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Viewing 1 to 30 of 554
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0978
Nolan Wright, Dustin Osborne, Nathan Music
Abstract Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0952
Gordon J. Bartley, Zachary Tonzetich, Ryan Hartley
Abstract A recent collaborative research project between Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) and the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) has demonstrated that a ruthenium (Ru) catalyst is capable of converting oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions to nitrogen (N2) with high activity and selectivity. Testing was performed on coated cordierite ceramic cores using SwRI’s Universal Synthetic Gas Reactor® (USGR®). Various gas mixtures were employed, from model gas mixes to full exhaust simulant gas mixes. Activity was measured as a function of temperature, and gaseous inhibitors and promoters were identified. Different Ru supports were tested to identify ones with lowest temperature activity. A Ru catalyst can be used in the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) leg of a Dedicated-EGR (D-EGR) engine [1,2], where it uses carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) present in the rich gas environment to reduce NOX to N2 with 100% efficiency and close to 100% selectivity to N2.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1006
Cary Henry, Svitlana Kroll, Vinay Premnath, Ian Smith, Peter Morgan, Imad Khalek
Abstract In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0989
Scott Eakle, Svitlana Kroll, Alice Yau, John Gomez, Cary Henry
Abstract Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction includes the formation of isocyanic acid as an intermediate product. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide [1,2,3,4]. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions, can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon [5, 6] that are difficult to remove from exhaust systems. Deposits can affect the efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0779
Radu Florea, Gary D. Neely, Zainal Abidin, Jason Miwa
Abstract For the US market, an abundant supply of natural gas (NG) coupled with recent green-house gas (GHG) regulations have spurred renewed interest in dual-fuel combustion regimes. This paper explores the potential of co-direct injection to improve the efficiency and reduce the methane emissions versus equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion systems. Using the Westport HPDI engine as the experimental test platform, the paper reports the results obtained using both diffusion controlled (HPDI) combustion strategy as well as a partially-premixed combustion strategy (DI2). The DI2 combustion strategy shows good promise, as it has been found to improve the engine efficiency by over two brake thermal efficiency (BTE) points (% fuel energy) compared to the diffusion controlled combustion strategy (HPDI) while at the same time reducing the engine-out methane emissions by 75% compared to an equivalent fumigated dual-fuel combustion system.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0616
Jayant Sarlashkar, Sankar Rengarajan, Ryan Roecker
Abstract Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has successfully demonstrated the cooled EGR concept via the High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium. Dilution of intake charge provides three significant benefits - (1) Better Cycle Efficiency (2) Knock Resistance and (3) Lower NOx/PM Emissions. But EGR dilution also poses challenges in terms of combustion stability, condensation and power density. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept brings back some of the stability lost due to EGR dilution by introducing reformates such as CO and H2 into the intake charge. Control of air, EGR, fuel, and ignition remains a challenge to realizing the aforementioned benefits without sacrificing performance and drivability. This paper addresses the DEGR solution from a controls standpoint. SwRI has been developing a unified framework for controlling a generic combustion engine (gasoline, diesel, dual-fuel natural gas etc.).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0636
Kevin L. Hoag, Anthony Megel
Abstract The objective of this work was to develop a methodology to rapidly assess comparative intake port designs for their capability to produce tumble flow in spark-ignition engine combustion chambers. Tumble characteristics are of relatively recent interest, and are generated by a combination of intake port geometry, valve lift schedule, and piston motion. While simple approaches to characterize tumble from steady-state cylinder head flow benches have often been used, the ability to correlate the results to operating engines is limited. The only available methods that take into account both piston motion and valve lift are detailed computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, or optical measurements of flow velocity. These approaches are too resource intensive for rapid comparative assessment of multiple port designs.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0595
Zainal Abidin, Radu Florea, Timothy Callahan
Abstract The current boom in natural gas from shale formations in the United States has reduced the price of natural gas to less than the price of petroleum fuels. Thus it is attractive to convert high horsepower diesel engines that use large quantities of fuel to dual fuel operation where a portion of the diesel fuel is replaced by natural gas. The substitution is limited by emissions of unburned natural gas and severe combustion phenomena such as auto-ignition or knock of the mixture and high rates of pressure rise during the ignition and early phase combustion of the diesel and natural gas-air mixture. In this work, the combustion process for dual fuel combustion was investigated using 3D CFD. The combustion process was modeled using detailed chemistry and a simulation domain sensitivity study was conducted to investigate the combustion to CFD geometry assumptions.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0600
Zainal Abidin, Kevin Hoag, Douglas Mckee, Nicholas Badain
Abstract The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0067
Ryan Wilson, Wayne Music, Brian Anderson
