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Viewing 1 to 30 of 224
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Bjoern Lumpp, Mouham Tanimou, Martin McMackin, Eva Bouillon, Erica Trapel, Micha Muenzenmay, Klaus Zimmermann
Abstract Current exhaust gas emission regulations can only be well adhered to through optimal interplay of combustion engine and exhaust gas after-treatment systems. Combining a modern diesel engine with several exhaust gas after-treatment components (DPF, catalytic converters) leads to extremely complex drive systems, with very complex and technically demanding control systems. Current engine ECUs (Electronic Control Unit) have hundreds of functions with thousands of parameters that can be adapted to keep the exhaust gas emissions within the given limits. Each of these functions has to be calibrated and tested in accordance with the rest of the ECU software. To date this task has been performed mostly on engine test benches or in Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) setups. In this paper, a Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) approach, consisting of an engine model and an exhaust gas treatment (EGT) model, coupled with software from a real diesel engine ECU, will be described in detail. A virtual (SiL) test bench is realized with which the diesel engine software functions can be calibrated without any special hardware, using industry- standard calibration tools like INCA from ETAS.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Florian Schulz, Jürgen Schmidt, Andreas Kufferath, Wolfgang Samenfink
Due to the principle of direct injection, which is applied in modern homogeneously operated gasoline engines, there are various operation points with significant particulate emissions. The spray droplets contact the piston surface during the warm-up and early injections, in particular. The fuel wall films and the resulting delayed evaporation of the liquid fuel is one of the main sources of soot particles. It is therefore necessary to carry out investigations into the formation of wall film. The influence of the spray impact angle is of special interest, as this is a major difference between engines with side-mounted injectors and centrally positioned injectors. This paper describes an infrared thermography-based method, which we used to carry out a systematic study of fuel deposits on the walls of the combustion chamber. The boundary conditions of the test section were close to those of real GDI engines operated with homogeneous charge. We took the measurements under normal ambient conditions, substituting the piston by a heated plate and positioning an infrared camera underneath it.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Fabian Köpple, Dimitri Seboldt, Paul Jochmann, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
In order to comply with more and more stringent emission standards, like EU6 which will be mandatory starting in September 2014, GDI engines have to be further optimized particularly in regard of PN emissions. It is generally accepted that the deposition of liquid fuel wall films in the combustion chamber is a significant source of particulate formation in GDI engines. Particularly the wall surface temperature and the temperature drop due to the interaction with liquid fuel spray were identified as important parameters influencing the spray-wall interaction [1]. In order to quantify this temperature drop at combustion chamber surfaces, surface temperature measurements on the piston of a single-cylinder engine were conducted. Therefore, eight fast-response thermocouples were embedded 0.3 μm beneath the piston surface and the signals were transmitted from the moving piston to the data acquisition system via telemetry. Extensive parameter variations were performed, in order to investigate the influence of e.g. the rail pressure, the engine load and the engine speed on the surface temperature of the piston.
Technical Paper
2013-10-15
Bernd Heinzmann, Simon Scholz, Pramod R, Prashanth Anantha
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1]. In order to add more flexibility to the engine management systems and provide additional fuel economy benefit the following strategies were numerically simulated and later validated on a chassis dynamometer: 1 Start/Stop: Engine is switched off at a stop while neutral gear is selected.2 Stop-in-gear: Engine is switched off at a stop in any gear.3 Idle Coasting: Engine is idling but disengaged from the transmission during coasting.4 Start/Stop Coasting: Engine is switched off and decoupled from the transmission during coasting.
