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Viewing 1 to 30 of 155
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8111
Hiral Haria, Monika Ivantysynova
With the need for improvement in the fuel economy along with reduction in emissions due to stringent regulations, powertrain hybridization has become the focal point of research for the automotive sector. Hydraulic hybrids have progressively gained acceptance due to their high power density and low component costs relative to their electric counterpart and many different architectures have been proposed and implemented on both on and off-highway applications. The most commonly used architecture is the series hybrid which offers great flexibility for implementation of power management strategies. But the direct connection of the high pressure accumulator to the system often results in operation of the hydraulic units in high pressure and low displacement mode. However, in this operating mode the hydraulic units are highly inefficient. Also, the accumulator renders the system highly compliant and makes the response of the transmission sluggish.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8116
Mrudula Uday Orpe, Monika Ivantysynova
Mobile Earth Moving Machinery like Skid-steer loaders have a tight turning radius in limited spaces due to a short wheelbase which prevents the use of suspensions in these vehicles. The absence of a suspension system exposes the vehicle to ground vibrations of high magnitude and low frequency. Vibrations reduce operator comfort, productivity and life of components. Along with vibrations, the machine productivity is also hampered by material spillage which is caused by the tilting of the bucket due to the extension of the boom. The first part of the paper focuses on vibration damping. The chassis’ vibrations are reduced by the use of an active suspension element which is the hydraulic boom cylinder which is equivalent to a spring–damper. With this objective, a linear model for the skid steer loader is developed and a state feedback control law is implemented.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8112
Jorge Leon, Jose M. Garcia, Mario J. Acero, Andres Gonzalez, Geng Niu, Mahesh Krishnamurthy
Electric motors have energy efficiency and performance advantages over traditional internal combustion engines. Nevertheless, when used for transportation, they have limited ranges due to the state of current energy storage technologies. In order to improve efficiency and increase the range of operation of electric vehicles, complementary energy regeneration systems can be used. A hydraulic energy recovery system is proposed to be used as a regenerative system for supplementing energy storage. This system consists of a hydraulic accumulator, a low pressure reservoir and a hydraulic pump/motor. The pump/motor device transforms kinetic energy into hydraulic energy during breaking, to move the hydraulic fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the hydraulic accumulator. This energy can later can be used to propel the vehicle. The proposed system is particularly useful for vehicles in heavy start-stop traffic and public transportation.
2016-09-27
Technical Paper
2016-01-8121
Riccardo Bianchi, Addison Alexander, Andrea Vacca
Vibrations at the cabin or at the implements of construction machinery represents important drawbacks from the points of view of machine productivity, safety and operator comfort. Oscillations of these machines are particularly relevant due to the absence of shock absorbers, typical of many machines such as wheel loaders, and their use in uneven ground conditions. Several hydraulic solutions have been proposed in the past to reduce oscillations at both the cabin or at the machine boom. Particularly, cabin oscillations can be attenuated by properly counteracting the exciting oscillatory forces from the tires with motion of the boom. Many state of the art machine utilize a passive methods to implement this strategy. The present work introduces a novel active solution, based on the control of the boom actuator without involving modifications of the standard hydraulic system.
2016-09-20
Journal Article
2016-01-1982
Michelle Bash, Steven Pekarek, Jon Zumberge
Abstract The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
2016-05-31
Article
Carbon fibers derived from a sustainable source, a type of wild mushroom, and modified with nanoparticles have been shown to outperform conventional graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.
