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Viewing 1 to 30 of 261
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1008
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Josh A. Pihl, Todd J. Toops, John F. Thomas, James E. Parks, Brian H. West
Abstract Ethanol is a very effective reductant for nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environments. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the U.S., lean gasoline engines equipped with Ag/Al2O3 catalysts have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for evaluation of catalyst performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0893
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
Abstract The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. Bio20 is not to be confused with B20, which is a diesel blend containing 20% biodiesel. The feedstock, processing, and chemistry of biodiesel are markedly different from bio-oil. Plastic materials included those identified for use as seals, coatings, piping and fiberglass resins, but many are also used in vehicle fueling systems. The plastic specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured to determine extent of property change. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0894
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Timothy Theiss, James Baustian, Leslie Wolf, Wolf Koch
Abstract The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for a test fuel representing gasoline blended with 10% ethanol. Prior investigations were performed on gasoline fuels containing 25, 50 and 85% ethanol, but the knowledge gap existing from 0 to 25% ethanol precluded accurate compatibility assessment of low level blends, especially for the current E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10% ethanol) used in most filling stations, and the recently accepted E15 fuel blend (gasoline blended with up to15% ethanol). For the majority of the plastic materials evaluated in this study, the wet volume swell (which is the parameter most commonly used to assess compatibility) was higher for fuels containing 25% ethanol, while the volume swell accompanying E10 was much lower.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0888
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
Abstract The compatibility of elastomer materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. (This fuel blend is not to be confused with B20, which is a blend of diesel fuel with 20% biodiesel.) The elastomer types evaluated in this study included fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, neoprene, and silicone. All of these elastomer types are used in sealing applications, but some, like the nitrile rubbers are also common hose materials. The elastomer specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0837
Reed Hanson, Shawn Spannbauer, Christopher Gross, Rolf D. Reitz, Scott Curran, John Storey, Shean Huff
Abstract In the current work, a series-hybrid vehicle has been constructed that utilizes a dual-fuel, Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engine. The vehicle is a 2009 Saturn Vue chassis and a 1.9L turbo-diesel engine converted to operate with low temperature RCCI combustion. The engine is coupled to a 90 kW AC motor, acting as an electrical generator to charge a 14.1 kW-hr lithium-ion traction battery pack, which powers the rear wheels by a 75 kW drive motor. Full vehicle testing was conducted on chassis dynamometers at the Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory at Ford Motor Company and at the Vehicle Research Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this work, the US Environmental Protection Agency Highway Fuel Economy Test was performed using commercially available gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0855
Adam B. Dempsey, Scott Curran, Rolf D. Reitz
Abstract The focus of the present study was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over a variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1022
Jinyong Luo, Hongmei An, Krishna Kamasamudram, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Thomas Watkins, Larry Allard
Abstract In this contribution, nuanced changes of a commercial Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst with hydrothermal aging, which have not been previously reported, as well as their corresponding impact on SCR functions, are described. In particular, a sample of Cu-SSZ-13 was progressively aged between 550 to 900°C and the changes of performance in NH3 storage, oxidation functionality and NOx conversion of the catalyst were measured after hydrothermal exposure at each temperature. The catalysts thus aged were further characterized by NH3-TPD, XRD and DRIFTS techniques for structural changes. Based on the corresponding performance and structural characteristics, three different regimes of hydrothermal aging were identified, and tentatively as assigned to “mild”, “severe” and “extreme” aging. Progressive hydrothermal aging up to 750°C decreased NOx conversion to a small degree, as well as NH3 storage and oxidation functions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0741
Derek Splitter, Barry Burrows, Sam Lewis
Abstract The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and speciated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0972
Alexander Pawlowski, Derek Splitter
Abstract It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0860
Michael Bergin, Christopher Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz, Adam Dempsey, Scott Curran
Abstract A novel 2-zone combustion system was examined at medium load operation consistent with loads in the light duty vehicle drive cycle (7.6 bar BMEP and 2600 rev/min). Pressure rise rate and noise can limit the part of the engine map where pre-mixed combustion strategies such as HCCI or RCCI can be used. The present 2-zone pistons have an axial projection that divides the near TDC volume into two regions (inner and outer) joined by a narrow communication channel defined by the squish height. Dividing the near TDC volume provides a means to prepare two fuel-air mixtures with different ignition characteristics. Depending on the fuel injection timing, the reactivity of the inner or outer volume can be raised to provide an ignition source for the fuel-air mixture in the other, less reactive volume. Multi-dimensional CFD modeling was used to design the 2-zone piston geometry examined in this study.
2015-01-15
Article
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) had its latest 3-D printing technology at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, showing off a replica of a classic Shelby Cobra made via the rapidly propagating technology.
2014-12-23
Article
The potential impact to public health from GDI engine particulates is driving new developments in fuel delivery, controls, and combustion strategies.
2014-12-17
Article
Claus Daniel, Ph.D., is Deputy Director for the Sustainable Transportation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Founding Director of the U.S. Department of Energy Battery Manufacturing R&D Facility at ORNL.
