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Viewing 1 to 30 of 264
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2295
Chunsheng Ji, John Dec, Jeremie Dernotte, William Cannella
Abstract Previous work has shown that conventional diesel ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), can be used to enhance the autoignition of a regular-grade E10 gasoline in a well premixed low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engine, hereafter termed an HCCI engine, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and a 14:1 compression ratio. In the current work the effect of EHN on boosted HCCI combustion is further investigated with a higher compression ratio (16:1) piston and over a range of engine speeds (up to 2400 rpm). The results show that the higher compression ratio and engine speeds can make the combustion of a regular-grade E10 gasoline somewhat less stable. The addition of EHN improves the combustion stability by allowing combustion phasing to be more advanced for the same ringing intensity.
2016-07-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9142
Rebecca S. Levinson, Dawn K. Manley, Todd H. West
Abstract Simulations of the US light duty vehicle stock help policy makers, investors, and auto manufacturers make informed decisions to influence the future of the stock and its associated green house gas emissions. Such simulations require an underlying framework that captures the key elements of consumer purchasing decisions, which can be uncertain. This uncertainty in a simulation’s logic is usually convolved with uncertainty in the underlying assumptions about the futures of energy prices and technology innovation and availability. By comparing simulated alternative energy vehicle (AEV) sales to historical sales data, one can assess the simulation’s ability to capture the dynamics of consumer choice, independent of many of those underlying uncertainties, thereby determining the factors that most strongly impact sales.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0588
Shiyou Yang, Hemanth Kolla, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan
Abstract This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0577
Amin Maghbouli, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Angelo Onorati, Louis-Marie Malbec, Mark PB Musculus, W. Ethan Eagle
Abstract Extensive prior art within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using a Bosch single axial-hole injector called ‘Spray A’ in constant-volume vessels has provided a solid foundation from which to evaluate modeling tools relevant to spray combustion. In this paper, a new experiment using a Bosch three-hole nozzle called ‘Spray B’ mounted in a 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine is compared to sector-mesh engine simulations. Two different approaches are employed to model combustion: the ‘well-mixed model’ considers every cell as a homogeneous reactor and employs multi-zone chemistry to reduce the computational time. The ‘flamelet’ approach represents combustion by an ensemble of laminar diffusion flames evolving in the mixture fraction space and can resolve the influence of mixing, or ‘turbulence-chemistry interactions,’ through the influence of the scalar dissipation rate on combustion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0677
Terry A. Johnson, Michael T. Leick, Ronald W. Moses
Abstract This paper describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design was developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two-stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators which also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine-alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2-year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1190
Terry A. Johnson, Christopher Ainscough, Danny Terlip, Graham Meadows, Liam Quinlan, Brad Wong
Abstract With the introduction of more fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) on U.S. roadways, especially in California, the need for available hydrogen refueling stations is growing. While funding from the California Energy Commission is helping to solve this problem, solutions need to be developed and implemented to help reduce the time to commission a hydrogen station. The current practice of hydrogen station acceptance can take months because each vehicle manufacturer conducts their own testing and evaluation. This process is not practical or sufficient to support the timely development of a hydrogen fueling station network. To address this issue, as part of the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) Project Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory along with a team of stakeholders and contractor Powertech Labs has developed the Hydrogen Station Equipment Performance (HyStEP) Device.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0860
Fredrik R. Westlye, Michele Battistoni, Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Anders Ivarsson
Abstract This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0872
Layal Hakim, Guilhem Lacaze, Joseph Oefelein
Abstract Developing an improved understanding of transient mixing and combustion processes inherent in diesel injection is an important element in the design of advanced engines. This paper provides a detailed analysis of these processes using an idealized benchmark configuration designed to facilitate precise comparisons between different models and numerical methods. The computational domain is similar to the Engine Combustion Network (www.sandia.gov/ECN) Spray-A injector with n-dodecane as the fuel. Quantified idealizations are made in the treatment of boundary conditions to eliminate ambiguities and unknowns associated with the actual injector(s) used in the experiment. These ambiguities hinder comparisons aimed at understanding the accuracy of different models and the coupled effects of potential numerical errors.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0689
Magnus Sjöberg, Wei Zeng
Abstract Well-mixed lean or dilute SI engine operation can provide efficiency improvements relative to that of traditional well-mixed stoichiometric SI operation. However, the realized gains depend on the ability to ensure stable, complete and fast combustion. In this work, the influence of fuel type is examined for gasoline, E30 and E85. Several enabling techniques are compared. For enhanced ignition stability, a multi-pulse (MP) transient plasma ignition system is compared to a conventional high-energy inductive spark ignition system. Combined effects of fuel type and intake-gas preheating are examined. Also, the effects of dilution type (air or N2-simulated EGR) on lean efficiency gains and stability limits are clarified. The largest efficiency improvement is found for lean gasoline operation using intake preheating, showing the equivalent of a 20% fuel-economy gain relative to traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0734
Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Emre Cenker, Gilles Bruneaux, Katsufumi Kondo, Tets Aizawa, Fredrik Westlye, Kristine Dalen, Anders Ivarsson, Tiemin Xuan, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Yuanjiang Pei, Sibendu Som, Wang Hu, Rolf D. Reitz, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Daniele Farrace, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Yuri M. Wright, Muhammad Aqib Chishty, Michele Bolla, Evatt Hawkes
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0730
Ryan K. Gehmlich, Cosmin E. Dumitrescu, Yefu Wang, Charles J. Mueller
Abstract Leaner lifted-flame combustion (LLFC) is a mixing-controlled combustion strategy for compression-ignition (CI) engines that does not produce soot because the equivalence ratio at the lift-off length is less than or equal to approximately two. In addition to completely preventing soot formation, LLFC can simultaneously control emissions of nitrogen oxides because it is tolerant to the use of exhaust-gas recirculation for lowering in-cylinder temperatures. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty CI engine that has been modified to provide optical access to the combustion chamber, to study whether LLFC is facilitated by an oxygenated fuel blend (T50) comprising a 1:1 mixture by volume of tri-propylene glycol mono-methyl ether with an ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel emissions-certification fuel (CFA). Results from the T50 experiments are compared against baseline results using the CFA fuel without the oxygenate.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0743
W. Ethan Eagle, Louis-Marie Malbec, Mark PB Musculus
Abstract This paper presents new measurements of liquid and liftoff lengths, vapor penetration, and ignition delay using the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) ‘Spray B’ injector in a 2.34 L skip-fired heavy-duty optical engine. The data from the Spray B injector, having three 90-micron holes, are compared with previously existing constant-volume vessel data using both the Spray B injector as well as the ECN Spray A injector, which has a single 90-micron axial hole. The new data were acquired using Mie scattering, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, schlieren imaging, and incylinder pressure measurements. This paper presents data from estimated isentropic-core top-dead-center conditions with ambient densities of 15.2 and 22.8 kg/m3, temperatures of 800, 900, and 1000 K, and for both non-reacting (0% and 7.5% O2) and reacting (13, 15, and 21% O2) injections of n-dodecane at fuel-rail pressures of 500, 1000, and 1500 bar.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0753
Benjamin Wolk, Isaac Ekoto, William Northrop
Abstract Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
2016-01-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9045
Daniel I. Pineda, Benjamin Wolk, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert W. Dibble
Abstract The downsizing of internal combustion engines to increase fuel economy leads to challenges in both obtaining ignition and stabilizing combustion at boosted intake pressures and high exhaust gas recirculation dilution conditions. The use of non-thermal plasma ignition technologies has shown promise as a means to more reliably ignite dilute charge mixtures at high pressures. Despite progress in fundamental research on this topic, both the capabilities and operation implications of emerging non-thermal plasma ignition technologies in internal combustion engine applications are not yet fully explored. In this work, we document the effects of using a corona discharge ignition system in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection research engine relative to using a traditional inductive spark ignition system under conditions associated with both naturally aspirated (8 bar BMEP) and boosted (20 bar BMEP) loads at moderate (2000 rpm) and high (4000 rpm) engine speeds.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2436
Randy Hessel, Rolf D. Reitz, Zongyu Yue, Mark P. B. Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2451
Isaac Ekoto, Brian Peterson, James Szybist, William Northrop
Abstract A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1853
Marco Arienti, Mark Sussman
A study of n-dodecane atomization, following the prescribed unseating of the needle tip, is presented for a high-pressure, non-cavitating Bosch Diesel injector (“Spray A”, in the Engine Combustion Network denomination). In the two simulations discussed here, the internal and external multiphase flows are seamlessly calculated across the injection orifice using an interface-capturing approach (for the liquid fuel surface) together with an embedded boundary formulation (for the injector's walls). This setting makes it possible to directly relate the liquid jet spray characteristics (under the assumption of sub-critical flow and with a grid resolution of 3 µm, or 1/30 of the orifice diameter) to the moving internal geometry of the injector. Another novelty is the capability of modeling the compressibility of the liquid and the gas phase while maintaining a sharp interface between the two.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1828
Yongjin Jung, Julien Manin, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett
Multi-hole diesel fuel injectors have shown significant transients in spreading angle during injections, different than past fundamental research using single-hole injectors. We investigated the effect of a this transient spreading angle on combustion parameters such as ignition delay and lift-off length by comparing a three-hole nozzle (Spray B) and single-hole nozzle (Spray A) with holes of the same size and shape as targets for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). With the temperature distribution for a target plume of Spray B characterized extensively in a constant-volume combustion chamber, the ignition delay and lift-off length were measured and compared. Results show that the lift-off length of Spray B increases and grows by approximately 1.5 mm after the initial stages of ignition, in an opposite trend compared to Spray A where the lift-off length decreases with time.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1894
Julien Manin, Yongjin Jung, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett, Scott E. Parrish, Lee Markle
This work investigates the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G). Experiments are performed at identical operating conditions by multiple institutions using standardized procedures to provide high-quality target datasets for CFD spray modeling improvement. The initial conditions set by the ECN gasoline spray community (Spray G: Ambient temperature: 573 K, ambient density: 3.5 kg/m3 (∼6 bar), fuel: iso-octane, and injection pressure: 200 bar) are examined along with additional conditions to extend the dataset covering a broader operating range. Two institutes evaluated the liquid and vapor penetration characteristics of a particular 8-hole, 80° full-angle, Spray G injector (injector #28) using Mie scattering (liquid) and schlieren (vapor).
