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Viewing 1 to 30 of 249
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0080
Christian Steinbrecher, Haris Hamedovic, Andreas Rupp, Thomas Wortmann
Engine management systems combined with fuel injectors allow a precise fuel metering for a robust combustion process. Stricter emission legislations increase the requirements for these port fuel injection systems (PFI), whereas the price is still the main driver in the emerging low cost 2-wheeler market. Therefore, a holistic mechatronic approach is developed by Bosch, which allows an improved fuel metering over life time and furthermore provides new possibilities for diagnosis without changing the injector itself. This example of an intelligent software solution provides the possibility to further improve the accuracy of the opening duration of an injector. By use of the information contained in the actuation voltage and current, the opening and closing times of the injector are derivable.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0088
Bastian Reineke, Jonathan Müller, Stefan Grodde, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes
Alternative engine speed sensing using the electric signals of the alternator In the low-cost segment for 2-Wheelers legislative, economic and ecological considerations necessitate a reduction of the emissions and further improvement in fuel consumption. To reach these targets the commonly used carburetors are being replaced by Engine Management Systems (EMS). One option to provide these systems for acceptable and attractive system costs is to save a sensor device and substitute its measure by an estimation value. In many motorcycles the rotor of the vehicle's alternator is rigidly attached to the crankshaft. Therefore, the voltage and current signals of the alternator contain information about the engine's speed, which can be retrieved by evaluating these electric signals. After further processing of this information inside the ECU the absolute crankshaft position can be obtained.
2016-11-08
Technical Paper
2016-32-0052
Michael Schoenherr, Mathieu Grelaud, Ami Hirano
Blind Spot Detection system for two-wheelers Bosch’s side view assist is the world’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Detection system which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (car, truck or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns by an optical signal close to the mirror, so that the rider can for example avoid a collision when changing lanes. Side view assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for passenger cars. Different system solutions for passenger cars are already in serial production since several years.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2200
Tobias Knorsch, Philipp Rogler, Maximilian Miller, Wolfram Wiese
In order to satisfy future emission classes, such as the EU6c in particular, the particulate number (PN) of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines must be reduced. For these engines, different components influence the combustion process and thus also the formation of soot particles and deposits. Among other engine components, the injector nozzle influences the particulate number and deposits in both fuel spray behavior and nozzle “tip wetting”. In case of non-optimized nozzle layouts, fuel may impinge on piston and liner in an unfavorable way, which implies low-oxygen diffusive combustion by retarded vaporizing wall films. For the tip wetting, wall films are present on the actual surface of the nozzle tip, which is also caused by unadapted nozzles. For non-optimized nozzles, the latter effect can become quite dominant. This paper deals with systematic nozzle development activities towards low-deposit nozzle tips and thus decreasing PN values.
2016-09-18
Journal Article
2016-01-1927
Christian Riese, Frank Gauterin
Abstract New technologies like alternative power trains and driver assistance systems have a big impact on brake system development. Most of the development work aims at the improvement of the actuation and modulation components of the brake system. The basic hydraulic network remained nearly the same over decades and still has to meet these new requirements. Previous papers have focused mainly on studying the behavior of single components, like for example the brake hose fluid consumption in detail. Other papers studied the complete system but simplified it extremely, so that some relevant effects are neglected. In this work, one focus is to study the influence of single relevant components, like the hydraulic unit and the hoses on the overall system performance. For this measurements with a complete hydraulic brake system, including a state of the art electromechanical brake booster and single component measurements for identification, are conducted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0801
Dimitri Seboldt, David Lejsek, Marlene Wentsch, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Abstract CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1499
Willy Klier, Thomas Lich, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Heiko Freienstein, Armin Koehler, Bastian Reckziegel, Zerong Yu
Abstract On the way to automated driving, the installation rate of surround sensing systems will rapidly increase in the upcoming years. The respective technical progress in the areas of driver assistance and active safety leads to a numerous and valuable information and signals to be used prior to, during and even after an accident. Car makers and suppliers can make use of this new situation and develop integrated safety functions to further reduce the number of injured and even deaths in car accidents. Nevertheless, the base occupant safety remains the core of this integrated safety system in order to ensure at least a state-of-the-art protection even in vehicles including partial, high or full automation. Current networked safety systems comprehend a point-to-point connection between single components of active and safety systems. The optimal integration requires a much deeper and holistic approach.