2016-04-24
Article
Rolls-Royce will designate Purdue as a University Technology Partnership, which will initially encompass two research centers in the areas of advanced thermal management systems and advanced compressor systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1396
Kai Liu, ZongYing Xu, Duane Detwiler, Andres Tovar
Abstract This work proposes a new method to design crashworthiness structures that made of functionally graded cellular (porous) material. The proposed method consists of three stages: The first stage is to generate a conceptual design using a topology optimization algorithm so that a variable density is distributed within the structure minimizing its compliance. The second stage is to cluster the variable density using a machine-learning algorithm to reduce the dimension of the design space. The third stage is to maximize structural crashworthiness indicators (e.g., internal energy absorption) and minimize mass using a metamodel-based multi-objective genetic algorithm. The final structure is synthesized by optimally selecting cellular material phases from a predefined material library. In this work, the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are derived for the two-phase cellular material, and the structure performances are compared to the optimized structures derived by our proposed framework.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0795
Sayan Biswas, Li Qiao
Abstract An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
2016-01-03
Article
Purdue University has developed a new system that allows a 3D printer to produce functioning products with enclosed electronic and motorized components and customized devices such as a computer mouse molded to a user's hand.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2853
Enrique Busquets, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract Over the last decade, a number of hybrid architectures have been proposed with the main goal of minimizing energy consumption of off-highway vehicles. One of the architecture subsets which has progressively gained attention is hydraulic hybrids for earth-moving equipment. Among these architectures, hydraulic hybrids with secondary-controlled drives have proven to be a reliable, implementable, and highly efficient alternative with the potential for up to 50% engine downsizing when applied to excavator truck-loading cycles. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) robust linear control strategies have been developed by the authors' group with notable improvements on the control of the state of charge of the high pressure accumulator. Nonetheless, the challenge remains to improve the actuator position and velocity tracking.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2854
Timothy Opperwall, Andrea Vacca
Abstract This work contributes to the overall goal of identifying and reducing noise sources and propagation in hydraulic systems. This is a general problem and a primary design concern for all fluid power applications. The need for new methods for identification of noise sources and transmission is evident in order to direct future modeling and experimental efforts aimed at reducing noise emissions of current fluid power machines. In this paper, this goal is accomplished through the formulation of noise functions used to identify contributions and transfer paths from different components of the system. An experimental method for noise transfer path analysis was developed and tested on a simple hydraulic system composed of a reference external gear pump, attached lines, and loading valve. Pressure oscillations in the working fluid are measured at the outlet of the pump. Surface vibrations are measured at multiple locations on the pump and connected system.
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-9113
Rui Ma, Philip Chin, John B. Ferris, Cannon Cheng, Eric neisen, Alexander Reid
Abstract The vertical force generated from terrain-tire interaction has long been of interest for vehicle dynamic simulations and chassis development. To improve simulation efficiency while still providing reliable load prediction, a terrain pre-filtering technique using a constraint mode tire model is developed. The wheel is assumed to convey one quarter of the vehicle load constantly. At each location along the tire's path, the wheel center height is adjusted until the spindle load reaches the pre-designated load. The resultant vertical trajectory of the wheel center can be used as an equivalent terrain profile input to a simplified tire model. During iterative simulations, the filtered terrain profile, coupled with a simple point follower tire model is used to predict the spindle force. The same vehicle dynamic simulation system coupled with constraint mode tire model is built to generate reference forces.
2015-06-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2239
Nicholas N. Kim, Seungkyu Lee, J Stuart Bolton, Sean Hollands, Taewook Yoo
Abstract Because of the increasing concern with vehicle weight, there is an interest in lightweight materials that can serve several functions at once. Here we consider the vibration damping performance provided by an “acoustical” material (i.e., a fibrous layer that would normally be used for airborne noise control). It has been previously established that the vibration of panel structures creates a non-propagating nearfield in the region close to the panel. In that region, there is an oscillatory, incompressible fluid flow parallel to the panel whose strength decays exponentially with distance from the panel. When a fibrous medium is placed close to the panel in the region where the oscillatory nearfield is significant, energy is dissipated by the viscous interaction of the flow and the fibers, and hence the panel vibration is damped. The degree of panel damping is then proportional to the energy removed from the nearfield by the viscous interaction with the fibrous medium.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2199
Rui Cao, J Stuart Bolton
Abstract Experimental measurements of tire tread band vibration have provided direct evidence that higher order structural-acoustic modes exist in tires, not just the well-known fundamental acoustical mode. These modes display both circumferential and radial pressure variations within the tire's air cavity. The theory governing these modes has thus been investigated. A brief recapitulation of the previously-presented coupled structural-acoustical model based on a tensioned string approach will be given, and then an improved tire-acoustical model with a ring-like shape will be introduced. In the latter model, the effects of flexural and circumferential stiffness are considered. This improved model accounts for propagating in-plane vibration in addition to the essentially structure-borne flexural wave and the essentially airborne longitudinal wave accounted for in the previous model. The longitudinal structure-borne wave “cuts on” at the tire's circumferential ring frequency.