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-1804
ISAAC EKOTO, Scott Skeen, Richard R. Steeper, Nils Hansen
Abstract For next-generation engines that operate using low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) modes, a major issue remains poor combustion stability at low-loads. Negative valve overlap (NVO) enables enhanced main combustion control through modified valve timings to retain combustion residuals along with a small fuel injection that partially reacts during the recompression. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well understood, the chemical effects of NVO reactions are less certain, especially oxygen-deficient reactions where fuel pyrolysis dominates. To better understand NVO period chemistry details, comprehensive speciation of engine samples collected at the end of the NVO cycle was performed by photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) using synchrotron generated vacuum-ultraviolet light.
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-1830
Louis-Marie Malbec, W. Ethan Eagle, Mark P. B. Musculus, Peter Schihl
Non-conventional operating conditions and fuels in diesel engines can produce longer ignition delays compared to conventional diesel combustion. If those extended delays are longer than the injection duration, the ignition and combustion progress can be significantly influenced by the transient following the end of injection (EOI), and especially by the modification of the mixture field. The objective of this paper is to assess how those long ignition delays, obtained by injecting at low in-cylinder temperatures (e.g., 760-800K), are affected by EOI. Two multi-hole diesel fuel injectors with either six 0.20mm orifices or seven 0.14mm orifices have been used in a 2.34L single-cylinder optical diesel engine. We consider a range of ambient top dead center (TDC) temperatures at the start of injection from 760-1000K as well as a range of injection durations from 0.5ms to 3.1ms. Ignition delays are computed through the analysis of both cylinder pressure and chemiluminescence imaging.
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-1991
Sanghoon Kook, Renlin Zhang, Qing Nian Chan, Tetsuya Aizawa, Katsufumi Kondo, Lyle M. Pickett, Emre Cenker, Gilles Bruneaux, Oivind Andersson, Joakim Pagels, Erik Z. Nordin
The major challenge of the post-processing of soot aggregates in transmission electron microscope (TEM) images is the detection of soot primary particles that have no clear boundaries, vary in size within the fractal aggregates, and often overlap with each other. In this study, we propose an automated detection code for primary particles implementing the Canny Edge Detection (CED) and Circular Hough Transform (CHT) on pre-processed TEM images for particle edge enhancement using unsharp filtering as well as image inversion and self-subtraction. The particle detection code is tested for soot TEM images obtained at various ambient and injection conditions, and from five different combustion facilities including three constant-volume combustion chambers and two diesel engines.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0411
Richard K. Stobart, W. Ethan Eagle, Xunzhe Zhang
Abstract Panel Discussions held at the SAE World Congress in both 2013 and 2014 observed that a shortage of good quality engineering talent formed a chronic and major challenge. (“Good quality” refers to applicants that would be shortlisted for interview.) While doubts have been expressed in some quarters, the shortage is confirmed by automotive sector employers and the Panel's view was that it was symptomatic of a range of issues, all of which have some bearing on the future of the profession. Initiatives to improve recruitment and retention have had varying degrees of success. Efforts need to be intensified in primary schools where negative perceptions develop and deepen. Schemes like AWIM that operate on a large scale and are designed to supplement school curricula should operate at an international level. Universities represent the entry point into the engineering profession and their role in the recruitment process as well as education and training is crucial.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0792
Guillaume Lequien, Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M Pickett, Oivind Andersson
Abstract The ignition and flame stabilization characteristics of two synthetic fuels, having significantly different cetane numbers, are investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel over a range of ambient conditions representative of a compression ignition engine operating at variable loads. The synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 63 (S-1) is characterized by ignition delays that are only moderately longer than n-dodecane (cetane number of 87) over a range of ambient conditions. By comparison, the synthetic fuel with a cetane number of 17 (S-2) requires temperatures approximately 300 K higher to achieve the same ignition delays. The much different ignition characteristics and operating temperature range present a scenario where the lift-off stabilization may be substantially different.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0796
Stephen Busch, Kan Zha, Paul C. Miles, Alok Warey, Francesco Pesce, Richard Peterson, Alberto Vassallo
