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Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Jun Hoshikawa, Kiminari Kato, Kazushi Miyamoto, Hirofumi Higashi, Akemi Ito
To reduce friction is required to improve engine fuel economy. This study aimed to reduce piston skirt friction, which is a major factor in engine friction. ‘Soft skirt’ is a trendy item in recent gasoline engines, which can improve skirt sliding condition by larger deformation when the piston is pressed to the liner. The effect is confirmed by friction measurement and oil film observation, using prototype pistons. And also one major factor of the effect is clarified that not only side force but also cylinder pressure causes effective deformation of the skirt to create thick oil film at early combustion stroke.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Makoto Kamachi, Takashi Hosokawa
Mitsubishi Motors Corporation succeeded in mass production of the electric vehicle “i-MiEV” which features leading-edge technologies epitomized by lithium-ion battery. The EV was released into the Japanese market in July 2009 and the European market in January 2011. In order to be used all over the world, the EV has to be practical and durable even under severe weather of extremely cold or extremely hot regions. In this paper we report some results of the tests conducted under extremely cold weather as well as extremely hot weather. From the test results the validity of the vehicle control system and the practicality of the EV are verified.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Hirotaka Shiozaki, Yoshihisa Iwanaga, Hideki Ito, Yutaka Takahashi
Global environment protection, Co2 emission reduction and so on, is an important problem in automotive industry. An Electric Vehicle (EV) production is one of policies. Co2 emission of EV is lower than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), petrol and diesel engine. On the other hand, customer's needs for the comfort on driving increase year after year. So it's an important factor for new car performance. Generally speaking, it's thought that the noise and vibration performance of EV have the better of ICE performance. However the aerodynamic noise and road noise contribution for interior noise in EV rise in comparison with ICE, and moreover the sound quality change by new noise component of the motor noise. Therefore new sound evaluation method is needed for EV. So this paper demonstrates each noise component contribution in EV by new noise separation technology, and show the comparison result with EV and ICE.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Zongguang Wang, Tetsuji Ukita, Eiji Nomura, Yuichi Masuda
An efficient cooling system will ensure the reliability of the EV/HEV (Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Electric Vehicle) battery system and extend their lifetime. In order to shorten design period or increase design iterations, a high-speed and high-precision prediction method for cooling is indispensable. For models, such as Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which use fresh air to cool batteries in the battery pack, a transient approach based on loosely coupled method is developed to predict temperature change of batteries. The results by our new approach are in good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, for the EV/HEV using circulated air to cool its batteries, a second approach is also developed, which can predict the temperature variations of both EV/HEV batteries in the battery pack and the cooling air.
Article
2010-08-31
Hyundai's growing R&D activities are at the core of the automaker's rapid product development and technical maturation. AEI recently toured the Namyang, South Korea, facility and spoke with Hyundai's top R&D engineer, Dr. Woong-chul Yang.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Yoshiichi Ozeki, Hideaki Nagano, Hiroki Takahashi, Minoru Inoue, Shinsuke Kato, Shin Kobayashi, Eiji Nomura
Following the previous reports, ventilation characteristics in automobile was investigated by using a half-scale car model which was created by the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan (JSAE). In the present study, the ventilation mode of the cabin was foot mode which was the ventilation method for using in winter season. Supplied air was blown from the supply openings under the dashboard to the rear of the model via the driver's foot region in this mode. The experiment was performed in order to obtain accurate data about the airflow properties equipped with particle image velocimetry (PIV). Our experimental data is to be shared as a standard model to assess the environment within automobiles. The data is also for use in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) benchmark tests in the development of automobile air conditioning, which enables high accuracy prediction of the interior environment of automobiles. CFD simulations were also performed on trial and good agreement was shown as a result.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Kazuhide Togai, Kazuo Kido, Hiroki Yamaura