2014-10-20
Article
Automakers are racing to cut the cost of lightweight materials that help boost fuel efficiency. In this week's SAE Eye on Engineering, Senior Editor Lindsay Brooke looks at the U.S. and German automakers' push for low-cost carbon fiber.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2707
Brian C. Kaul, Benjamin J. Lawler, Charles E.A. Finney, Michelle L. Edwards, Robert M. Wagner
Abstract Advances in engine controls and sensor technology are making advanced, direct, high-speed control of engine combustion more feasible. Control of combustion rate and phasing in low-temperature combustion regimes and active control of cyclic variability in dilute SI combustion are being pursued in laboratory environments with high-quality data acquisition systems, using metrics calculated from in-cylinder pressure. In order to implement these advanced combustion controls in production, lower-quality data will need to be tolerated even if indicated pressure sensors become available. This paper examines the effects of several data quality issues, including phase shifting (incorrect TDC location), reduced data resolution, pressure pegging errors, and random noise on calculated combustion metrics that are used for control feedback.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2562
John Thomas
Abstract Vehicle manufacturers among others are putting great emphasis on improving fuel economy (FE) of light-duty vehicles in the U.S. market, with significant FE gains being realized in recent years. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data indicates that the aggregate FE of vehicles produced for the U.S. market has improved by over 20% from model year (MY) 2005 to 2013. This steep climb in FE includes changes in vehicle choice, improvements in engine and transmission technology, and reducing aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, and parasitic losses. The powertrain related improvements focus on optimizing in-use efficiency of the transmission and engine as a system, and may make use of what is termed downsizing and/or downspeeding. This study quantifies recent improvements in powertrain efficiency, viewed separately from other vehicle alterations and attributes (noting that most vehicle changes are not completely independent).
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2326
Zhiming Gao, Charles Finney, Charles Daw, Tim J. LaClair, David Smith
Two hybrid powertrain configurations, including parallel and series hybrids, were simulated for fuel economy, component energy loss, and emissions control in Class 8 trucks over both city and highway driving conditions. A comprehensive set of component models describing engine fuel consumption, emissions control, battery energy, and accessory power demand interactions was developed and integrated with the simulated hybrid trucks to identify heavy-duty (HD) hybrid technology barriers. The results show that series hybrid is absolutely negative for fuel-economy improvement of long-haul trucks due to an efficiency penalty associated with the dual-step conversions of energy (i.e. mechanical to electric to mechanical).
2014-06-26
Article
The Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has launched its new Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, which aims to accelerate discovery, design, and deployment of new materials, according to a release from the laboratory.
2014-05-04
Article
A new electrolyte developed the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) serves not only as an ion conductor, but also as a cathode supplement in batteries. Potential uses of the technology include remote keyless entry systems, cardiac pacemakers, sensors, and other applications "where replacing or recharging a battery is not possible or desirable."
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1542
Krishna Kamasamudram, Ashok Kumar, Jinyong Luo, Neal Currier, Aleksey Yezerets, Thomas Watkins, Larry Allard
Abstract An operational challenge associated with SCR catalysts is the NH3 slip control, particularly for commercial small pore Cu-zeolite formulations as a consequence of their significant ammonia storage capacity. The desorption of NH3 during increasing temperature transients is one example of this challenge. Ammonia slipping from SCR catalyst typically passes through a platinum based ammonia oxidation catalyst (AMOx), leading to the formation of the undesired byproducts NOx and N2O. We have discovered a distinctive characteristic, an overlapping NH3 desorption and oxidation, in a state-of-the-art Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst that can minimize NH3 slip during temperature transients encountered in real-world operation of a vehicle.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1673
Michael D. Kass, Mark W. Noakes, Brian Kaul, Dean Edwards, Timothy Theiss, Lonnie Love, Ryan Dehoff, John Thomas
Abstract The performance of a 4cc two-stroke single cylinder glow plug engine was assessed at wide open throttle for speeds ranging from 2000 to 7000RPM. The engine performance was mapped for the stock aluminum head and one composed of titanium, which was printed using additive manufacturing. The engine was mounted to a motoring dynamometer and the maximum torque was determined by adjusting the fuel flow. Maximum torque occurred around 3000 to 3500RPM and tended to be higher when using the aluminum head. At slower speeds, the titanium head produced slightly higher torque. For each test condition, maximum torque occurred at leaner conditions for the titanium head compared to the stock aluminum one. Higher efficiencies were observed with the aluminum head for speeds greater than 3000RPM, but the titanium heads provided better efficiency at the lower speed points.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1965
Zhenhong Lin, Jan-Mou Li, Jing Dong
Abstract This study attempts to establish a quantitative linkage between deployment of dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT) and the market adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). This linkage can be useful for analyzing the societal benefits of DWPT and justifying investments in its research, development, demonstration and deployment. Spatial relationships between charging opportunity and DWPT availability are estimated for four metropolitan areas. The consumer value of DWPT is formulated as a function of key DWPT deployment parameters and then integrated into an existing validated consumer choice model, where sales of PEVs are endogenous. Results indicate significant impacts on PEV sales of DWPT deployment, even only at 0.5% of road length by 2050. Significant impact heterogeneity is observed.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0879
Jan-Mou Li, David Smith