Modern vehicular systems rely on millions of lines of code that must occasionally be updated to add new functions or to patch flaws to ensure safe and secure operation. Updates accomplished through a compromised cellular base station could lead to an update process that may be vulnerable to attack. We have been investigating techniques for determining whether an LTE base station (known as an eNodeB) appears to be suspicious, so that an update could be paused or terminated until a trusted eNodeB is available. We describe a detector we developed as part of our research that scans LTE signals for anomalies and provides an alert when an anomaly is found.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0728
Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Charles Roberts, Jason Miwa, Christopher Chadwell, Sankar Rengarajan
Abstract There are numerous off-road diesel engine applications. In some applications there is more focus on metrics such as initial cost, packaging and transient response and less emphasis on fuel economy. In this paper a combustion concept is presented that may be well suited to these applications. The novel combustion concept operates in two distinct operation modes: lean operation at light engine loads and stoichiometric operation at intermediate and high engine loads. One advantage to the two mode approach is the ability to simplify the aftertreatment and reduce cost. The simplified aftertreatment system utilizes a non-catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a relatively small lean NOx trap (LNT). Under stoichiometric operation the LNT has the ability to act as a three way catalyst (TWC) for excellent control of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0823
Jason Miwa, Darius Mehta, Chad Koci
Abstract Increasingly stringent emissions regulations require that modern diesel aftertreatment systems must warm up and begin controlling emissions shortly after startup. While several new aftertreatment technologies have been introduced that focus on lowering the aftertreatment activation temperature, the engine system still needs to provide thermal energy to the exhaust for cold start. A study was conducted to evaluate several engine technologies that focus on improving the thermal energy that the engine system provides to the aftertreatment system while minimizing the impact on fuel economy and emissions. Studies were conducted on a modern common rail 3L diesel engine with a custom dual loop EGR system. The engine was calibrated for low engine-out NOx using various combustion strategies depending on the speed/load operating condition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0891
Teri D. Kowalski, Satoshi Hirano, William A. Buscher, Eric Liu, Jerry C. Wang, James L. Linden
Abstract The study described in this paper covers the development of the Sequence IVB low-temperature valvetrain wear test as a replacement test platform for the existing ASTM D6891 Sequence IVA for the new engine oil category, ILSAC GF-6. The Sequence IVB Test uses a Toyota engine with dual overhead camshafts, direct-acting mechanical lifter valvetrain system. The original intent for the new test was to be a direct replacement for the Sequence IVA. Due to inherent differences in valvetrain system design between the Sequence IVA and IVB engines, it was necessary to alter existing test conditions to ensure adequate wear was produced on the valvetrain components to allow discrimination among the different lubricant formulations. A variety of test conditions and wear parameters were evaluated in the test development. Radioactive tracer technique (RATT) was used to determine the wear response of the test platform to various test conditions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0660
Thomas Reinhart, Marc Megel
Abstract This paper describes the potential for the use of Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) in a gasoline powered medium truck engine. The project goal was to determine if it is possible to match the thermal efficiency of a medium-duty diesel engine in Class 4 to Class 7 truck operations. The project evaluated a range of parameters for a D-EGR engine, including displacement, operating speed range, boosting systems, and BMEP levels. The engine simulation was done in GT-POWER, guided by experimental experience with smaller size D-EGR engines. The resulting engine fuel consumption maps were applied to two vehicle models, which ran over a range of 8 duty cycles at 3 payloads. This allowed a thorough evaluation of how D-EGR and conventional gasoline engines compare in fuel consumption and thermal efficiency to a diesel. The project results show that D-EGR gasoline engines can compete with medium duty diesel engines in terms of both thermal efficiency and GHG emissions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0834
Arjun Prakash, Roger Cracknell, Vinod Natarajan, David Doyle, Aaron Jones, Young Suk Jo, Matthew Hinojosa, Peter Lobato
Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0907
Matthew Blanks, Nathan Forster
Abstract In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0713
Terrence Alger, Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich
Abstract A series of tests were performed on a gasoline powered engine with a Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) system. The results showed that changes in engine performance, including improvements in burn rates and stability and changes in emissions levels could not be adequately accounted for solely due to the presence of reformate in the EGR stream. In an effort to adequately characterize the engine's behavior, a new parameter was developed, the Total Inert Dilution Ratio (TIDR), which accounts for the changes in the EGR quality as inert gases are replaced by reactive species such as CO and H2.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0712
Terrence Alger, Mark Walls, Christopher Chadwell, Shinhyuk Joo, Bradley Denton, Kelsi Kleinow, Dennis Robertson
Abstract Experiments were performed on a small displacement (< 2 L), high compression ratio, 4 cylinder, port injected gasoline engine equipped with Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) technology using fuels with varying anti-knock properties. Gasolines with anti-knock indices of 84, 89 and 93 anti-knock index (AKI) were tested. The engine was operated at a constant nominal EGR rate of ∼25% while varying the reformation ratio in the dedicated cylinder from a ϕD-EGR = 1.0 - 1.4. Testing was conducted at selected engine speeds and constant torque while operating at knock limited spark advance on the three fuels. The change in combustion phasing as a function of the level of overfuelling in the dedicated cylinder was documented for all three fuels to determine the tradeoff between the reformation ratio required to achieve a certain knock resistance and the fuel octane rating.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2775