New systems or functionalities have been rapidly introduced for fuel economy improvement. Active vibration suppression has also been introduced. Control algorithm is required to be verified in real time environment to develop controller functionality in a short term. Required frequency domain property concept is proposed for representation of target phenomena with reduced models. It is shown how to select or reduce engine, transmission and vehicle model based on the concept. Engine torque profile which has harmonics of engine rotation is required for engine start, take-off from stand still, noise & vibration suppression and misfire detection for OBD simulation. An engine model which generates torque profile synchronous to crank angle was introduced and modified for real time simulation environment where load changes dynamically. Selected models and control algorithms were modified for real time environment and implemented into two linked universal controllers. A virtual vehicle on those controllers was run.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Shigeo Yamamoto, Dai Tanaka, Kimihiko Sato, Minoru Yokoe
Spray-guided gasoline direct injection SI engines attract as one of new generation lean-burn engines to promise CO2 reduction. These typically adopt “narrow-spacing” concept in which an injector is centrally mounted close to a spark plug. Therefore, geometric targets of the fuel spray and a position of the spark plug have to be exactly limited to maintain a proper mixture in the spark gap. In addition, the stable combustion window is narrow because the spark ignition is limited in a short time during and immediately after the injection. These spatial and temporal restrictions involve some intractable problems concerning the combustion robustness due to the complicate phenomena around the spark plug. The local mixture preparation near the spark plug significantly depends on the spray-induced charge motion. The intense flow induced by the motion blows out and stretches the spark, thereby affecting the spark discharge performance. Moreover, the fuel interaction with the spark plug affects not only the spark discharge performance but also the mixture preparation.
Technical Paper
2007-08-05
Kaoru Sawase, Yuichi Ushiroda, Katsumi Inoue
This paper describes the calculative verification of the effect of the right-and-left torque vectoring system in various types of drivetrain, namely, the front wheels only, the rear wheels only, and both front and rear wheels in FWD, RWD, and AWD vehicles. The effect is evaluated by calculating the vehicle dynamics limit; maximum acceleration and cornering ability. The right-and-left vectoring torque, which is needed for expanding the vehicle dynamics limit, is also calculated. And finally, the paper evaluates the suitable wheels for which the system should be applied in each drivetrain. The application to the front wheels is more effective for FWD vehicles. On the other hand, the application to the rear wheels is more effective for RWD and AWD vehicles.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Toshio Takeuchi, Naoya Kakishita, Itsuhei Kohri
The purpose of this paper is to present a prediction method for the refrigerator performance of an automotive air conditioner (A/C). In order to predict the refrigerator performance in arbitrary situations, we consider the thermal equilibrium of the refrigeration cycle through A/C components, as the compressor, the evaporator and the condenser. These components are affected by the thermal property of the refrigerant. Influences of circumstantial flow and temperature field in the engine compartment also are reflected upon, because the cooling performance of the condenser is sensitive to that. In this paper, we try to derive algebraic models for the major components with regard to the thermal equilibrium in the refrigeration cycle. Furthermore, we use a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis (CFD) for the prediction of cooling airflow temperature in the engine compartment, which is another essential factor in determining the state of the refrigeration cycle. Finally, we confirm this new method in predicting precisely the refrigerator performance.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Shigeo Yamamoto, Takahiro Satou, Motoki Ikuta
Two-stage hybrid combustion for a 6-stroke gasoline direct injection SI engine is a new strategy to control the ignition of the HCCI combustion using hot-burned gas from the stratified lean SI combustion. This combustion is achieved by changing the camshafts, the cam-driven gear ratio and the engine control of a conventional 4-stroke gasoline direct injection engine without using a higher compression ratio, any fuel additives and induction air heating devices. The combustion processes are performed twice in one cycle. After the gas exchange process, the stratified ultra-lean SI combustion is performed. The hot-burned gas generated from this SI combustion is used as a trigger for the next HCCI combustion. After gasoline is injected in the burned gas, the hot and homogeneous lean mixture is recompressed without opening the exhaust valves. Thus the HCCI combustion occurs. Ignition timing of the HCCI depends on the gas temperature rather than the gas composition and it is effectively controlled by the ultra-lean fuel / air mixture and the large amount of EGR for the stratified SI combustion.