Technical Paper
2013-10-15
Christian Steinbrecher, Bastian Reineke, Jurgen Berkemer, Henning Heikes, Wolfgang Fischer
Regarding the strongly growing two-wheeler market fuel economy, price and emission legislations are in focus of current development work. Fuel economy as well as emissions can be improved by introduction of engine management systems (EMS). In order to provide the benefits of an EMS for low cost motorcycles, efforts are being made at BOSCH to reduce the costs of a port fuel injection (PFI) system. The present paper describes a method of how to reduce the number of sensors of a PFI system by the use of sophisticated software functions based on high-resolution engine speed evaluation. In order to improve the performance of a system working without a MAP-sensor (manifold air pressure sensor) an air charge feature (ACFn) based on engine speed is introduced. It is shown by an experiment that ACFn allows to detect and adapt changes in manifold air pressure. Cross-influences on ACFn are analyzed by simulations and engine test bench measurements. Whereas the air-fuel ratio can be neglected, the temperature influence has to be considered.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Alexander Eichhorn, David Lejsek, Alexander Hettinger, Andreas Kufferath
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance in the SI engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so new challenges arise concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor GmbH and Robert Bosch GmbH. The design process was described in detail in last year's paper SAE 2012-01-0832. Since the engine design is very modular it allows for several different engine layouts which can be examined and evaluated. This paper shows a comparison between three major combustion system concepts: - Gasoline Direct Injection, - Advanced Gasoline Port-fuel Injection, and - Compressed Natural Gas Port-fuel Injection.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Fabian Köpple, Paul Jochmann, Andreas Kufferath, Michael Bargende
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg. This comparison demonstrates that the used modeling is not only able to correctly reproduce all trends, but also to do quantitatively correct predictions in most instances.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Sumit Khadilkar, Ahmed Soliman, Peter Schuetzbach, Marko Kustic
Filtration of diesel and gasoline fuel in automotive applications is affected by many external and internal parameters, e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure, flow pulsation, and engine start-stop. Current test procedures for automotive fuel filters, proposed by most of the researchers and organizations including Society for Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), do not apply the previously mentioned real-world-conditions. These operating conditions, which are typical for an automotive fueling system, have a significant effect on fuel filtration and need to be considered for the accurate assessment of the filter. This requires the development of improved testing procedures that will simulate the operating conditions in a fuel system as encountered in the real world. Although researchers have studied this topic in the past, they did not address the analysis of individual and combined effects of all the relevant fuel system parameters, which influence the filter performance.
Technical Paper
2013-01-09
Girikumar Kumaresh, Thomas Lich, Jorg Moennich, Andreas Georgi
The 2011 Report of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India states that the total accidents with injuries is estimated about 497, 686 out of which the injuries are 511, 394 and fatalities are 142, 485, an average of one fatality per 3.5 [1]. Social losses on account of these crashes are estimated at over Rupees 100 000 Crores annually or 3% of our Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [2]. The irony is that these causalities are rising at 5.9 % annually. India accounts for 10% of the global road crash fatalities. Therefore traffic safety became very important in India. In order to understand the root causes of accidents data is needed in more detail which could be analyzed and points out the major issues to find solutions to stop this trend. Besides vehicle safety, infrastructure related issues and education skills can be derived out of accident data. Official statistics regarding accidents in India are available in national and state wise reports. More detailed information about accident causes, accident conditions and consequences are roughly obtained.
Technical Paper
2012-10-23
Silke Seuling, Haris Hamedovic, Wolfgang Fischer, Frank Schuerg
In order to fulfil emission legislation and achieve good drivability of combustion-engine-powered vehicles, information about the air charge and feedback about the engine condition is necessary. In current systems, different sensors are used, e.g. the MAP (manifold air pressure) sensor and a lambda sensor. Aiming at reducing costs, efforts are being made to reduce the number of sensors while still retrieving the necessary information. Various engine speed based functions are state-of-the-art for automotive engines, e.g. for fuel-calibration, misfire-detection etc. Those functions evaluate the engine speed fluctuations during a working cycle induced by combustion. For multiple-cylinder engines, those influences are overlapping, therefore evaluation possibilities are limited. The work presented is based on the effect that at a single-cylinder engine, there is no overlap of combustion influences of various cylinders on the crankshaft. Therefore, it is possible to not only evaluate the combustion phase and attribute the result to a certain cylinder, but also to evaluate the other phases of the working cycle.
