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Viewing 1 to 30 of 149
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Michael P. Lammert, Adam Duran, Jeremy Diez, Kevin Burton, Alex Nicholson
The objective of this research project was to compare fuel economy results of two class 8 tractor trailer combinations platooned together to a standalone tractor trailer combination. A series of twelve modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel economy track tests were used to document fuel economy performance of two platooned vehicles and a baseline vehicle at steady state speeds ranging from 55 mph to 70 mph, from a 20 ft following gap to 75 ft gap and at 65,000 lbs and 80,000 lbs as well as a variable speed platooned test. Additionally, coast down testing was performed on the vehicles in isolation and in platoon formation to quantify aerodynamic impacts of the platoon formation. All tractors involved had EPA Smartway compliant aerodynamics packages and trailers were equipped with side skirts. Testing took place at Uvalde Proving Grounds near San Antonio Texas funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Effects of vehicle speed and following gap on fuel economy were analyzed as well as effects on engine cooling and SCR aftertreatment performance.
Technical Paper
2014-09-30
Michael P. Lammert, Jonathan Burton, Petr Sindler, Adam Duran
This research project compares laboratory-derived fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drivetrain with “engine off at idle” capability to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel package step delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of actual hybrid commercial operation was used to select three standardized laboratory drive cycles that would encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore operations as well as create a custom representative cycle. The NYC Composite cycle, the CSHVC cycle, and the CARB HHDDT cycle as well as a custom Baltimore package delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL).
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Jason Aaron Lustbader, Cory Kreutzer, Matthew A. Jeffers, Steven Adelman, Skip Yeakel, Philip Brontz, Kurt Olson, James Ohlinger
Abstract Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Marc W. Melaina
Abstract Both hydrogen and plug-in electric vehicles offer significant social and environmental benefits to enhance energy security and reduce criteria and greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. However, the rollout of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and hydrogen retail stations (HRS) requires substantial investments with high risks due to many uncertainties. We compare retail infrastructure costs on a common basis - cost per mile, assuming fueling service to 10% of all light-duty vehicles in a typical 1.5 million person city in 2025. Our analysis considers three HRS sizes, four distinct types of EVSE and two distinct EVSE scenarios. EVSE station costs, including equipment and installation, are assumed to be 15% less than today's costs. We find that levelized retail capital costs per mile are essentially indistinguishable given the uncertainty and variability around input assumptions. Total fuel costs per mile for battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) are, respectively, 21% lower and 13% lower than that for hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) under the home-dominant scenario.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Eric Wood, Evan Burton, Adam Duran, Jeffrey Gonder
Abstract Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation in the design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large-scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high-fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large, real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Tibor Kiss, Jason Lustbader
The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light-and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the “Fully-Detailed” model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the “Quasi-Transient” and the “Mapped-Component” models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Aaron Williams, Robert McCormick, Michael Lance, Chao Xie, Todd Toops, Rasto Brezny
Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging. The aged emissions control systems were evaluated through vehicle testing and then dissected for a more complete analysis of the devices.
Technical Paper
2013-11-20
Teresa L. Alleman
In the last three years, three quality surveys on ethanol-blended fuels intended for use in flex-fuel vehicles have been published. Two of these surveys cover Flex-Fuel quality, and the third encompasses the quality of mid-level ethanol blends (MLEBs) from blender pumps. The purpose of these surveys was to report on the quality of the fuels and provide a snapshot in time of fuel quality. This study examines the larger picture portrayed by these surveys and looks for broader trends in fuel quality. The analysis found that compliance with vapor pressure specification limits for Flex Fuel improved from 40% to 66% in Class 1, from 31% to 43% in Class 2, and from 12% to 30% in Class 3 between 2008 and 2010. Failures on other critical properties, such as acidity, pHe, water, and inorganic chloride were less than 6% in these studies. The 2010 Flex Fuel samples readily met the ethanol content specification, with 88%, 92%, and 95% compliance for Classes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In contrast, the 2008 Flex Fuel samples met the ethanol content specification only 28%, 58%, and 83% of the time for Classes 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Jonathan Burton, Kevin Walkowicz, Petr Sindler, Adam Duran
This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Eric Wood, Lijuan Wang, Jeffrey Gonder, Michael Ulsh
Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate.