2015-06-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2333
Brandon Sobecki, Patricia Davies, J Stuart Bolton, Frank Eberhardt
Abstract Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1369
Kai Liu, Andres Tovar, Emily Nutwell, Duane Detwiler
Abstract This work introduces a new design algorithm to optimize progressively folding thin-walled structures and in order to improve automotive crashworthiness. The proposed design algorithm is composed of three stages: conceptual thickness distribution, design parameterization, and multi-objective design optimization. The conceptual thickness distribution stage generates an innovative design using a novel one-iteration compliant mechanism approach that triggers progressive folding even on irregular structures under oblique impact. The design parameterization stage optimally segments the conceptual design into a reduced number of clusters using a machine learning K-means algorithm. Finally, the multi-objective design optimization stage finds non-dominated designs of maximum specific energy absorption and minimum peak crushing force.
2014-11-18
Article
Potential exists for more efficient re-use of rare earth elements, Purdue professor asserts. Regardless of choice, original component design should be engineered for dismantling to enhance end-of-life recovery, he tells Automotive Aftermarket Industry Week forum in Las Vegas.
2014-09-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2399
Michael Sprengel, Monika Ivantysynova
Abstract A novel Blended Hydraulic Hybrid transmission architecture is presented in this paper with benefits over conventional designs. This novel configuration combines elements of a hydrostatic transmission, a parallel hybrid, and a selectively connectable high pressure accumulator using passive and actively controlled logic elements. Losses are reduced compared to existing series hybrid transmissions by enabling the units to operate efficiently at pressures below the current high pressure accumulator's pressure. A selective connection to the high pressure accumulator also allows for higher system precharge which increases regenerative braking torque and energy capture with little determent to system efficiency. Finally operating as a hydrostatic transmission increases transmission stiffness (i.e. driver response) and may improve driver feel in certain situations when compared to a conventional series hybrid transmission.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2138
Ron Wang, Michelle Bash, Steven D. Pekarek
Abstract In this research, excitation strategies for a salient-pole wound rotor synchronous machine are explored using a magnetic equivalent circuit model that includes core loss. It is shown that the excitation obtained is considerably different than would be obtained using traditional qd-based models. However, through evaluation of the resulting ‘optimal’ excitation, a relatively straightforward field-oriented type control is developed that is consistent with a desire for efficiency yet control simplicity. Validation is achieved through hardware experiment. The usefulness/applicability of the simplified control to variable speed applications is then considered.