2015-11-17
Technical Paper
2015-32-0749
Henning Heikes, Geetesh Gadkari, Christian Steinbrecher, Christian Linder, Wolfgang Fischer, Wolfgang Fischer
In the Indian two-wheeler market, legislation and customers demand for a reduction of emissions and an increase of fuel efficiency. For two-wheelers with engine management systems, a cost-efficient approach for this trend exploits that the periodical fluctuation of the engine speed of single cylinder engines contains useful information about its operating conditions. The present article focuses on the quality of the estimation of combustion phasing and air-fuel ratio of a 125cc single cylinder motorcycle engine, obtained from the evaluation of these fluctuations. The robustness of an oxygen sensor-less port fuel injection system can be increased by using the estimated air-fuel ratio to adapt the parameters of the fuel injection algorithm.
2015-11-17
Journal Article
2015-32-0834
Thomas Lich, Wilko Gordon Block, S N Prashanth, Brad Heiler
Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) for motorcycles have already contributed significantly to the safety of powered two-wheelers (PTW) on public roads by improving bike stability and controllability in emergency braking situations. In order to address further riding situations, another step forward has been achieved with Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC) system. By combining ABS, electronically combined braking system (eCBS), traction control and inertial sensors even in situations like braking and accelerating in corners the riders' safety can be improved. The MSC system controls the distribution of braking and traction forces using an algorithm that takes into account all available vehicle information from wheels, power train and vehicle attitude. With its ability to control fundamental vehicle dynamics, the MSC system will be a basis for further development and integration of comprehensive safety systems.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2386
Farouq Meddahi, Christian Fleck, Stefan Grodde, Alain Charlet, Yann Chamaillard
Abstract The paper presents a comparative study of various models used to estimate gas dynamics in internal combustion engine (ICE) ducts. 1D models provide a sufficient accuracy, but they are still not implementable on current ECUs. On the other hand, low order models can be real-time but their lack of accuracy and high calibration cost are still a challenging problem. This work aims at presenting a comparison of currently used gas dynamics models to predict transient phenomena in engine ducts. It emphasizes on 1D and low order models. To test under engine-like conditions, the intake path of a virtual engine implemented in GT-Power and a production two cylinder engine are used. Results show a contrast in the performance of the different models, which gives the possibility to evaluate the various approaches. Based on this assessment and depending on the application in hand, the models can be chosen properly to estimate the gas dynamics in internal combustion engine ducts.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2474
Wolfgang Friedrich, Roman Grzeszik, Michael Wensing
In a study using a single-cylinder engine a significant potential in fuel efficiency and emission reduction was found for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The control of the mixture formation process appeared to be critical to ensure stable inflammation of the mixture. Therefore, optical investigations of the mixture formation were performed on a geometric equivalent, optically accessible single-cylinder engine to investigate the correlation of mixture formation and inflammability. The two optical measurement techniques infrared (IR) absorption and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed. Mid-wavelength IR absorption appeared to be qualified for a global visualization of natural gas injection; LIF allows to quantify the equivalence ratio inside a detection level. While LIF measurements require complex equipment, the IR setup consists merely of a black body heater and a mid-wavelength sensitive IR camera.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1715
Farouq Meddahi, Alain Charlet, Yann Chamaillard, Christian Fleck
Abstract Compressor models play a major role as they define the boost pressure in the intake manifold. These models have to be suitable for real-time applications such as control and diagnosis and for that, they need to be both accurate and computationally inexpensive. However, the models available in the literature usually fulfill only one of these two competing requirements. On the one hand, physics-based models are often too complex to be evaluated on line. On the other hand, data-based models generally suffer insufficient extrapolation features. To combine the merits of these two types of models, this work presents an extended approach to compressor modeling with respect to thermo- and aerodynamic losses. In particular, the model developed by Martin et al. [1] is augmented to explicitly incorporate friction, incidence and heat transfer losses. The resulting model surpasses the extrapolation properties of data-based models and facilitates the generation of extended lookup tables.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1224
Ipek Sarac, Andreas Wagner, Uta Fischer, Rainer Schnurr