Technical Paper
2013-09-24
Adam Duran, Kevin Walkowicz
In an effort to characterize the dynamics typical of school bus operation, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers set out to gather in-use duty cycle data from school bus fleets operating across the country. Employing a combination of Isaac Instruments GPS/CAN data loggers in conjunction with existing onboard telemetric systems resulted in the capture of operating information for more than 200 individual vehicles in three geographically unique domestic locations. In total, over 1,500 individual operational route shifts from Washington, New York, and Colorado were collected. Upon completing the collection of in-use field data using either NREL-installed data acquisition devices or existing onboard telemetry systems, large-scale duty-cycle statistical analyses were performed to examine underlying vehicle dynamics trends within the data and to explore vehicle operation variations between fleet locations. Based on the results of these analyses, high, low, and average vehicle dynamics requirements were determined, resulting in the selection of representative standard chassis dynamometer test cycles for each condition.
Article
2013-05-10
Advanced insulation packages, solar reflective film, and other thermal-management technologies enable heavy vehicles to reduce idle climate control loads, as demonstrated by NREL's CoolCab project in collaboration with industry OEMs and suppliers.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Eric Wood
Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Marc W. Melaina, Genevieve Saur
A simple cost analysis framework compares hydrogen and electricity as energy carriers delivering wind energy to light-duty vehicles (LDVs). We compare four wind energy pathways within a 2040-2050 timeframe and at large scale: a dedicated electricity transmission pathway and three distinct wind-hydrogen delivery pathways. Our results suggest that wind-hydrogen pathways will tend to be more costly than pure electricity transmission pathways on a per-mile driven cost basis ($/mile), but to a greater or lesser degree depending upon the pathway. The additional cost could be warranted to the degree that the hydrogen pathway adds value to consumers through full performance fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) compared to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), or through reduced variability in wind energy supply. If these benefits add value beyond the incremental costs suggested by our simple cost framework, some shift toward co-production or even dedicated hydrogen wind farms may be warranted. Results suggest that both wind-hydrogen and electricity transmission systems delivery energy within a cost range of $0.05-$0.21 per mile for LDVs, similar to costs associated with gasoline vehicles.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Aaron David Brooker, Jacob Ward, Lijuan Wang
In 2011, the United States imported almost half of its petroleum. Lightweighting vehicles reduces that dependency directly by decreasing the engine, braking and rolling resistance losses, and indirectly by enabling a smaller, more efficiently operating engine to provide the same performance. The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) tool was used to quantify these impacts. FASTSim is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) high-level vehicle powertrain model developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. It steps through a time versus speed drive cycle to estimate the powertrain forces required to meet the cycle. It simulates the major vehicle powertrain components and their losses. It includes a cost model based on component sizing and fuel prices. FASTSim simulated different levels of lightweighting for four different powertrains. The four powertrains included a conventional gasoline engine vehicle, a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), and a battery electric vehicle (EV).