Technical Paper
2001-11-12
Tatsuo Kiuchi, Makoto Ogata, Masato Iizawa, Takashi Yanase, Yuta Susuki, Nobuaki Takeda, Naotake Kumagai
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Kinichi Iwachido, Hiroshi Tanada, Tetsuya Watanabe, Naoto Yamada, Osamu Nakayama, Hiromitsu Ando, Masao Hori, Shigeyoshi Taniguchi, Naomi Noda, Fumio Abe
NOx adsorber has already been used for the after-treatment system of series production vehicle installed with a lean burn or direct injection engine [1,2,3]. In order to improve NOx adsorbability at high temperatures, many researchers have recently been trying an addition of potassium (K) as well as other conventional NOx adsorbents. Potassium, however, reacts easily with the cordierite honeycomb substrate at high temperatures, and not only causes a loss in NOx adsorbability but also damages the substrate. Three new technologies have been proposed in consideration of the above circumstances. First, a new concept of K-capture is applied in washcoat design, mixed with zeolite, to improve thermal stability of K and to keep high NOx conversion efficiency, under high temperatures, of NOx adsorber catalyst. Second, another new technology, pre-coating silica over the boundary of a substrate and washcoat, is proposed to prevent the reaction between potassium and cordierite. The NOx adsorber catalyst, adopting these technologies, has demonstrated less crack formation and high NOx adsorbability at high temperatures even after severe accelerated aging test on the engine bench.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Takuya Kataoka
New numerical simulation system and experimental evaluation system has been developed to predict and evaluate occupant's thermal sensation in a passenger compartment in which environment is not steady and not uniform. Transitional effective temperature, which is new index of thermal sensation, is proposed and verified to correspond with subjects' thermal sensation votes. The simulation system has two advantage beside the prediction of thermal sensation; automatic generation of a computational model and coupling analysis of temperature including an analysis of temperature distribution inside a cabin, refrigerating cycle, solar radiation, and so on. It was verified that this system well predicts occupant's thermal sensation in a short time.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Yasuki Tamura, Seiji Kikuchi, Koujiro Okada, Kazuo Koga, Takashi Dogahara, Osamu Nakayama, Hiromitsu Ando
An extensive effort has been made, at Mitsubishi Motors, in the technology field of new catalysts and of the catalyst reaction control for the purpose of further improvement of the emission control with the GDI engines [1-2]. A new NOx-trap catalyst has been developed to satisfy the required higher catalyst performance under high-temperature condition. The new catalyst contains potassium (K) of excellent NOx-storage capacity under high-temperature region in the catalytic atmosphere, and to retain K stability zeolite is mixed in the catalyst layer as well as the substrate is coated with silica (SiO2). This new catalyst has been proven of the improved NOx conversion efficiency, and solved the long-pending problems particularly those experienced under high-temperature operation. In addition to the NOx-trap catalyst, a new dual-layer three-way catalyst (hereinafter referred to TWC), using platinum (Pt) effective for HC emissions control, has been developed with the aim of improving HC emissions reduction in lean-combustion region, which frequently occurs in the GDI engine.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
K. Ueda, K. Kaihara, K. Kurose, H. Ando
The gasoline direct injection engine starts significantly faster than a conventional engine. Fuel can be injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke at the same time of cranking start. When the spark plug ignites the mixture at the end of compression stroke, the engine has its first combustion, that is, the first combustion occurs within 0.2 sec after the start of cranking. This unique characteristic of quick startability has realized a idle stop system, which enables drivers to operate the vehicle in a natural manner.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Hiromistu Ando, Kazunari Kuwahara
A characteristic mechanism of in-cylinder combustion is “time-domain mixing” which mixes up unburned gas, products in the different stages of combustion process, and burned gas, by “eddy”, a flow component with its scales of several to 10 mm. It seems to play a role in completing the combustion. Now that direct injection is a central engine technology, a keyword to combustion control is “freedom of mixing”, that is, no restriction on mixture formation, realized by direct injection. Various kinds of combustion control technologies utilizing it, have been presented. After combustion control for a premixed leanburn gasoline engine, and a direct injection gasoline engine, was achieved by turbulence control, and mixing control, respectively, the next target of combustion control will be ignition control. It will be possible, by controlling some boundary condition on combustion and fuel chemistry. Time-domain mixing and freedom of mixing will support it. A keyword to the future will be “freedom from boundaries” between combustion and fuel chemistry.
