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Viewing 1 to 30 of 274
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0561
Federico Perini, Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Rolf Reitz
In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form are compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model. Test cases feature the academic backward facing step and co-flow gas jets in a confined chamber. Diesel engine flows feature high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0674
Benjamin Matthew Wolk, Isaac Ekoto
Pulsed nanosecond discharges (PND) can achieve ignition in internal combustion engines through enhanced reaction kinetics as a result of elevated electron energies without the associated increases in translational gas temperature that cause electrode erosion. Atomic oxygen (O), including its electronically excited states, is thought to be a key species in promoting low-temperature ignition. In this paper, high-voltage (17-24 kV peak) PND are examined in oxygen/nitrogen/carbon dioxide/water mixtures at engine-relevant densities (up to 9.1 kg/m^3) through pressure-rise calorimetry and direct imaging of excited-state O-atom and molecular nitrogen (N2) in an optically accessible spark calorimeter, with the anode/cathode gap distance set to 5 mm or with an anode-only configuration (DC corona). The conversion efficiency of pulse electrical energy into thermal energy was measured for PND with secondary streamer breakdown (SSB) and similar low-temperature plasmas (LTP) without.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0729
Isaac Ekoto, Benjamin Wolk, William Northrop
In-cylinder reforming of injected fuel during an auxiliary negative valve overlap (NVO) period can be used to optimize main-cycle auto-ignition phasing for low-load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC), where highly dilute mixtures can lead to poor combustion stability. When mixed with fresh intake charge and fuel, these reformate streams can alter overall charge reactivity characteristics with simultaneous increases in main-period thermodynamic efficiency through increased charge specific heat ratio. The central issue remains large parasitic heat losses from the retention and compression of hot exhaust gases along with pumping losses from mixing hot NVO-period gases with the cooler intake charge. Accurate determination of total cycle energy utilization is complicated by the fact that NVO-period retained fuel energy is consumed during the subsequent main combustion period.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0517
Ivan Taritas, Darko Kozarac, Momir Sjeric, Miguel Sierra Aznar, David Vuilleumier, Reinhard Tatschl
This paper presents a newly developed quasi-dimensional multi-zone dual fuel combustion model, which has been integrated within the commercial engine system simulation framework. Model is based on the modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model and Fractal Combustion Model. Modified Multi-Zone Combustion Model handles the part of the combustion process that is governed by the mixing-controlled combustion, while the modified Fractal Combustion Model handles the part that is governed by the flame propagation through the combustion chamber. The developed quasi-dimensional dual fuel combustion model features phenomenological description of spray processes, i.e. liquid spray break-up, fresh charge entrainment, droplet heat-up and evaporation process. In order to capture the chemical effects on the ignition delay, special ignition delay table has been made.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0728
Jeremie Dernotte, John Dec, Chunsheng Ji
For lean/dilute and well-mixed gasoline compression-ignition engines, creating a partially stratified fuel mixture before auto-ignition can be beneficial to reduce the heat-release rate and the corresponding maximum rate of pressure rise. As a result, partial fuel stratification (PFS) can be used to increase load and/or efficiency without excessive ringing (i.e. without knock). In this work, a double direct-injection (D-DI) strategy is investigated for which the majority of the fuel is injected early in the intake stroke to create a relatively well-mixed background mixture, and the remaining fuel is injected in the latter part of the compression stroke to produce greater fuel stratification prior auto-ignition. Experiments were performed in a 1-liter single-cylinder engine modified for low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) research.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0716
Randy Hessel, Zongyu Yue, Rolf Reitz, Mark Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
The goal of this paper is to present guidelines for interpreting soot natural luminosity images that are taken from within the combustion chamber of a single-cylinder research engine, which is fitted with a window in the piston-crown. In the experiments, fuel is injected near top-dead-center and luminosity from soot that forms as a result of the combustion process is imaged. Then, CFD simulations are run, from which soot luminosity and in-cylinder soot distributions are predicted. A luminosity to soot-distribution transfer function is developed from the CFD results and the transfer function is subsequently applied to the experimentally-obtained luminosity images in order to approximate soot distributions in the physical engine with improved accuracy. This method is applied to multiple operating conditions in order to develop the guidelines presented herein. Although this work builds on previous efforts, this is the authors’ first published work on this particular topic.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0529