Technical Paper
2012-10-23
Timo Jahn, Frank Schuerg, Stefan Kempf
Today, knock control is part of standard automotive engine management systems. The structure-borne noise of the knock sensor signal is evaluated in the electronic control unit (ECU). In case of knocking combustions the ignition angle is first retarded and then subsequently advanced again. The small-sized combustion chamber of small two-wheeler engines, uncritical compression ratios and strong enrichment decrease the knock tendency. Nevertheless, knock control can effectuate higher performance, lower fuel consumption, compliance with lower legally demanded emission limits, and the possibility of using different fuel qualities. The Knock-Intensity-Detector 2 (KID2) and the Bosch knock control tool chain, based on many years of experience gained on automotive engines, provides an efficient calibration method that can also be used for two-wheeler engines. The raw signal of the structure-borne noise is used for signal analysis and simulation of different filter settings. A feasibility quick test was executed on a water-cooled 125cc small engine of a mass-produced two-wheeler.
Technical Paper
2012-10-23
Frank Schuerg, A. Prashanth, Thorsten Raatz, Dani C, K. Manikandan, V Padmanabhan
Based on the fuel consumption analysis methods published on last year's SETC [1], we compared fuel economies of a typical 125cc production motorcycle equipped with either electronic (port) fuel injection (EFI/PFI) engine management system (EMS) or constant vacuum carburetor (Carb). In addition to earlier discussed PFI results, stationary engine map measurements of fuel consumption on an engine dynamometer (dyno) were conducted for the Carb engine. The powerful development tool of fuel consumption test cycle simulation uses these stationary engine dyno results to calculate fuel consumption of real transient vehicle operation. Here it was employed to assess economy of both fuel system configurations under different driving conditions. Besides the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and the World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC), we investigated real world drive patterns typical for emerging markets in terms of a Bangalore urban cycle and a Malaysian suburban cycle. The results reveal a considerable influence up to 50% of the drive pattern on fuel consumption of both PFI and Carb.
Technical Paper
2012-10-08
Klaus Benninger, Uta Fischer, Cathy Lillie
The electrification of the powertrain, the diversity and the complexity of the more or less individual technical solutions which are preferred by different car manufacturers, create a steadily increasing challenge for the whole automotive industry. Missing standards and sales volumes still below the market expectations on the one hand, and the increasing interaction of the main powertrain domains (engine, transmission, e-drive) caused by upcoming cross domain functions on the other hand, lead to increasing development costs and non-optimal solutions concerning fuel economy improvement. Within the domain of engine management systems Bosch established in the mid-nineties the so called torque structure as the solution to a similar situation addressing the coordination of air management, fuel injection and ignition. Energy Based Powertrain Control is expected to deliver similar benefits based on the system level of powertrain control coordinating the interrelated control of engine, gearbox and e-machine.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Tobias Nier, Andre Kulzer, Roland Karrelmeyer
The worldwide stricter emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, challenging approach, especially regarding the combustion mode switch between spark-ignited (SI) and gasoline HCCI mode and vice-versa. Naturally aspirated (n.a.) HCCI shows considerable potential, but the operation range is air breathing limited due to hot residuals required for auto-ignition and to slow down reaction kinetics. Therefore it is limited to part-load operation. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized gasoline engines, it is imperative to investigate the synergies and challenges of boosted HCCI. Additional HCCI potentials can be realized through the additional breathing, resulting in extension of the operation map and further optimization of fuel efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Thomas Baehren, Udo Schulz, Christian Ohl, Juergen Moessinger, Dirk Daecke, Juergen Bonfert, Carsten Scholten, Benjamin Glas, Andreas Kneer
Among the currently available sensor interfaces for automotive applications, only the PSI5 interface - as standardized in the new 2001 PSI5 V2.0 - meets the rising system requirements, the increased requirements of the new environmental regulations, and the requirements of current functional safety standards. PSI5 not only features the capability to transmit highly accurate sensor data, high EMC robustness, bus capability, and bidirectional communication, but also offers savings in the cable harness and a reduced number of connector pins by using just two wires. It therefore offers enhanced technical functionality at a reasonable cost. To improve the environmental friendliness and sustainable operation of drive concepts, Bosch is also employing sophisticated and cross-linked sensors, actuators and control units. In addition, there is also the need to optimize system functions, weight, construction space and costs. The new version PSI5 V2.0 is a universal standard for automotive applications from the airbag, chassis and powertrain domains.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Alexander Eichhorn, David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer, Andreas Kufferath, Eberhard Wizgall, Ralf Centmayer