Technical Paper
2001-03-05
Shigeo Yamamoto, Dai Tanaka, Jun Takemura, Osamu Nakayama, Hiromitsu Ando
A two-stage combustion is one of the Mitsubishi GDI™ technologies for a quick catalyst warm-up on a cold-start. However, when the combustion is continued for a long time, an increase in the fuel consumption is a considerable problem. To solve the problem, a stratified slight-lean combustion is newly introduced for utilization of catalysis. The stratified mixture with slightly lean overall air-fuel ratio is prepared by the late stage injection during the compression stroke. By optimizing an interval between the injection and the spark timing, the combustion simultaneously supplies substantial CO and surplus O2 to a catalyst while avoiding the soot generation and the fouling of a spark plug. The CO oxidation on the catalyst is utilized to reduce the cold-start emissions. Immediately after the cold-start, the catalyst is preheated for the minimum time to start the CO oxidation by using the two-stage combustion. Following that, the stratified slight-lean combustion is performed. The combustion induces the powerful CO oxidation on the catalyst.
Technical Paper
2000-10-16
K. Kuwahara, T. Watanabe, H. Tanada, K. Ueda, H. Ando, M. Yokoe
The Mitsubishi GDI engine has adopted a pair of upright intake ports, to induce a rotating in-cylinder flow, reverse tumble, and control air fuel mixing with this flow. The port design of the GDI engine was optimized for achieving a high intensity of the reverse tumble while maintaining a high charge coefficient, by means of modeling of in-cylinder flow and experiment with a steady flow rig. First of all, the ideal design of the upright ports was discussed. It was found that for enhancing the reverse tumble, it is more effective to arrange a pair of the ports parallel, than to arrange them convergent. The parallel arrangement leads to the smoother flows passing through the intake sides of the intake valves, and then descending on the cylinder liner, that is turning toward the rotation direction of the reverse tumble, because of less impingement of the flows through a pair of the valves. Actually, however, the completely parallel arrangement of the ports is not adoptable, because of interference of the ports with the spark plug located at the center of the cylinder.
Technical Paper
2000-06-19
Kazutoshi Mori, Hiroshi Jyoutaki, Kenji Kawai, Kenji Sakai
In the next few years, the USA, EU, and Japan plan to introduce very stringent exhaust emissions regulations for heavy–duty diesel engines, in order to enhance the protection air quality. This builds upon the heavy–duty diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations already in effect. At the same time, improvement in fuel consumption of heavy–duty diesel engines will be very important for lowering vehicle operating costs, conserving fossil fuel resources, and reduction of CO2 (greenhouse gas) levels. This paper presents a detailed review of a quiescent combustion system for a heavy–duty diesel engine, which offers breakthrough performance in terms of the exhaust emissions – fuel consumption trade–off, compared with the more conventional swirl supported combustion system. This conclusion is supported by experimental results comparing quiescent and swirl supported versions of various combustion system configurations. A number of numerical experiments using the KIVA II code was also carried out to investigate the fuel spray behavior, combustion and NOx formation.