Seamus Kane, Xuesong Li, Benjamin Wolk, Isaac Ekoto, William F. Northrop
Stochastic reactor models (SRMs) can be used to accurately model combustion phenomena without the time or computational expense required for multi-dimensional fluid dynamics simulations. SRM uses discrete particles without spatial coordinates that react independently and subsequently mix at each time step. Generally, SRM is used to simulate engine pressure, temperature and heat release on a crank angle basis. With added complexity, SRM can also be used to predict species concentrations when coupled to a detailed chemical mechanism. In this work we developed a SRM approach for simulating the gas composition resulting from negative valve overlap (NVO) reforming of surrogate gasoline fuel components. NVO reforming is a strategy for increasing the reactivity of gasoline-like fuels to better control low temperature gasoline combustion at low loads.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0662
David Vuilleumier, Magnus Sjöberg
Spark-ignition (SI) engine efficiency is typically limited by fuel auto-ignition resistance, which is in practice described by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). This paper assesses the auto-ignition resistance (as measured in a modern directly injected spark ignition (DISI) engine) of three compositionally dissimilar gasoline-like fuels with identical RON values and varying or non-varying MON values. The three gasolines are an alkylate blend (RON=98, MON=97), a blend with high aromatic content (RON=98, MON=88), and a blend of 30% ethanol by volume with gasoline (RON=97, MON=87). The goal of this work is to assess whether fuel properties, in this case RON and MON ratings coupled with a fuel’s heat of vaporization, are sufficient to describe the anti-knock behavior of varying gasoline formulations in modern engines.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0724
A. S. (Ed) Cheng, Charles J. Mueller
Experiments conducted with a variety of fuels in an optically accessible, compression-ignition engine have revealed a strong correlation between hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and the flame lift-off length, where increasing HC emissions are associated with longer lift-off lengths. The correlation is largely independent of fuel properties and charge-gas O2 mole fraction, but varies with fuel-injection pressure. A transient, one-dimensional jet model was used to investigate three separate mechanisms that could explain the observed impact of lift-off length on HC emissions. Each mechanism is associated with the formation of mixtures that are too lean to support combustion, or “overlean.” First, overlean regions can be formed during the ignition delay. Second, during fuel injection, longer lift-off lengths could increase the mixing of fuel with charge gas upstream of the lift-off length, such that more of the injected fuel becomes overlean.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0731
John E. Dec, Jeremie Dernotte, Chunsheng Ji
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) has the potential to provide gasoline-fueled engines with efficiencies at or above those of diesel engines and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions. Three key performance goals for LTGC are to obtain high loads, reduce the boost levels required for these loads, and achieve high thermal efficiencies (TEs). This paper reports the results of an experimental investigation into the use of partial fuel stratification, produced using early direct fuel injection (Early-DI PFS), and an increased compression ratio (CR) to achieve significant improvements in these performance characteristics. The experiments were conducted in a 0.981-liter single-cylinder research engine using certification gasoline. Increasing the CR from 14:1 to 16:1 produced a nominal increase in the TE of about one TE percentage unit for both premixed and Early-DI PFS operation.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2295
Chunsheng Ji, John Dec, Jeremie Dernotte, William Cannella
Abstract Previous work has shown that conventional diesel ignition improvers, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP), can be used to enhance the autoignition of a regular-grade E10 gasoline in a well premixed low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engine, hereafter termed an HCCI engine, at naturally aspirated and moderately boosted conditions (up to 180 kPa absolute) with a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and a 14:1 compression ratio. In the current work the effect of EHN on boosted HCCI combustion is further investigated with a higher compression ratio (16:1) piston and over a range of engine speeds (up to 2400 rpm). The results show that the higher compression ratio and engine speeds can make the combustion of a regular-grade E10 gasoline somewhat less stable. The addition of EHN improves the combustion stability by allowing combustion phasing to be more advanced for the same ringing intensity.
