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Viewing 1 to 30 of 211
2018-01-12
Journal Article
2018-01-9275
Hamed Kheshtinejad, Mirko Baratta, Danilo Laurenzano, Claudio Maino, Daniela Anna Misul
CNG is at present retaining a growing interest as a factual alternative to traditional fuels for SI engines, thanks to its high potentials in reducing the engine-out emissions. Increasing thrust into the exploitation of NG in the transport field is in fact produced by the even more stringent emission regulations that are being introduced into the worldwide scenario. The present paper aims at deeply investigating into the potentials of a heavy-duty engine running on CNG and equipped with two different injection systems, an advanced single point (SP) one and a prototype multi-point (MP) one. The considered 7.8-liter engine was designed and produced to implement a SP strategy and hence modified to run with a dedicated MP system. A thorough comparison of the engine equipped with the two injection systems has been carried out at steady state as well as at transient operations.
2017-11-05
Technical Paper
2017-32-0121
P. Nuccio, D. De Donno, A. Magno
An original 2-stroke prototype engine, equipped with an electronically controlled gasoline direct-injection apparatus, has been tested over the last few years, and the performances of these tests have been compared with those obtained using a commercial crankcase-scavenged 2-stroke engine. Very satisfactory results have been obtained, as far as fuel consumption and unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas are concerned. Large reductions in fuel consumption and in unburned hydrocarbons have been made possible, because the injection timing causes all the injected gasoline to remain in the combustion chamber, and thus to take part in the combustion process. Moreover, a force-feed lubrication system, like those usually exploited in mass-produced 4-stroke engines, has been employed, because of the presence of an external pump. In fact, it is no longer necessary to add oil to the gasoline in the engine, as the gasoline does not pass through the crankcase volume.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2058
Francesco Noziglia, Paolo Rigato, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Alfredo Arias-Montano
Abstract Innovative aircraft design studies have noted that uncertainty effects could become significant and greatly emphasized during the conceptual design phases due to the scarcity of information about the new aero-structure being designed. The introduction of these effects in design methodologies are strongly recommended in order to perform a consistent evaluation of structural integrity. The benefit to run a Robust Optimization is the opportunity to take into account uncertainties inside the optimization process obtaining a set of robust solutions. A major drawback of performing Robust Multi-Objective Optimization is the computational time required. The proposed research focus on the reduction of the computational time using mathematic and computational techniques. In the paper, a generalized approach to operate a Robust Multi-Objective Optimization (RMOO) for Aerospace structure using MSC software Patran/Nastran to evaluate the Objectives Function, is proposed.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2059
Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Renzo Duella, Paolo Piana, Francesco Pennella, Francesco Danzi
Abstract Future generations of civil aircrafts and unconventional unmanned configurations demand for innovative structural concepts to improve the structural performance, and thus reduce the structural weight, but also to allow possible material couplings to be made. Static and dynamic aeroelastic stability can be altered by these couplings. It is therefore necessary to use an accurate and computationally efficient beam model during the preliminary design phase. A stiffened box, made of isotropic material, but with the stiffeners oriented so that they originate the expected bending/torsion coupling, is considered in the present work. The overall equivalent bending, torsional and coupled stiffness is derived by means of homogenization of the shell skin and of the stiffener plate stiffness. A new equivalent homogeneous orthotropic material is determined and introduced into the equivalent plate configuration.