To meet future CO₂ emissions limits and satisfy the bounds set by exhaust gas legislation reducing the engine displacement while maintaining the power output ("Downsizing") becomes of more and more importance to the SI-engine development process. The total number of cylinders per engine has to be reduced to keep the thermodynamic disadvantages of a small combustion chamber layout as small as possible. Doing so leads to new challenges concerning the mechanical design, the design of the combustion system concept as well as strategies maintaining a satisfying transient torque behavior. To address these challenges a turbocharged 2-cylinder SI engine with gasoline direct injection was designed for research purposes by Weber Motor and Bosch. This paper wants to offer an insight in the design process. The mechanical design as well as the combustion system concept process will be discussed. First of all results of 1d simulations of the engine are presented, which allow the choice of the optimal combustion chamber geometry.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Juergen Cordes, Markus Zetlmeisl
AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) is a worldwide standard for automotive basic software in line with an architecture that eases exchange and transfer of application software components between platforms or companies. AUTOSAR provides the standardized architecture together with the specifications of the basics software along with the methodology for developing embedded control units for automotive applications. AUTOSAR matured over the last several years through intensive development, implementation and maintenance. Two main releases (R3.2 and R4.0) represent its current degree of maturity. AUTOSAR is driven by so called core partners: leading car manufacturers (BMW, Daimler, Ford, GM, PSA, Toyota, Volkswagen) together with the tier 1 suppliers Continental and Bosch. AUTOSAR in total has more than 150 companies (OEM, Tier X suppliers, SW and tool suppliers, and silicon suppliers) as members from all over the world. AUTOSAR is making its way to the road based upon the two main releases.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Thorsten Huck, Andreas Rohatschek, Dieter Thoss, Stoyan Todorov
A new high-performance interchip interface, called Serial WireRing, is introduced. It combines technically mature and established methods, whereby Serial WireRing provides a simple, robust and very inexpensive solution to replace the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Serial WireRing uses a daisy chain ring topology, realized by unidirectional point-to-point connections from device to device. Serial WireRing is realized by a simple “wire ring” with CMOS, LVDS, optical or any other suitable signaling, even mixed. Therefore it has a very low pin count. In order to minimize the latency each slave transmits the data that it receives with 1 bit delay only. In order to avoid clock/data skew, the serial data and clock are merged into one bitstream. A corresponding clock is extracted at each receiver by a clock and data recovery circuit, driven by a simple internal oscillator. In this way additional clock networks can be omitted, since the introduced interchip interface supports inherently the clock distribution function.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Stefan Schneider, Liem Dang, Eckart Schlottmann, Siegbert Baque, Joern Franke
The increasing number of electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles leads to more and more complex systems with a steadily growing demand for data exchange. This growth includes the number of bus participants, the amount of data and hence the data transfer rates. In addition, the trend towards car-to-x connectivity reinforces the need for new in-vehicle communication solutions. Since the early 1990s Controller Area Network (CAN) is the most widely used powertrain bus system. Since 2000 FlexRay is used in addition to CAN in the premium segment. For classic powertrain applications, the data transfer rates of these bus systems are sufficient; however the utilization is sometimes difficult and gateways are often required. For new applications like hybrid and electric vehicles and the next generation of external communication applications (e.g. telematics services) new concepts based on the existing bus systems or completely new solutions are needed. Looking outside of automotive business, Internet Protocol over Ethernet (IPoE) is the current standard technology for consumer and industry applications.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Alexander E. Schanz, Reinhold Hamann
“Safe Driving” is an essential world-wide automotive requirement. The demand for “Safe Driving” is particularly high in industrialized countries, but it is also growing in the fast-developing nations. However, the annual reduction of serious traffic injuries and fatalities is still too low and the target to halve the number of people killed in traffic in the European Union from 2001 to 2010 has not been met. Essential influences to close this gap include legislation, road traffic regulations and monitoring, technical improvement of vehicles including active and passive safety systems, the increase of the equipment rate for safety functions and the re-design of traffic infrastructure for safety reasons. During the last years several countries in Europe started to consider these aspects combined in an integrated and general traffic safety policy, i.e. “Vision Zero” in Sweden. This overall approach provides the basis for the ISO 39001 “Road traffic safety management”, which is planned to be published in 2012.
