and analysis was conducted to investigate cold start robustness of an ethanol flex-fuel spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) engine. Cold starting with ethanol fuel blends is a known challenge due to the fuel characteristics. The program was performed to investigate strategies to reduce the enrichment requirements for the first firing cycle during a cold start. In this study a single-cylinder SIDI research engine was used to investigate gasoline and E85 fuels which were tested with three piston configurations (CR11F, CR11B, CR15.5B - which includes changes in compression ratio and piston geometry), at three intake cam positions (95, 110, 125 °aTDC), and two fuel pressures (low: 0.4 MPa and high: 3.0 MPa) at 25°C±1°C engine and air temperature, for the first cycle of an engine start.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0742
Lei Feng, Wenjia Liu, Bo Chen
The vehicle driving cycles affect the performance of a hybrid vehicle control strategy, as a result, the overall performance of the vehicle, such as fuel consumption and emission. By identifying the driving cycles of a vehicle, the control system is able to dynamically change the control strategy (or parameters) to the best one to adapt to the changes of vehicle driving patterns. This paper studies the supervised driving cycle recognition using pattern recognition approach. With pattern recognition method, a driving cycle is represented by feature vectors that are formed by a set of parameters to which the driving cycle is sensitive. The on-line driving pattern recognition is achieved by calculating the feature vectors and classifying these feature vectors to one of the driving patterns in the reference database. To establish reference driving cycle database, the representative feature vectors for four federal driving cycles are generated using feature extraction method.
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1662
Chad Walber, Jason R. Blough, Mark Johnson, Carl Anderson
When testing dynamic structures, it is important to note that the dynamic system in question may be submerged into a fluid during operation and to properly test the structure under the same condition in order to understand the true dynamic parameters of the system. In this way, the mass and stiffness coupling to the particular fluid, for the case of this study, automatic transmission fluid, may be taken into account. This is especially important in light structures where the coupling between the fluid mass and the structural mass may be great. A structure was tested with a laser vibrometer using several impact methods in open air to determine which impact method would be most suitable for submerged testing. The structure was then submerged in transmission fluid with an accelerometer attached and subsequently tested and compared to the previous results.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1242
Harsha Shankar Surenhalli, Kiran Premchand, John H. Johnson, Gordon Parker
The catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), used in conjunction with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an important aftertreatment device used to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) heavy-duty diesel emission standards for particulate matter (PM). Numerical modeling of these exhaust after-treatment devices decreases the time and cost of development involved. Modeling CPF active regeneration gives insight into the PM oxidation kinetics, which helps in reducing the regeneration fuel penalty. As seen from experimental data, active regeneration of the CPF results in a significant temperature increase into the CPF (up to 8°C/sec) which affects the oxidation rate of particulate matter (PM). PM oxidation during active regeneration was determined to be a function of filter PM loading, inlet temperature and inlet hydrocarbon concentration.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0126
Scott A. Miers, Christopher Green, Jay Meldrum, Matt Chmielewski
Alternative and renewable fuels show tremendous promise for addressing concerns of energy security, energy supply, and CO₂ emissions. However, the new fuels have the potential to produce non-regulated exhaust components that may be as detrimental or worse, than currently regulated emissions components. For the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC), a commercially available Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer was used to sample raw exhaust from eight student teams' snowmobiles for comparative analysis with a conventional emissions bench. The levels of CO₂, CO, NO , O₂, and THC were compared for the five operating modes, which included both gasoline- and diesel-powered snowmobiles. The fuel was either an ethanol blend for spark-ignition engines or a biodiesel for compression-ignition engines. Final emissions result scores varied by less than 2% between the conventional emissions bench and the FTIR.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0042
Scott A. Miers, Christopher A. Green, Jay S. Meldrum, Christine Lundberg, William Silvis, Harry Pankratz
Recent increases in emissions regulations within the snowmobile industry have led to significant advancements in fuel, exhaust, and control systems on snowmobiles. However, particulate matter is currently an unregulated exhaust component of snowmobile engines. The measurement of dry soot as well as particulate matter from snowmobiles is the focus of this paper. Two industry-representative snowmobiles were chosen for this research which included a 2006 Yamaha Nytro carbureted four-stroke and a 2009 Ski-Doo MX-Z direct-injected two-stroke. Measurements for each snowmobile included gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, NOx, O₂, and THC), particulate matter collected on quartz filters, and dry soot measured using an AVL Micro Soot Sensor. Each snowmobile was tested over the industry-standard five-mode emissions certification test cycle to determine the emissions, dry soot, and particulate matter levels from idle to wide open throttle (full-load).
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