2016-07-18
Journal Article
2016-01-9142
Rebecca S. Levinson, Dawn K. Manley, Todd H. West
Abstract Simulations of the US light duty vehicle stock help policy makers, investors, and auto manufacturers make informed decisions to influence the future of the stock and its associated green house gas emissions. Such simulations require an underlying framework that captures the key elements of consumer purchasing decisions, which can be uncertain. This uncertainty in a simulation’s logic is usually convolved with uncertainty in the underlying assumptions about the futures of energy prices and technology innovation and availability. By comparing simulated alternative energy vehicle (AEV) sales to historical sales data, one can assess the simulation’s ability to capture the dynamics of consumer choice, independent of many of those underlying uncertainties, thereby determining the factors that most strongly impact sales.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0588
Shiyou Yang, Hemanth Kolla, Nedunchezhian Swaminathan
Abstract This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0577
Amin Maghbouli, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Angelo Onorati, Louis-Marie Malbec, Mark PB Musculus, W. Ethan Eagle
Abstract Extensive prior art within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) using a Bosch single axial-hole injector called ‘Spray A’ in constant-volume vessels has provided a solid foundation from which to evaluate modeling tools relevant to spray combustion. In this paper, a new experiment using a Bosch three-hole nozzle called ‘Spray B’ mounted in a 2.34 L heavy-duty optical engine is compared to sector-mesh engine simulations. Two different approaches are employed to model combustion: the ‘well-mixed model’ considers every cell as a homogeneous reactor and employs multi-zone chemistry to reduce the computational time. The ‘flamelet’ approach represents combustion by an ensemble of laminar diffusion flames evolving in the mixture fraction space and can resolve the influence of mixing, or ‘turbulence-chemistry interactions,’ through the influence of the scalar dissipation rate on combustion.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0677
Terry A. Johnson, Michael T. Leick, Ronald W. Moses
Abstract This paper describes the experimental evaluation of a prototype free piston engine - linear alternator (FPLA) system developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The opposed piston design was developed to investigate its potential for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The system is mechanically simple with two-stroke uniflow scavenging for gas exchange and timed port fuel injection for fuel delivery, i.e. no complex valving. Electrical power is extracted from piston motion through linear alternators which also provide a means for passive piston synchronization through electromagnetic coupling. In an HEV application, this electrical power would be used to charge the batteries. The engine-alternator system was designed, assembled and operated over a 2-year period at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1190
Terry A. Johnson, Christopher Ainscough, Danny Terlip, Graham Meadows, Liam Quinlan, Brad Wong
Abstract With the introduction of more fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) on U.S. roadways, especially in California, the need for available hydrogen refueling stations is growing. While funding from the California Energy Commission is helping to solve this problem, solutions need to be developed and implemented to help reduce the time to commission a hydrogen station. The current practice of hydrogen station acceptance can take months because each vehicle manufacturer conducts their own testing and evaluation. This process is not practical or sufficient to support the timely development of a hydrogen fueling station network. To address this issue, as part of the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) Project Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory along with a team of stakeholders and contractor Powertech Labs has developed the Hydrogen Station Equipment Performance (HyStEP) Device.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0860
Fredrik R. Westlye, Michele Battistoni, Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Anders Ivarsson
Abstract This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0872
Layal Hakim, Guilhem Lacaze, Joseph Oefelein
Abstract Developing an improved understanding of transient mixing and combustion processes inherent in diesel injection is an important element in the design of advanced engines. This paper provides a detailed analysis of these processes using an idealized benchmark configuration designed to facilitate precise comparisons between different models and numerical methods. The computational domain is similar to the Engine Combustion Network (www.sandia.gov/ECN) Spray-A injector with n-dodecane as the fuel. Quantified idealizations are made in the treatment of boundary conditions to eliminate ambiguities and unknowns associated with the actual injector(s) used in the experiment. These ambiguities hinder comparisons aimed at understanding the accuracy of different models and the coupled effects of potential numerical errors.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0689
Magnus Sjöberg, Wei Zeng