Technical Paper
2011-11-08
Frank Schuerg, André Kulzer, Andreas Kufferath, K. Manikandan, Peter Roth
Environmental consciousness and tightening emissions legislation push the market share of electronic fuel injection within a dynamically growing world wide small engines market. Similar to automotive engines during late 1980's, this opens up opportunities for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and suppliers to jointly advance small engines performance in terms of fuel economy, emissions, and drivability. In this context, advanced combustion system analyses from automotive engine testing have been applied to a typical production motorcycle small engine. The 125cc 4-stroke, 2-valve, air-cooled, single-cylinder engine with closed-loop lambda-controlled electronic port fuel injection was investigated in original series configuration on an engine dynamometer. The test cycle fuel consumption simulation provides reasonable best case fuel economy estimates based on stationary map fuel consumption measurements. For Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) it yielded roughly 1.4l/100km, for World Motorcycle Test Cycle (WMTC) 1.8l/100km.
Technical Paper
2011-10-06
Balaji. R, Balasubramaniam. V, John Alex D'cruz, Falco Sengebusch, Stefan Tumback
With the development of start stop technology to improve fuel economy and to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the information of State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is highly desirable. Recent days the battery sensors are used in mid-segment and luxury automobiles that monitors the current, voltage and temperature of the battery and calculates the charge model and sends the information via CAN or LIN. These dedicated sensors are intended to perform various functions other than basic start stop. Hence these sensors are proven to be expensive for emerging market, which is intended to perform only basic start stop as the market is looking for a low cost solution. Bosch- India has developed and implemented a novel idea of bringing a low cost and reliable battery charge detection algorithm that can be realized within the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) without a dedicated sensor.
Technical Paper
2011-10-04
Paulo Gomes, Rainer Ecker, Andre Kulzer, Andreas Kufferath, Ederson Conti
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep. Additionally, the ignition system behavior at these operation points and its requirements will be investigated.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Norbert Mueller, Steffen Strauss, Stefan Tumback, Guo-Chang Goh, Ansgar Christ
Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off. Free-Wheeling can be considered as a next logical step of engine Start/Stop systems, with additional requirements for the vehicle system.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Sebastian H. R. Müller, Stefan Arndt, Andreas Dreizler
This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations. This was done by comparing the kinetic energy distribution for individual and ensemble averaged cycles.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Wolfgang Stolz, Kyle Williams, Tobias Lorenz, Martin Piastowski
The development of vehicle communication networks is challenged not only by the increasing demand in data exchange and required data rate but also the need to connect the vehicle to external sources for personal connectivity of driver and car to infrastructure applications. Solutions are required to master complexity of in-vehicle communication networks, e.g. diagnostic access, flashing of Electronic Control Units, the data backbone connecting the vehicle domains and the data transfer of cameras. Safety (data transfer) and security (violation) issues of the communication networks gain more importance especially by introducing interfaces to external sources either via mobile devices or by connecting the vehicle to other external sources, e.g. Internet and Car to Infrastructure applications. The Internet Protocol (IP) appears to be an ideal solution to address these challenges, especially in connection with an Ethernet physical layer for fast data transfer. IP is well established for different applications in consumer electronics.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Reinhold Hamann, Stefan Kriso, Kyle Williams, Jürgen Klarmann, Jürgen Sauler