Technical Paper
2000-06-19
Miki Sasaki, Yoshiaki Kishi, Tetsu Hyuga, Hiroshi Omata, Shigeki Takeshima, Isao Kurihara, Akihiro Ohashi
In this study, the oxidation stability, soot dispersancy, antiwear performance, and friction-reducing capability of friction modifiers (FMs) were evaluated, and an SAE 5W-30 fully synthetic oil with MoDTC type FMs was developed for heavy-duty diesel engines. In several engine tests, it was confirmed that the developed oil can double the oil drain interval in comparison with API CD SAE 30, even when EGR is applied, and improves the fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper
2000-06-12
Keiki Tanabe, Susumu Kohketsu, Koji Mori, Kenji Kawai
Injection rate control is an important capability of the ideal injection system of the future. However, in a conventional Common-Rail System (CRS) the injection pressure is constant throughout the injection period, resulting in a nearly rectangular injection rate shape and offering no control of the injection rate. Thus, in order to realize injection rate control with a CRS, a "Next- generation Common-Rail System (NCRS)" was conceptualized, designed, and fabricated. The NCRS has two common rails, for low- and high-pressure fuel, and switches the fuel pressure supplied to the injector from the low- to the high- pressure rail during the injection period, resulting in control over the injection rate shape. The effects of injection rate shape on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption were investigated by applying this NCRS to a single- cylinder research engine. The results showed that it was possible to control combustion by controlling the injection rate using the NCRS, and to improve the NOx fuel consumption and NOx-PM trade-offs, resulting in significant emissions reduction and improved fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2000-06-12
Takeshi Kondo, Isamu Terasawa, Yoshihiro Ishii, Hiroshi Tanaka, Toshinori Ishii
Vulcanized rubber hoses are difficult to recycle and have a complicated manufacturing process. Recently, we have developed the vacuum hose for engine control out of thermoplastic elastomers. As a result of this development, scrap material from the manufacturing process can be recycled and, in addition, about a 30 percent weight reduction and a 20 percent cost reduction are achievable by virtue of the lower specific gravity and by the more simplified manufacturing process. In order to assess the feasibility of using thermoplastic elastomers for vacuum hoses, we developed a heat aging simulation test method. This was achieved by first investigating the actual vehicle environmental conditions of currently used vacuum hoses by retrieving and examining these hoses from used vehicles. We then extrapolated what the condition of such hoses would be after being subjected to heat aging for 200,000 km of service in an actual vehicle, and applied this calculation to our newly developed hoses. We compared the life span of the new thermoplastic elastomeric hose with that of the current rubber hose by using the Arrhenius equation, and as a result, we could verify that the new hoses are usable in actual vehicles.
Technical Paper
2000-06-12
Hiroyuki Seino, Keisuke Kimura, Yoshinobu Kamada
The need of lightweight vehicle design is motivated by the recent global trend of less fuel consumption and lower emission in vehicle. However in NVH development of vehicle, it becomes more difficult for the lightweight vehicle to reach low vibro-acoustic sensitivity than, for the heavy weight one to do so. Inthis environment, this paper describes about the practical finite element (FE) modeling of vehicle structure and acoustics, in order to predict "boom" response to powertrain excitation. The FE modeling process through validation and updating with experimental mode makes, the accumulation of considerable expertise for improving prediction accuracy, possible. FE analysis based on this modeling process is so useful for predicting "boom" levels up to 200 Hz. Using the result of FE analysis, structural optimization is executed in order to improve "boom" level of 80 Hz.
Technical Paper
2000-06-12
Itsuhei Kohri, Toshio Takeuchi, Yukio Matsushima
As the global environmental protection becomes the world consensus recently, the regulations of the fuel consumption and the exhaust gas have large effects on the performance and the fundamental structure of commercial vehicles. Especially the technology concerning "fluid" and "heat" has a close relationship with those issues. Owing to above circumstances, commercial vehicles such as large trucks and buses are forced to be designed near the limit of allowance. Furthermore, a rapid design is another requirement. However, though significant number of variations, i.e., cab configuration, wheel base, rear body configuration, engine specification, etc., are prepared, it is impossible to improve the performance of all those combinations by experiments which cost a lot. Accordingly, the quantitative prediction using computer will become indispensable at the beginning term of new car development. Then, the authors have completed a new analyzing method to evaluate aerodynamic drag, engine cooling performance and practical problem caused by air flow around the vehicle numerically with the CFD, which will enable to design "well-born" structured vehicles.