Abstract Driver is a key component in vehicle simulation. An ideal driver model simulates driving patterns a human driver may perform to negotiate road profiles. There are simulation packages having the capability to simulate driver behavior. However, it is rarely documented how they work with road profiles. This paper proposes a new truck driver model for vehicle simulation to imitate actual driving behavior in negotiating road grade and curvature. The proposed model is developed based upon Gipps' car-following model. Road grade and curvature were not considered in the original Gipps' model although it is based directly on driver behavior and expectancy for vehicles in a stream of traffic. New parameters are introduced to capture drivers' choice of desired speeds that they intend to use in order to negotiating road grade and curvature simultaneously. With the new parameters, the proposed model can emulate behaviors like uphill preparation for different truck drivers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0343
Jing Dong, Zhenhong Lin, Changzheng Liu, Yanghe Liu
Abstract This paper utilizes GPS tracked multiday travel activities to estimate the temporal distribution of electricity loads and assess battery electric vehicle (BEV) grid impacts at a significant market penetration level. The BEV load and non-PEV load vary by time of the day and day of the week. We consider two charging preferences: home priority assumes BEV drivers prefer charging at home and would not charge at public charging stations unless the state of charge (SOC) of the battery is not sufficient to cover the way back to home; and charging priority does not require drivers to defer charging to home and assumes drivers will utilize the first available charging opportunity. Both home and charging priority scenarios show an evening peak demand. Charging priority scenario also shows a morning peak on weekdays, possibly due to workplace charging.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1596
Adam Dempsey, Scott Curran, John Storey, Mary Eibl, Josh Pihl, Vitaly Prikhodko, Robert Wagner, James Parks
Abstract Low temperature combustion (LTC) has been shown to yield higher brake thermal efficiencies with lower NOx and soot emissions, relative to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). However, while demonstrating low soot carbon emissions it has been shown that LTC operation does produce particulate matter whose composition appears to be much different than CDC. The particulate matter emissions from dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) using gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated in this study. A four cylinder General Motors 1.9L ZDTH engine was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. RCCI operation was carried out using a certification grade 97 research octane gasoline and a certification grade diesel fuel.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1462
Michael D. Kass, Timothy Theiss, Steve Pawel, James Baustian, Les Wolf, Wolf Koch, Chris Janke
The compatibility of elastomeric materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline and gasoline blends containing 10 and 17 vol.% ethanol, and 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. The actual test fuel chemistries were based on the aggressive formulations described in SAE J1681 for oxygenated gasoline. Elastomer specimens of fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), polyurethane, neoprene, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silicone were exposed to the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 20 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also performed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg). Comparison to the original values showed that all elastomer materials experienced volume expansion and softening when wetted by the test fuels.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1465
Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Timothy Theiss, Steve Pawel, James Baustian, Les Wolf, Wolf Koch
The compatibility of plastic materials used in gasoline storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline (Fuel C), and blends containing 25% ethanol (CE25a), 16% isobutanol (CiBu16a), and 24% isobutanol (CiBu24a). A solubility analysis was also performed and compared to the volume swell results obtained from the test fuel exposures. The plastic specimens were exposed to each test fuel for16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which measures the storage modulus as a function of temperature, was also performed on the dried specimens to determine the temperature associated with the onset of the glass-to-rubber transition (Tg). For many of the plastic materials, the solubility analysis was able to predict the relative volume swell for each test fuel.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1500
Aaron Williams, Robert McCormick, Michael Lance, Chao Xie, Todd Toops, Rasto Brezny
Small impurities in the fuel can have a significant impact on the emissions control system performance over the lifetime of the vehicle. Of particular interest in recent studies has been the impact of sodium, potassium, and calcium that can be introduced either through fuel constituents, such as biodiesel, or as lubricant additives. In a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a series of accelerated aging studies have been performed to understand the potential impact of these metals on the emissions control system. This paper explores the effect of the rate of accelerated aging on the capture of fuel-borne metal impurities in the emission control devices and the subsequent impact on performance. Aging was accelerated by doping the fuel with high levels of the metals of interest. Three separate evaluations were performed, each with a different rate of accelerated aging.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1606
John M. Storey, Sam Lewis, James Szybist, John Thomas, Teresa Barone, Mary Eibl, Eric Nafziger, Brian Kaul
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1572
C. Scott Sluder, Brian H. West, Aron D. Butler, Arvon L. Mitcham, William J. Ruona
During the 1980s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) incorporated the R factor into fuel economy calculations in order to address concerns about the impacts of test fuel property variations on corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) compliance, which is determined using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) cycles. The R factor is defined as the ratio of the percent change in fuel economy to the percent change in volumetric heating value for tests conducted using two differing fuels. At the time the R-factor was devised, tests using representative vehicles initially indicated that an appropriate value for the R factor was 0.6. Reassessing the R factor has recently come under renewed interest after EPA's March 2013 proposal to adjust the properties of certification gasoline to contain significant amounts of ethanol.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 261

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