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2061
Andrea Cravana, Gerardo Manfreda, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Robert Carrese, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
2017-09-17
Journal Article
2017-01-2496
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Alessandro Vigliani, Mauro Velardocchia
Abstract Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller. Results prove that innovative control strategies can be applied to conventional braking systems for achieving targets not limited to braking issues, i.e., comfort or NVH tasks.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0009
Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Andrea Piano, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Giuseppe Tutore, Andrea Marinoni
Abstract To comply with Stage IV emission standard for off-road engines, Kohler Engines has developed the 100kW rated KDI 3.4 liters diesel engine, equipped with DOC and SCR. Based on this engine, a research project in collaboration between Kohler Engines, Ricardo, Denso and Politecnico di Torino was carried out to exploit the potential of new technologies to meet the Stage IV and beyond emission standards. The prototype engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled EGR system, two stage turbocharger, high pressure fuel injection system capable of very high injection pressure and DOC+DPF aftertreatment system. Since the Stage IV emission standard sets a 0.4 g/kWh NOx limit for the steady state test cycle (NRSC), that includes full load operating conditions, the engine must be operated with very high EGR rates (above 30%) at very high load.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0010
Federico Millo, Luciano Rolando, Alessandro Zanelli, Francesco Pulvirenti, Matteo Cucchi, Vincenzo Rossi
Abstract This paper presents the modeling of the transient phase of catalyst heating on a high-performance turbocharged spark ignition engine with the aim to accurately predict the exhaust thermal energy available at the catalyst inlet and to provide a “virtual test rig” to assess different design and calibration options. The entire transient phase, starting from the engine cranking until the catalyst warm-up is completed, was taken into account in the simulation, and the model was validated using a wide data-set of experimental tests. The first step of the modeling activity was the combustion analysis during the transient phase: the burn rate was evaluated on the basis of experimental in-cylinder pressure data, considering both cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variations.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0011
Giulio Boccardo, Federico Millo, Andrea Piano, Luigi Arnone, Stefano Manelli, Cristian Capiluppi
Abstract Nowadays stringent emission regulations are pushing towards new air management strategies like LP-EGR and HP/LP mix both for passenger car and heavy duty applications, increasing the engine control complexity. Within a project in collaboration between Kohler Engines EMEA, Politecnico di Torino, Ricardo and Denso to exploit the potential of EGR-Only technologies, a 3.4 liters KDI 3404 was equipped with a two stage turbocharging system, an extremely high pressure FIS and a low pressure EGR system. The LP-EGR system works in a closed loop control with an intake oxygen sensor actuating two valves: an EGR valve placed downstream of the EGR cooler that regulates the flow area of the bypass between the exhaust line and the intake line, and an exhaust flap to generate enough backpressure to recirculate the needed EGR rate to cut the NOx emission without a specific aftertreatment device.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0024
Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Davide Di Nunno, Alessandro Gallone
Abstract The need for achieving a fast warm up of the exhaust system has raised in the recent years a growing interest in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology for automotive diesel engines. As a matter of fact, different measures can be adopted through VVA to accelerate the warm up of the exhaust system, such as using hot internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (iEGR) to heat the intake charge, especially at part load, or adopting early Exhaust Valve Opening (eEVO) timing during the expansion stroke, so to increase the exhaust gas temperature during blowdown. In this paper a simulation study is presented evaluating the impact of VVA on the exhaust temperature of a modern light duty 4-cylinder diesel engine, 1.6 liters, equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT).
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0025
Francesco Sapio, Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Abstract Development trends in modern Common Rail Fuel Injection System (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection pattern through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle along with a modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection pattern optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual injection rate generator for the assessment of the corresponding engine outputs in terms of combustion characteristics such as burn rate, emission formation and combustion noise (CN). This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of digitalization of pilot events in the injection pattern on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), CN and emissions for a EURO 6 passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0068
Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Giuseppe Conte, Gennaro Merlino
Abstract A real-time approach has been developed and assessed to control BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of fuel mass has burnt) in a Euro 6 1.6L GM diesel engine. The approach is based on the use of feed-forward ANNs (artificial neural networks), which have been trained using virtual tests simulated by a previously developed low-throughput physical engine model. The latter is capable of predicting the heat release and the in-cylinder pressure, as well as the related metrics (MFB50, IMEP - indicated mean effective pressure) on the basis of an improved version of the accumulated fuel mass approach. BMEP is obtained from IMEP taking into account friction losses. The low-throughput physical model does not require high calibration effort and is also suitable for control-oriented applications.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0145