Technical Paper
1998-11-16
K. Oguchi, N. Mochizuki, A. Matsumoto, S. Date
The 4M5 series of four-cylinder, in-line, direct-injection diesel engines has been released by Mitsubishi Motors Corporation for light and medium-duty trucks and buses. Featuring an updated structure and reflecting the employment of state-of-the-art technology in the design of every component, the new engine series offers high reliability and compact dimensions. Moreover, the new series well meets contemporary demands for high performance, low noise, and clean combustion.
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
Tetsuro Kato, Takeshi Koyama, Kenji Sasaki, Koji Mori, Kazutoshi Mori
With the intention of improving engine performance and emissions, the authors examined the influence of the method of initial fuel injection quantity reduction and of the injector configuration of a common rail fuel injection system on engine performance and exhaust emissions. Results showed that decreasing the nozzle hole diameter was an effective way to reduce the initial injection quantity without increasing black smoke. Compared to a three-way type injector, it was found that a two-way type injector can greatly reduce the amount of fuel leakage from the electromagnetic injector control valve and fuel consumption could be further improved by reduction of the driving loss. Furthermore, the increase of driving losses with higher injection pressure was small, and as a result, higher pressure injection was possible. With the two-way type injector, fuel injection pressure was raised and the nozzle hole diameter was reduced as much as possible, so that reduction of exhaust emissions and improvement of performance in the partial load region was possible without degrading high load or high speed performance.
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
Yoshifumi Ojima, Yukiyasu Shiroi, Yoichi Taniguchi, Kazuhiko Kato
Several different steel sheets were tested for energy absorption, using hat square columns and dynamic crash testing. Results indicate that steel sheets containing large volume fraction of retained austenite have relatively high energy absorption. The relationship between retained austenite and energy absorption was analyzed. These special steel sheets have already been successfully used for production body parts, such a front-side-member, without difficulties arising in volume production.
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
Kazutoshi Noma, Yasuyuki Iwamoto, Nobuaki Murakami, Kazumasa Iida, Osamu Nakayama
GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engine adopting new combustion control technologies was developed and introduced into Japanese domestic market in August of 1996. In order to extend its application to the European market, various system modifications have been performed. Injectors are located with a smaller angle to the vertical line in order to improve the combustion stability in the higher speed range. A new combustion control method named “two-stage mixing” is adopted to suppress the knock in the low speed range. As a result of this new method, the compression ratio was increased up to 12.5 to 1 while increasing the low-end torque significantly. Taking the high sulfur gasoline in the European market into account, a selective reduction lean-NOx catalyst with improved NOx conversion efficiency was employed. A warm-up catalyst can not be used because the selective reduction lean NOx catalyst requires HC for the NOx reduction. A new method named “two stage combustion” was adopted for the quick warm-up of the under floor three way catalyst located downstream of the lean NOx catalyst.
Technical Paper
1998-02-23
Kazunari Kuwahara, Katsunori Ueda, Hiromitsu Ando
Spray motion visualization, mixture strength measurement, flame spectral analyses and flame behavior observation were performed in order to elucidate the mixture preparation and the combustion processes in Mitsubishi GDI engine. The effects of in-cylinder flow called reverse tumble on the charge stratification were clarified. It preserves the mixture inside the spherical piston cavity, and extends the optimum injection timing range. Mixture strength at the spark plug and at the spark timing can be controlled by changing the injection timing. It was concluded that reverse tumble plays a significant role for extending the freedom of mixing. The characteristics of the stratified charge combustion were clarified through the flame radiation analyses. A first flame front with UV luminescence propagates rapidly and covers all over the combustion chamber at the early stage of combustion. Then, the combustion of rich mixture proceeds in the reaction zone behind a second flame front with thermal radiation.
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