The release of ISO 26262 is only about three months after the 2011 World Congress. However, there are still some contentious aspects that can introduce challenges or cause a disproportionate effort. In this paper, we will show how to avoid these problems. ISO 26262 provides a detailed method for classifying the Automotive Safely Integrity Level (ASIL) of in-vehicle electronic systems. However, the ASIL value for a specific function/product can vary significantly across the industry. Applying a lower level than the industry norm can cause substantial liability problems. Applying a higher level can initiate an “arms race” with competitors. This is particularly true if there are no vehicle-related reasons for choosing the higher level or if it doesn't make the product any safer. To encourage international harmonization, this paper will define ASIL classifications for the main automotive components. Most functions/products are currently being developed using parts of existing products. These existing products haven't been formally designed according to ISO 26262, but they are covered by the “proven-in-use” approach of the standard, which is far beyond the state of the art.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Andre Kulzer, Tobias Nier, Roland Karrelmeyer
Stricter emissions legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption require significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Controlled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combined with boosted air systems on gasoline engines provides a particularly promising, yet challenging, approach. Naturally aspirated (NA) HCCI has already shown considerable potential in combustion efficiency gains. Nevertheless, since the volumetric efficiency is limited in the NA HCCI operation range due to the hot residuals required to ignite the mixture and slow down reaction kinetics, only part-load operation is feasible in this combustion mode. Considering the future gasoline engine market with growing potentials identified in downsized gasoline engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of controlled, boosted HCCI. Additional HCCI potential can be achieved through the added breathing capabilities, resulting in the extension of the operation map and further optimization of fuel efficiency and emissions (NOx-free, lean operation).
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
David Lejsek, Andre Kulzer
The introduction of CO₂-reduction technologies like Start-Stop or the Hybrid-Powertrain and the future emission legislation require a detailed optimization of the engine start-up. The combustion concept development as well as the calibration of the ECU makes an explicit thermodynamic analysis of the combustion process during the start-up necessary. Initially, the well-known thermodynamic analysis of in-cylinder pressure at stationary condition was transmitted to the highly non-stationary engine start-up. There, the current models for calculation of the transient wall heat fluxes were found to be misleading. Therefore, adaptations to the start-up conditions of the known models by Woschni, Hohenberg and Bargende were introduced for calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient in SI engines with gasoline direct injection. This paper shows how the indicated values can be measured during the engine start-up. Furthermore, the methods of deriving the piston positions and the engine speed from the time-based data are described.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Mark Costin, Robert Horner, Johannes Jaegers, Dirk Daecke, Alex Grossmann, Bernhard Opitz, Machiel ten Brinke, Tim Tiek, Eric Visser
The SAE J2716 SENT (Single Edge Nibble Transmission) Protocol has entered production with a number of announced products. The SENT protocol is a point-to-point scheme for transmitting signal values from a sensor to a controller. It is intended to allow for high resolution data transmission with a lower system cost than available serial data solution. The SAE SENT Task Force has developed a number of enhancements and clarifications to the original specification which are summarized in this paper. The most significant updates include the following: Adding an optional pause pulse which can make the frame length independent of the SENT message data content Defining a new enhanced serial message encoding as an optional replacement for the original short serial data message Clarifying the diagnostics and remedial actions for successive calibration pulse comparisons Adding recommended processing of a zero nibble in addition to the data in the checksum calculation to protect against a common error in the last data nibble and checksum Adding a new recommended circuit topology to better support 3.3V receiver systems Updating specification of data formats and protocols for mass air flow (MAF), Temperature and Pressure applications.
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