Abstract Well-mixed lean or dilute SI engine operation can provide efficiency improvements relative to that of traditional well-mixed stoichiometric SI operation. However, the realized gains depend on the ability to ensure stable, complete and fast combustion. In this work, the influence of fuel type is examined for gasoline, E30 and E85. Several enabling techniques are compared. For enhanced ignition stability, a multi-pulse (MP) transient plasma ignition system is compared to a conventional high-energy inductive spark ignition system. Combined effects of fuel type and intake-gas preheating are examined. Also, the effects of dilution type (air or N2-simulated EGR) on lean efficiency gains and stability limits are clarified. The largest efficiency improvement is found for lean gasoline operation using intake preheating, showing the equivalent of a 20% fuel-economy gain relative to traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0730
Ryan K. Gehmlich, Cosmin E. Dumitrescu, Yefu Wang, Charles J. Mueller
Abstract Leaner lifted-flame combustion (LLFC) is a mixing-controlled combustion strategy for compression-ignition (CI) engines that does not produce soot because the equivalence ratio at the lift-off length is less than or equal to approximately two. In addition to completely preventing soot formation, LLFC can simultaneously control emissions of nitrogen oxides because it is tolerant to the use of exhaust-gas recirculation for lowering in-cylinder temperatures. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty CI engine that has been modified to provide optical access to the combustion chamber, to study whether LLFC is facilitated by an oxygenated fuel blend (T50) comprising a 1:1 mixture by volume of tri-propylene glycol mono-methyl ether with an ultra-low-sulfur #2 diesel emissions-certification fuel (CFA). Results from the T50 experiments are compared against baseline results using the CFA fuel without the oxygenate.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0734
Scott A. Skeen, Julien Manin, Lyle M. Pickett, Emre Cenker, Gilles Bruneaux, Katsufumi Kondo, Tets Aizawa, Fredrik Westlye, Kristine Dalen, Anders Ivarsson, Tiemin Xuan, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Yuanjiang Pei, Sibendu Som, Wang Hu, Rolf D. Reitz, Tommaso Lucchini, Gianluca D'Errico, Daniele Farrace, Sushant S. Pandurangi, Yuri M. Wright, Muhammad Aqib Chishty, Michele Bolla, Evatt Hawkes
The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0743
W. Ethan Eagle, Louis-Marie Malbec, Mark PB Musculus
Abstract This paper presents new measurements of liquid and liftoff lengths, vapor penetration, and ignition delay using the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) ‘Spray B’ injector in a 2.34 L skip-fired heavy-duty optical engine. The data from the Spray B injector, having three 90-micron holes, are compared with previously existing constant-volume vessel data using both the Spray B injector as well as the ECN Spray A injector, which has a single 90-micron axial hole. The new data were acquired using Mie scattering, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, schlieren imaging, and incylinder pressure measurements. This paper presents data from estimated isentropic-core top-dead-center conditions with ambient densities of 15.2 and 22.8 kg/m3, temperatures of 800, 900, and 1000 K, and for both non-reacting (0% and 7.5% O2) and reacting (13, 15, and 21% O2) injections of n-dodecane at fuel-rail pressures of 500, 1000, and 1500 bar.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0753
Benjamin Wolk, Isaac Ekoto, William Northrop
Abstract Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
2016-01-03
Journal Article
2016-01-9045
Daniel I. Pineda, Benjamin Wolk, Jyh-Yuan Chen, Robert W. Dibble
Abstract The downsizing of internal combustion engines to increase fuel economy leads to challenges in both obtaining ignition and stabilizing combustion at boosted intake pressures and high exhaust gas recirculation dilution conditions. The use of non-thermal plasma ignition technologies has shown promise as a means to more reliably ignite dilute charge mixtures at high pressures. Despite progress in fundamental research on this topic, both the capabilities and operation implications of emerging non-thermal plasma ignition technologies in internal combustion engine applications are not yet fully explored. In this work, we document the effects of using a corona discharge ignition system in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection research engine relative to using a traditional inductive spark ignition system under conditions associated with both naturally aspirated (8 bar BMEP) and boosted (20 bar BMEP) loads at moderate (2000 rpm) and high (4000 rpm) engine speeds.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2436
Randy Hessel, Rolf D. Reitz, Zongyu Yue, Mark P. B. Musculus, Jacqueline O'Connor
Abstract This paper is part of a larger body of experimental and computational work devoted to studying the role of close-coupled post injections on soot reduction in a heavy-duty optical engine. It is a continuation of an earlier computational paper. The goals of the current work are to develop new CFD analysis tools and methods and apply them to gain a more in depth understanding of the different in-cylinder environments into which fuel from main- and post-injections are injected and to study how the in-cylinder flow, thermal and chemical fields are transformed between start of injection timings. The engine represented in this computational study is a single-cylinder, direct-injection, heavy-duty, low-swirl engine with optical components. It is based on the Cummins N14, has a cylindrical shaped piston bowl and an eight-hole injector that are both centered on the cylinder axis. The fuel used was n-heptane and the engine operating condition was light load at 1200 RPM.