Marco Piumetti, Debora Fino, Nunzio Russo, Samir Bensaid, Melodj Dosa
Abstract In this work, several nanostructured ceria-based catalysts were prepared by the hydrothermal technique varying two synthesis parameters (namely, temperature and pH). Then, cerias with different shapes (i.e., cubes, rods, combination of them, other polyhedra) and structural properties were obtained. The prepared materials were tested for the CO oxidation and soot oxidation efficiency. The results have shown that, for the CO oxidation, activities depend on the surface properties of the catalysts. Conversely, for the soot oxidation, the most effective catalysts exhibit better soot-catalyst contact conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0070
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Nicolò Salamone, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0133
Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa, Federico Millo
Abstract Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0021
Sabino Caputo, Federico Millo, Giancarlo Cifali, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Abstract One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0057
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Ezio Spessa, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy
Abstract A model-based approach to control BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The controller is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, BMEP and NOx engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0152
Mirko Baratta, Daniela Misul, Jiajie Xu, Alois Fuerhapter, Rene Heindl, Cesare Peletto, Jean Preuhs, Patrick Salemi
Abstract Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0012
Andrea Piano, Giulio Boccardo, Federico Millo, Andrea Cavicchi, Lucio Postrioti, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Abstract Nowadays, injection rate shaping and multi-pilot events can help to improve fuel efficiency, combustion noise and pollutant emissions in diesel engine, providing high flexibility in the shape of the injection that allows combustion process control. Different strategies can be used in order to obtain the required flexibility in the rate, such as very close pilot injections with almost zero Dwell Time or boot shaped injections with optional pilot injections. Modern Common-Rail Fuel Injection Systems (FIS) should be able to provide these innovative patterns to control the combustion phases intensity for optimal tradeoff between fuel consumption and emission levels.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1778
Enrico Galvagno, Antonio Tota, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper explores the potentiality of reducing noise and vibration of a vehicle transmission thanks to powertrain control integration with active braking. Due to external disturbances, coming from the driver, e.g. during tip-in / tip-out maneuvers, or from the road, e.g. crossing a speed bump or driving on a rough road, the torsional backlashes between transmission rotating components (gears, synchronizers, splines, CV joints), may lead to NVH issues known as clonk. This study initially focuses on the positive effect on transmission NVH performance of a concurrent application of a braking torque at the driving wheels and of an engine torque increase during these maneuvers; then a powertrain/brake integrated control strategy is proposed. The braking system is activated in advance with respect to the perturbation and it is deactivated immediately after to minimize losses.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0509
Jyotishman Ghosh, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati
Abstract This paper presents a novel strategy for the control of the motor torques of a rear wheel drive electric vehicle with the objective of improving the lap time of the vehicle around a racetrack. The control strategy is based upon increasing the size of the friction circle by implementing torque vectoring and tire slip control. A two-level nested control strategy is used for the motor torque control. While the outer level is responsible for computing the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment, the inner level controls the motor torques to realize the desired corrective torque vectoring yaw moment while simultaneously controlling the wheel longitudinal slip. The performance of the developed controller is analyzed by simulating laps around a racetrack with a non-linear multi-body vehicle model and a professional human racing driver controller setting.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1590
Jyotishman Ghosh, Stéphane Foulard, Rafael Fietzek
Abstract A method for estimating the vehicle mass in real time is presented. Traditional mass estimation methods suffer due a lack of knowledge of the vehicle parameters, the road surface conditions and most importantly the effect of the vehicle transmission. To resolve these issues, a method independent of a vehicle model is utilized in conjunction with a drivetrain output torque observer to obtain the estimate of the vehicle mass. Simulations and experimental track tests indicate that the method is able to accurately estimate the vehicle mass with a relatively fast rate of convergence compared to traditional methods.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1124
Enrico Galvagno, Pablo Gutierrez, Mauro Velardocchia, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper investigates the effect of the powertrain mounting system on the linear and nonlinear torsional dynamical behaviour of a transmission system. To this aim, two dynamic models, one with rigid mounts and the other with flexible mounts, are presented and compared: the first model considers only the torsional dynamics of transmission and driveline, while the second model includes also a 3 degrees-of-freedom powertrain block. The mechanical coupling and interaction between the powertrain block and transmission system is discussed and formulated. These models are then analyzed in terms of vibrational mode shapes, natural frequencies and Frequency Response Functions (FRFs); a sensitivity analysis of the main transmission parameters, e.g. the gear ratio, is also presented.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0542