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Aaron Williams, Jonathan Burton, Robert L. McCormick, Todd Toops, Andrew A. Wereszczak, Ethan E. Fox, Michael J. Lance, Giovanni Cavataio, Douglas Dobson, Jim Warner, Rasto Brezny, K. Nguyen, D. William Brookshear
Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. Using an accelerated aging procedure, a set of production exhaust systems from a 2011 Ford F250 equipped with a 6.7L diesel engine have been aged to an equivalent of 150,000 miles of thermal aging and metal exposure. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ULSD containing no measureable metals, B20 containing sodium, B20 containing potassium and B20 containing calcium. Metals levels were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to the ASTM D6751 standard. Analysis of the aged catalysts included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing with the systems installed on a Ford F250 pickup, bench flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Ahmad Pesaran
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and battery replacement costs with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options. Our evaluation process followed four steps: (1) identifying drive patterns best suited to battery swapping service plans, (2) modeling service usage statistics for the selected drive patterns, (3) calculating the cost-of-service plan options, and (4) evaluating the economics of individual drivers under realistically priced service plans.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Laurie A. Ramroth, Jeffrey D. Gonder, Aaron D. Brooker
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated conventional diesel and diesel-hybrid, medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. The results build on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium-duty, plug-in hybrids more than offset vehicle incremental price for future battery and fuel cost projections; however, they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive-cycle-specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Tibor Kiss, Lawrence Chaney, John Meyer
Accurate evaluation of vehicles' transient total power requirement helps achieving further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency. When operated, the air-conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle, therefore accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation models, such as "Autonomie," have been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. However, the load from the A/C system on the engine or on the energy storage system has not always been modeled in sufficient detail. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software MATLAB/Simulink® is frequently used by vehicle controls engineers to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. A MATLAB/Simulink-based transient A/C system simulation model is easier to incorporate into MATLAB/Simulink-based vehicle simulation software; therefore, the availability of a transient A/C system simulation tool developed in the MATLAB/Simulink platform is important.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
John Rugh, Larry Chaney, Laurie Ramroth, Travis Venson, Matthew Rose
The objective of the study was to assess the impact of a Saflex1 S Series solar control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) windshield on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cooldown analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cooldown analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and solar control PVB configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the solar control PVB configuration.
Technical Paper
2012-11-15
C. Scott Sluder, Brian H. West, Keith E. Knoll
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires the U.S. to use 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel per year by 2022. Domestic ethanol production has increased steadily in recent years, growing from less than 5 billion gallons per year (bgpy) in 2006 to over 13 bgpy in 2010. While there is interest in developing non-oxygenated renewable fuels for use in conventional vehicles as well as interest in expanding flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) production for increased E85 use, there remains concern that EISA compliance will require further use of oxygenated biofuels in conventional vehicles. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently granted partial approval to a waiver allowing the use of E15 in 2001 and newer light-duty vehicles. Despite EPA's determination that E15 will not contribute to increases in full-useful life emissions in these vehicles, there remains concern amongst some vehicle manufacturers that the vehicle malfunction indicator light (MIL) may be displayed (or activated) due to increased use of oxygenates in gasoline.
Technical Paper
2012-09-24
Michael P. Lammert, Kevin Walkowicz, Adam Duran, Petr Sindler
This research project compares the in-use and laboratory-derived fuel economy of a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with “engine off at idle” capability to a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles in this study included eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids that were placed in service at a United Parcel Service (UPS) facility in Minneapolis, Minn., during the first half of 2010. These hybrid vehicles were evaluated for 18 months against eleven model year 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels that were placed in service at the same facility a couple months after the hybrids. Both vehicle study groups use the same model year 2009 Cummins ISB 200 HP engine. The vehicles of interest were chosen by comparing the average daily mileage of the hybrid group to that of a similar size and usage diesel group. The driving characteristics of the two study groups were examined in detail by collecting and analyzing two periods of Global Positioning System and controller area network (CAN) bus data.