2015-09-06
Journal Article
2015-24-2451
Isaac Ekoto, Brian Peterson, James Szybist, William Northrop
Abstract A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1853
Marco Arienti, Mark Sussman
A study of n-dodecane atomization, following the prescribed unseating of the needle tip, is presented for a high-pressure, non-cavitating Bosch Diesel injector (“Spray A”, in the Engine Combustion Network denomination). In the two simulations discussed here, the internal and external multiphase flows are seamlessly calculated across the injection orifice using an interface-capturing approach (for the liquid fuel surface) together with an embedded boundary formulation (for the injector's walls). This setting makes it possible to directly relate the liquid jet spray characteristics (under the assumption of sub-critical flow and with a grid resolution of 3 µm, or 1/30 of the orifice diameter) to the moving internal geometry of the injector. Another novelty is the capability of modeling the compressibility of the liquid and the gas phase while maintaining a sharp interface between the two.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1828
Yongjin Jung, Julien Manin, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett
Multi-hole diesel fuel injectors have shown significant transients in spreading angle during injections, different than past fundamental research using single-hole injectors. We investigated the effect of a this transient spreading angle on combustion parameters such as ignition delay and lift-off length by comparing a three-hole nozzle (Spray B) and single-hole nozzle (Spray A) with holes of the same size and shape as targets for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). With the temperature distribution for a target plume of Spray B characterized extensively in a constant-volume combustion chamber, the ignition delay and lift-off length were measured and compared. Results show that the lift-off length of Spray B increases and grows by approximately 1.5 mm after the initial stages of ignition, in an opposite trend compared to Spray A where the lift-off length decreases with time.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1894
Julien Manin, Yongjin Jung, Scott A. Skeen, Lyle M. Pickett, Scott E. Parrish, Lee Markle
This work investigates the injection processes of an eight-hole direct-injection gasoline injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) effort on gasoline sprays (Spray G). Experiments are performed at identical operating conditions by multiple institutions using standardized procedures to provide high-quality target datasets for CFD spray modeling improvement. The initial conditions set by the ECN gasoline spray community (Spray G: Ambient temperature: 573 K, ambient density: 3.5 kg/m3 (∼6 bar), fuel: iso-octane, and injection pressure: 200 bar) are examined along with additional conditions to extend the dataset covering a broader operating range. Two institutes evaluated the liquid and vapor penetration characteristics of a particular 8-hole, 80° full-angle, Spray G injector (injector #28) using Mie scattering (liquid) and schlieren (vapor).
2015-09-01
Journal Article
2015-01-1804
ISAAC EKOTO, Scott Skeen, Richard R. Steeper, Nils Hansen
Abstract For next-generation engines that operate using low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) modes, a major issue remains poor combustion stability at low-loads. Negative valve overlap (NVO) enables enhanced main combustion control through modified valve timings to retain combustion residuals along with a small fuel injection that partially reacts during the recompression. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well understood, the chemical effects of NVO reactions are less certain, especially oxygen-deficient reactions where fuel pyrolysis dominates. To better understand NVO period chemistry details, comprehensive speciation of engine samples collected at the end of the NVO cycle was performed by photoionization mass spectroscopy (PIMS) using synchrotron generated vacuum-ultraviolet light.
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