2014-06-20
Article
A new electrohydraulic power steering system uses pump displacement control, eliminating throttling losses associated with hydraulic control valves by controlling the displacement of a variable displacement pump.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1128
May Yen, John Abraham
Abstract In this work, computations of reacting diesel jets, including soot and NO, are carried out for a wide range of conditions by employing a RANS model in which an unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) sub-model is employed to represent turbulence/chemistry interactions. Soot kinetics is represented using a chemical mechanism that models the growth of soot precursors starting from a single aromatic ring by hydrogen abstraction and carbon (acetylene) addition and NO is modeled using the kinetics from a sub-mechanism of GRI-Mech 3.0. Tracer particles are used to track the residence time of the injected mass in the jet. For the soot and NO computations, this residence time is used to track the progression of the soot and NO reactions in time. The conditions selected reflect changes in injection pressure, chamber temperature, oxygen concentration, and density, and orifice diameter.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1118
Muhsin M. Ameen, John Abraham
Abstract Accurate modeling of the transient structure of reacting diesel jets is important as transient features like autoignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization have been shown to correlate with combustion efficiency and pollutant formation. In this work, results from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of flame lift-off in diesel jets are examined to provide insight into the lift-off physics. The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is also used to computationally model a lifted jet flame at conditions representative of those encountered in diesel engines. An unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) model is used as the turbulent combustion model in both RANS simulations and LES. In the model, a look-up table of reaction source terms is generated as a function of mixture fraction Z, stoichiometric scalar dissipation rate Xst, and progress variable Cst by solving the unsteady flamelet equations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1906
Ashish Vora, Haotian Wu, Chuang Wang, Yili Qian, Gregory Shaver, Vahid Motevalli, Peter Meckl, Oleg Wasynczuk, Haiyan Zhang
Abstract Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2344
Daniel Skelton, Shaoping Xiong, John Lumkes, Farid Breidi
This paper introduces a high performance actuation mechanism to enable new systems and improve the performance and efficiency of existing systems. The concept described is based on coupling energy storage mechanisms with translational movement to increase the speed and controllability of linear actuators. Initial development is a high speed linear actuator for hydraulic proportional valves, and the concept can be extended into other applications. With high speed proportional valves, the performance of existing cam phasing systems can be improved or the actuation mechanisms can be applied directly to IC engine valve actuation. Other applications include active suspension control valves, transmission control valves, industrial and commercial vehicle fluid power systems, and fuel injection systems. The stored actuation energy (such as a rotating mass) is intermittently coupled and decoupled to produce linear or rotary motion in the primary actuator.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2349
Naseem A. Daher, Monika Ivantysynova
Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2348
Yajun Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Wei Wei, John Lumkes
Current gasoline-gas vapor recovery system is incomplete, for it cannot adjust the vapor-liquid ratio automatically due to the change of working temperature. To solve this problem, this paper intends to design a new system and optimize its parameters. In this research, variables control method is used for tests while linear regression is used for data processing. This new system moves proportion valve away and adds a DSP control module, a frequency conversion device, and a temperature sensor. With this research, it is clearly reviewed that the vapor-liquid ratio should remains 1.0 from 0 °C to 20 °C as its working temperature, be changed into 1.1 from 20 °C to 25 °C, be changed into 1.2 from 25 °C to 30 °C, and be changed into 1.3 when the working temperature is above 30 °C.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1974
Michael D. Hayward, J. Stuart Bolton, Patricia Davies
The identification of the dominant noise sources in diesel engines and the assessment of their contribution to far-field noise is a process that can involve both fired and motored testing. In the present work, the cross-spectral densities of signals from cylinder pressure transducers, accelerometers mounted on the engine surface, and microphones (in the near and far fields), were used to identify dominant noise sources and estimate the transfer paths from the various “inputs” (i.e., the cylinder pressures, the accelerometers and the near field microphones) to the far field microphones. The method is based on singular value decomposition of the input cross-spectral matrix to relate the input measurements to independent virtual sources. The frequencies at which a particular input is strongly affected by an independent source are highlighted, and with knowledge of transducer locations, inferences can be drawn as to possible noise source mechanisms.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1517
Raymond Sutjiono, Prateek Tayal, Keqin Zhou, Peter Meckl
The latest US emission regulations require dramatic reductions in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from vehicular diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the current technology that achieves NOx reductions of up to 90%. It is typically mounted downstream of the existing after-treatment system, i.e., after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Accurate prediction of input NO₂:NO ratio is useful for control of SCR urea injection to reduce NOx output and NH₃ slippage downstream of the SCR catalyst. Most oxidation of NO to NO₂ occurs in the DOC since its main function is to oxidize emission constituents. The DOC thus determines the NO₂:NO ratio as feedgas to the SCR catalyst. The prediction of NO₂:NO ratio varies as the catalyst in the DOC ages or deteriorates due to poisoning. Thus, the DOC prediction model has to take into account the correlation of DOC conversion effectiveness and the aging of the catalyst.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0554
Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Vahid Motevalli, George Molen, Douglas Nelson, Robert Alley, Patrick Walsh
EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
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