Abstract As the percentage of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) is increasing, On-Board Diagnosis (OBD) faces new challenges such as limited combustion engine runtime. Moreover, predictive driving strategies for HEV assure that more vehicles are equipped with navigation systems. These systems can provide information about the road conditions such as limit speed, curvature and slope. In this study, navigation road information is used to predict monitoring conditions of OBD functions so that the available OBD time can be used effectively. As an example, catalyst monitoring is considered and a simple vehicle model is proposed which takes velocity and slope prediction from the navigation system to predict torque and exhaust mass flow. The model is composed of a combination of longitudinal motion and a power train torque transition model. Results of this effort are presented for different velocity profiles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0385
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Abstract The emission of particulate matter from future GDI engines has to be optimized, to comply with more stringent emission standards such as EU6. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the formation of particles have to be analyzed in detail. The understanding of the in-cylinder processes, necessary for this purpose, can only be achieved by a complementary use of optically accessible single-cylinder engines as well as the numerical simulation. This however leads to great demands on the 3D flow simulation. In this paper the complete CFD approach, incorporating a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain is shown. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction and thus also the particulate emissions.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0571
Andreas Teibinger, Christian Mayer, Ernö Dux, Gian Antonio D’Addetta, Peter Luttenberger, Jac Wismans, Rémy Willinger
Abstract In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0168
Steffen Lampke, Simon Schliecker, Dirk Ziegenbein, Arne Hamann
Abstract The underlying theories of both control engineering and real-time systems engineering assume idealized system abstractions that mutually neglect central aspects of the other discipline. Control engineering theory, on the one hand, usually assumes jitter free sampling and constant input-output latencies disregarding complex real-world timing effects. Real-time engineering theory, on the other hand, uses abstract performance models that neglect the functional behavior, and derives worst-case situations that have little expressiveness for control functionalities in physically dominated automotive systems. As a consequence, there is a lot of potential for a systematic co-engineering between both disciplines, increasing design efficiency and confidence. We have taken a standard control-engineering tool, Simulink, and combined it with state-of-the-art real-time system design and analysis tools, SymTA/S and TraceAnalyzer from Symtavision.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1648
Hendrik Golzke, Heiko Holler, Wolfgang Friedrich, Philippe Leick, Ulrich Schoenauer, Andreas Dreizler
Abstract The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0196
Varun M. Navale, Kyle Williams, Athanassios Lagospiris, Michael Schaffert, Markus-Alexander Schweiker
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1081
Axel Maier, Ulrike Klaus, Andreas Dreizler, Hermann Rottengruber
Abstract The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1209
Zhengyu Liu, Thomas Winter, Michael Schier
Abstract This paper presents the development of a novel direct coil cooling approach which can enable high performance for electric traction motor, and in further significantly reduce motor losses. The proposed approach focuses on bypassing critical thermal resistances in motor by cooling coils directly in stator slots with oil flow. Firstly, the basic configuration and features are shown: sealed stator slots to air gap, pressure reservoirs on both side of the slots and slot channels for oil flow. The key to enhance thermal performance of the motor here is based on introducing fluid guiding structure in the slot channels. Next, heat transfer in the channel with guiding structure is investigated by CFD and compared with bare slot channel without guiding structure. For studying the effectiveness of proposed cooling concept, numerical analysis is conducted to compare it with HEV favored oil impingement cooling.
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0172
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Moennich Joerg
Abstract In the year of 2012 in India the total number of accidents with injuries is registered by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway with 490,383 out of which injured people are 509,667 and fatalities are 138,258 [1]. Nearly 17% of the fatalities are occupants of passenger cars which constitute the second highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. In order to understand the root causes for car accidents in India, Bosch accident research carried out a study based on in-depth accidents collected in India. Apart from other accident contributing factors e.g. infrastructure the driver behaviour and his actions few milliseconds just prior to the crash is an extremely important and a key valuable data for the understanding of accident causation. Further on it supports also the development of modern automotive safety functions. Hence this research was undertaken to evaluate the benefit of the state-of-the art vehicle safety systems known as Antilock Braking System (ABS).