Navin Fogla, Michael Bybee, Mohsen Mirzaeian, Federico Millo, Syed Wahiduzzaman
The turbulent flow field inside the cylinder plays a major role in spark ignition (SI) engines. Multiple phenomena that occur during the high pressure part of the engine cycle, such as early flame kernel development, flame propagation and gas-to-wall heat transfer, are influenced by in-cylinder turbulence. Turbulence inside the cylinder is primarily generated via high shear flows that occur during the intake process, via high velocity injection sprays and by the destruction of macro-scale motions produced by tumbling and/or swirling structures close to top dead center (TDC) . Understanding such complex flow phenomena typically requires detailed 3D-CFD simulations. Such calculations are computationally very expensive and are typically carried out for a limited number of operating conditions. On the other hand, quasi-dimensional simulations, which provide a limited description of the in-cylinder processes, are computationally inexpensive.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0695
Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo, Gilles Hardy
Abstract In the present work, different combustion control strategies have been experimentally tested in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. In particular, closed-loop pressure-based and open-loop model-based techniques, able to perform a real-time control of the center of combustion (MFB50), have been compared with the standard map-based engine calibration in order to highlight their potentialities. In the pressure-based technique, the instantaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure signal is performed by a pressure transducer, from which the MFB50 can be directly calculated and the start of the injection of the main pulse (SOImain) is set in a closed-loop control to reach the MFB50 target, while the model-based approach exploits a heat release rate predictive model to estimate the MFB50 value and sets the corresponding SOImain in an open-loop control. The experimental campaign involved both steady-state and transient tests.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0794
Roberto Finesso, Omar Marello, Daniela Misul, Ezio Spessa, Massimo Violante, Yixin Yang, Gilles Hardy, Christian Maier
Abstract Pressure-based and model-based techniques for the control of MFB50 (crank angle at which 50% of the fuel mass fraction has burned) have been developed, assessed and tested by means of rapid prototyping (RP) on a FPT F1C 3.0L Euro VI diesel engine. The pressure-based technique requires the utilization of a pressure transducer for each cylinder. The transducers are used to perform the instantaneous measurement of the in-cylinder pressure, in order to derive its corresponding burned mass fraction and the actual value of MFB50. It essentially consists of a closed-loop approach, which is based on a cycle-by-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder correction of the start of injection of the main pulse (SOImain), in order to achieve the desired target of MFB50 for each cylinder.
2017-03-14
Journal Article
2017-01-9277
Stefano D'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari
Abstract The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0547
Andrea Piano, Federico Millo, Giulio Boccardo, Mahsa Rafigh, Alessandro Gallone, Marcello Rimondi
The predictive capabilities of an innovative multizone combustion model DIPulse, developed by Gamma Technologies, were assessed in this work for a last generation common rail automotive diesel engine. A detailed validation process, based on an extensive experimental data set, was carried out concerning the predicted heat release rate, the in-cylinder pressure trace, as well as NOx and soot emissions for several operating points including both part load and full load points. After a preliminary calibration of the model, the combustion model parameters were then optimized through a Latin Hypercube Design of Experiment (DoE), with the aim of minimizing the RMS error between the predicted and experimental burn rate of several engine operating points, thus achieving a satisfactory agreement between simulation and experimental engine combustion and emissions parameters.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1124
Luca Castellazzi, Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Alessandro Piu, Enrico Galliera
Abstract The term driveability describes the driver's complex subjective perception of the interactions with the vehicle. One of them is associated to longitudinal acceleration aspects. A relevant contribution to the driveability optimization process is, nowadays, realized by means of track tests during which a considerable amount of driveline parameters are tuned in order to obtain a good compromise of longitudinal acceleration response. Unfortunately, this process is carried out at a development stage when a design iteration becomes too expensive. In addition, the actual trend of downsizing and supercharging the engines leads to higher vibrations that are transmitted to the vehicle. A large effort is therefore dedicated to develop, test and implement ignition strategies addressed to minimize the torque irregularities. Such strategies could penalize the engine maximum performance, efficiency and emissions. The introduction of the dual mass flywheel is beneficial to this end.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1127
Enrico Galvagno, Guido Ricardo Guercioni, Alessandro Vigliani
Abstract This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of the NVH (noise vibration and harshness) performance of Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs) depending on some transmission design parameters, e.g. torsional backlash in the synchronizers or clutch disc moment of inertia, during low speed maneuvers. A 21-DOFs nonlinear dynamic model of a C-segment passenger car equipped with a DCT is used to simulate the torsional behavior of the driveline and to estimate the forces at the bearings. The impacts between the teeth of two engaging components, e.g. gears and synchronizers, generate impulses in the forces, thus loading the bearings with force time-history characterized by rich frequency content. A broadband excitation is therefore applied to the gearbox case, generating noise and vibration issues.
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