Abstract A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0799
Scott Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M Pickett
Abstract We investigate the mixing, penetration, and ignition characteristics of high-pressure n-dodecane sprays having a split injection schedule (0.5/0.5 dwell/0.5 ms) in a pre-burn combustion vessel at ambient temperatures of 750 K, 800 K and 900 K. High-speed imaging techniques provide a time-resolved measure of vapor penetration and the timing and progression of the first- and second-stage ignition events. Simultaneous single-shot planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging identifies the timing and location where formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from first-stage ignition and consumed following second-stage ignition. At the 900-K condition, the second injection penetrates into high-temperature combustion products remaining in the near-nozzle region from the first injection.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0813
John E. Dec, Yi Yang, Jeremie Dernotte, Chunsheng Ji
Abstract Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC), based on the compression ignition of a premixed or partially premixed dilute charge, can provide thermal efficiencies (TE) and maximum loads comparable to those of turbo-charged diesel engines, and ultra-low NOx and particulate emissions. Intake boosting is key to achieving high loads with dilute combustion, and it also enhances the fuel's autoignition reactivity, reducing the required intake heating or hot residuals. These effects have the advantages of increasing TE and charge density, allowing greater timing retard with good stability, and making the fuel ϕ- sensitive so that partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be applied for higher loads and further TE improvements. However, at high boost the autoignition reactivity enhancement can become excessive, and substantial amounts of EGR are required to prevent overly advanced combustion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0824
Jeremie Dernotte, John E. Dec, Chunsheng Ji
Abstract A detailed understanding of the various factors affecting the trends in gross-indicated thermal efficiency with changes in key operating parameters has been carried out, applied to a one-liter displacement single-cylinder boosted Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) engine. This work systematically investigates how the supplied fuel energy splits into the following four energy pathways: gross-indicated thermal efficiency, combustion inefficiency, heat transfer and exhaust losses, and how this split changes with operating conditions. Additional analysis is performed to determine the influence of variations in the ratio of specific heat capacities (γ) and the effective expansion ratio, related to the combustion-phasing retard (CA50), on the energy split. Heat transfer and exhaust losses are computed using multiple standard cycle analysis techniques. The various methods are evaluated in order to validate the trends.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1699
Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Paul C. Miles, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Saurav Mitra, P. K. Senecal
Abstract Flow field asymmetry can lead to an asymmetric mixture preparation in Diesel engines. To understand the evolution of this asymmetry, it is necessary to characterize the in-cylinder flow over the full compression stroke. Moreover, since bowl-in-piston cylinder geometries can substantially impact the in-cylinder flow, characterization of these flows requires the use of geometrically correct pistons. In this work, the flow has been visualized via a transparent piston top with a realistic bowl geometry, which causes severe experimental difficulties due to the spatial and temporal variation of the optical distortion. An advanced optical distortion correction method is described to allow reliable particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements through the full compression stroke. Based on the ensemble-averaged velocity results, flow asymmetry characterized by the swirl center offset and the associated tilting of the vortex axis is quantified.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0797
Benjamin W Knox, Caroline L Genzale, Lyle M Pickett, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Walter Vera-Tudela
Abstract This work contributes to the understanding of physical mechanisms that control flashback, or more appropriately combustion recession, in diesel sprays. A large dataset, comprising many fuels, injection pressures, ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, ambient densities, and nozzle diameters is used to explore experimental trends for the behavior of combustion recession. Then, a reduced-order model, capable of modeling non-reacting and reacting conditions, is used to help interpret the experimental trends. Finally, the reduced-order model is used to predict how a controlled ramp-down rate-of-injection can enhance the likelihood of combustion recession for conditions that would not normally exhibit combustion recession. In general, fuel, ambient conditions, and the end-of-injection transient determine the success or failure of combustion recession.
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