Technical Paper
2012-09-24
Michael P. Lammert, Robert L. McCormick, Petr Sindler, Aaron Williams
The objective of this research project was to compare the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from transit buses on as many as five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles to establish if there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Prior studies have shown that B20 can cause a small but significant increase in NOx emissions for some engines and duty cycles. Six buses spanning engine build years 1998 to 2011 were tested on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants research laboratory's heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic [California Air Resources Board (CARB)] diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. The buses selected represented the majority of the current national transit fleet as well as including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems that are increasing penetration in the fleet.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Matthew Thornton, Aaron Brooker, Jonathon Cosgrove, Michael Veenstra, Jose Miguel Pasini
One of the most critical elements in engineering a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is the design of the on-board hydrogen storage system. Because the current compressed-gas hydrogen storage technology has several key challenges, including cost, volume and capacity, materials-based storage technologies are being evaluated as an alternative approach. These materials-based hydrogen storage technologies include metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and adsorbent materials, all of which have drawbacks of their own. To optimize the engineering of storage systems based on these materials, it is critical to understand the impacts these systems will have on the overall vehicle system performance and what trade-offs between the hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle systems might exist that allow these alternative storage approaches to be viable. To gain a better understanding of the interactions that exist between various materials-based hydrogen storage systems and the vehicle system as well as the engineering challenges that exist when integrating one of these systems with a vehicle, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a vehicle-level model designed to be sensitive to these issues.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Kandler Smith, Matthew Earleywine, Eric Wood, Jeremy Neubauer, Ahmad Pesaran
In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle, and charging scenarios. Because worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate calendar degradation for various geographic environments and simplified cycling scenarios. The life model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of plug-in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEV10 and PHEV40) vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from a Texas travel survey. Drive cycle statistics impacting battery life are compared to standard test cycles.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Adam Duran, Matthew Earleywine
Global Positioning System (GPS) data acquisition devices have proven useful tools for gathering real-world driving data and statistics. The data collected by these devices provide valuable information in studying driving habits and conditions. When used jointly with vehicle simulation software, the data are invaluable in analyzing vehicle fuel use and performance, aiding in the design of more advanced and efficient vehicle technologies. However, when employing GPS data acquisition systems to capture vehicle drive-cycle information, a number of errors often appear in the captured raw data samples. Common sources of error in GPS data include sudden signal loss, extraneous or outlying data points, speed drifting, and signal white noise, all of which combine to limit the quality of field data for use in downstream applications. Unaddressed, these errors significantly impact the reliability of source data and limit the effectiveness of traditional drive cycle analysis approaches and vehicle simulation software.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Jeremy S. Neubauer, Ahmad Pesaran, Brett Williams, Mike Ferry, Jim Eyer
Accelerated market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Deployment of grid-connected energy storage, which could increase the reliability, efficiency, and cleanliness of the grid, is similarly inhibited by the cost of batteries. Research, development, and manufacturing are underway to reduce cost by lowering material costs, enhance process efficiencies, and increase production volumes. Another approach under consideration is to recover a fraction of the battery cost after the battery has been retired from vehicular service via reuse in other applications, where it may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy-storage applications. By extracting additional services and revenue from the battery in a post-vehicle application, the total lifetime value of the battery is increased, thereby decreasing the overall cost of energy-storage solutions for both primary (automotive) and secondary (grid) customers.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Jeffrey Gonder, Matthew Earleywine, Witt Sparks
While it is well known that “MPG will vary” based on how one drives, little independent research exists on the aggregate fuel savings potential of improving driver efficiency and on the best ways to motivate driver behavior changes. This paper finds that reasonable driving style changes could deliver significant national petroleum savings, but that current feedback approaches may be insufficient to convince many people to adopt efficient driving habits. To quantify the outer bound fuel savings for drive cycle modification, the project examines completely eliminating stop-and-go driving plus unnecessary idling, and adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels. Even without changing the vehicle powertrain, such extreme adjustments result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. Considering the effects of real-world driving conditions, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips.
Video
2012-04-10
Understanding in-use fleet operating behavior is of paramount importance when evaluating the potential of advanced/alternative vehicle technologies. Accurately characterizing real world vehicle operation assists in properly allocating advanced technologies, playing a role in determining initial payback period and return on investment. In addition, this information contributes to the design and deployment of future technologies as the result of increased awareness regarding tractive power requirements associated with typical operating behavior. In this presentation, the concept of vehicle duty cycles and their relation to advanced technologies will be presented and explored. Additionally, current research attempts to characterize school bus operation will be examined, and existing computational analysis and evaluation tools associated with these efforts discussed. Presenter Adam Duran, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Technical Paper
2011-12-06
Xin He, Aaron Williams, Earl Christensen, Jonathan Burton, Robert McCormick
Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate.
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