2015-01-14
Technical Paper
2015-26-0167
Thomas Lich, Girikumar Kumaresh, Joerg Moennich
Abstract Motorized two wheelers, also known as powered two wheelers (PTW) are the most common mode of transportation in India. Around one in four deaths that occurred on the roads in India in 2012 involved a motorcyclist, according to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. This constitutes the highest contributor for fatal accidents in India [1]. The European Transport Safety Council (ETSC) analysis shows the risk of a motorcyclist having a fatal accident is 20 times greater than for a car driver travelling the same route [2]. An investigation conducted by Bosch looked at the accident database of Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). This investigation revealed interesting facts about the Indian motorcycle accident situation, such as root causes of powered two wheeler collisions and riders behaviour including their braking patterns during the pre-crash phase of the accident.
2015-01-01
Journal Article
2014-01-9053
Tobias Breuninger, Jürgen Schmidt, Helmut Tschoeke, Martin Hese, Andreas Kufferath, Frank Altenschmidt
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0076
Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Wolfgang Fischer, Henning Heikes, Thorsten Raatz
Abstract Equipping low cost two-wheelers with engine management systems (EMS) enables not only a reduction of emissions but also an improvement in fuel consumption and system robustness. These benefits are accompanied by initially higher system costs compared to carburetor systems. Therefore, intelligent software solutions are developed by Bosch, which enable a reduction of the necessary sensors for a port fuel injection system (PFI) and furthermore provide new possibilities for combustion control. One example for these intelligent software solutions is a model based evaluation of the engine speed. By use of the information contained in the engine speed signal, characteristic features like air charge, indicated mean effective pressure (imep) and combustion phasing are derivable. The present paper illustrates how these features could be used to reduce the system costs and to improve fuel consumption and system robustness.
2014-11-11
Journal Article
2014-32-0067
Henning Heikes, Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Jürgen Berkemer, Thorsten Raatz, Wolfgang Fischer
Abstract Cost reduction of engine management systems (EMS) for two-wheeler applications is the key to utilize their potentials compared to carburetor bikes regarding emissions, fuel economy and system robustness. In order to reduce the costs of a system with port fuel injection (PFI) Bosch is developing an EMS without a manifold air pressure (MAP) sensor. The pressure sensor is usually used to compensate for different influences on the air mass, which cannot be detected via the throttle position sensor (TPS) and mean engine speed. Such influences are different leakage rates of the throttle body and changing ambient conditions like air pressure. Bosch has shown in the past that a virtual sensor relying on model based evaluation of engine speed can be used for a detection of leakage air mass in idling to improve the pre-control of the air-fuel ratio. This provides a functionality which so far was only possible with an intake pressure sensor.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0189
Bjoern Lumpp, Mouham Tanimou, Martin McMackin, Eva Bouillon, Erica Trapel, Micha Muenzenmay, Klaus Zimmermann
Abstract Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1446
Florian Schulz, Jürgen Schmidt, Andreas Kufferath, Wolfgang Samenfink
Due to the principle of direct injection, which is applied in modern homogeneously operated gasoline engines, there are various operation points with significant particulate emissions. The spray droplets contact the piston surface during the warm-up and early injections, in particular. The fuel wall films and the resulting delayed evaporation of the liquid fuel is one of the main sources of soot particles. It is therefore necessary to carry out investigations into the formation of wall film. The influence of the spray impact angle is of special interest, as this is a major difference between engines with side-mounted injectors and centrally positioned injectors. This paper describes an infrared thermography-based method, which we used to carry out a systematic study of fuel deposits on the walls of the combustion chamber. The boundary conditions of the test section were close to those of real GDI engines operated with homogeneous charge.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1447
Fabian Köpple, Dimitri Seboldt, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9125
Bernd Heinzmann, Simon Scholz, Pramod R, Prashanth Anantha
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9037
Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Jurgen Berkemer, Henning Heikes, Wolfgang Fischer
Regarding the strongly growing two-wheeler market fuel economy, price and emission legislations are in focus of current development work. Fuel economy as well as emissions can be improved by introduction of engine management systems (EMS). In order to provide the benefits of an EMS for low cost motorcycles, efforts are being made at BOSCH to reduce the costs of a port fuel injection (PFI) system. The present paper describes a method of how to reduce the number of sensors of a PFI system by the use of sophisticated software functions based on high-resolution engine speed evaluation. In order to improve the performance of a system working without a MAP-sensor (manifold air pressure sensor) an air charge feature (ACFn) based on engine speed is introduced. It is shown by an experiment that ACFn allows to detect and adapt changes in manifold air pressure. Cross-influences on ACFn are analyzed by simulations and engine test bench measurements.
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