Nicholas Badain, Thomas Reinhart, Coralie Cooper, James MacIsaac, John Whitefoot
This paper presents the fuel consumption results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to a long haul heavy duty vehicle. Based on the simulation modeling, up to 11% in fuel savings is possible using commercially available and emerging technologies applied to a 15L DD15 engine alone. The predicted fuel savings are up to 17% in a Kenworth T700 tractor-trailer unit equipped with a range of vehicle technologies, but using the baseline DD15 diesel engine. A combination of the most aggressive engine and vehicle technologies can provide savings of up to 29%, averaged over a range of drive cycles. Over 30% fuel savings were found with the most aggressive combination on a simulated long haul duty cycle. Note that not all of these technologies may prove to be cost-effective. The fuel savings benefits for individual technologies vary widely depending on the drive cycles and payload.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2769
Coralie Cooper, Thomas Reinhart, James David MacIsaac, John Whitefoot
This paper presents the results of engine and vehicle simulation modeling for a wide variety of individual technologies and technology packages applied to two medium-duty vocational vehicles. Simulation modeling was first conducted on one diesel and two gasoline medium-duty engines. Engine technologies were then applied to the baseline engines. The resulting fuel consumption maps were run over a range of vehicle duty cycles and payloads in the vehicle simulation model. Results were reported for both individual engine technologies and combinations or packages of technologies. Two vehicles, a Kenworth T270 box delivery truck and a Ford F-650 tow truck were evaluated. Once the baseline vehicle models were developed, vehicle technologies were added. As with the medium-duty engines, vehicle simulation results were reported for both individual technologies and for combinations. Vehicle technologies were evaluated only with the baseline 2019 diesel medium-duty engine.
2015-09-29
Journal Article
2015-01-2778
Joe Steiber, Coralie Cooper, John Whitefoot, James MacIsaac
Medium- and Heavy Duty Truck fuel consumption and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are significant contributors to overall U.S. GHG emissions. Forecasts of medium- and heavy-duty vehicle activity and fuel use predict increased use of freight transport will result in greatly increased GHG emissions in the coming decades. As a result, the National Highway Traffic Administration (NHTSA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized a regulation requiring reductions in medium and heavy truck fuel consumption and GHGs beginning in 2014. The agencies are now proposing new regulations that will extend into the next decade, requiring additional fuel consumption and GHG emissions reductions. To support the development of future regulations, a research project was sponsored by NHTSA to look at technologies that could be used for compliance with future regulations.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-2045
Haiying Tang, Saad Abouzahr, Jeff Betz, Donald Breece, Jerry C. Wang, Kaustav Sinha, Scott O. Lindholm, Jeffery H. Hsu, Karin E. Haumann, Sidney Clark, Tracey King, Wayne E. Petersen
With the impending development of GF-6, the newest generation of engine oil, a new standardized oil oxidation and piston deposit test was developed using Chrysler 3.6 L Pentastar engine. The performance requirements and approval for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval committee (ILSAC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) using standardized testing protocols developed under the guidance of ASTM, the American Society for Testing and Materials. This paper describes the development of a new ASTM Chrysler oxidation and deposit test that will be used to evaluate lubricants performance for oil thickening and viscosity increase, and piston deposits.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1968
Raphael Gukelberger, Gordon J. Bartley, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz, Janet Buckingham, Cary Henry
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
2015-07-29
Article
SAKOR Technologies supplies a test system for the Dream Chaser atmospheric flight control system, serving as a spacecraft emulator to test overall system performance.
2015-07-13
Article
Mark Brooks of Southwest Research Institute’s Automation and Data Systems Division discusses the latest issues and technologies related to cybersecurity for commercial vehicles.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0743
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Shinhyuk Joo, Thomas Briggs, Terrence Alger
Abstract In response to the sensitivity to diesel aftertreatment costs in the medium duty market, a John Deere 4045 was converted to burn gasoline with high levels of EGR. This presented some unique challenges not seen in light duty gasoline engines as the flat head and diesel adapted ports do not provide optimum in-cylinder turbulence. As the bore size increases, there is more opportunity for knock or incomplete combustion to occur. Also, the high dilution used to reduce knock slows the burn rates. In order to speed up the burn rates, various levels of swirl were investigated. A four valve head with different levels of port masking showed that increasing the swirl ratio decreased the combustion duration, but ultimately ran into high pumping work required to generate the desired swirl. A two valve head was used to overcome the breathing issue seen in the four valve head with port masking.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0778
Zainal Abidin, Christopher Chadwell
Abstract The presented work describes how spark calorimeter testing was used for parametric study and secondary circuit model calibration. Tests were conducted at different pressures, sparkplug gaps and supplied primary energies. The conversion efficiency increases and the spark duration decreases when the gas pressure or the sparkplug gap size is increased. Both gas pressure and sparkplug gas size increase the positive column voltage which represents part of the electrical energy delivered to the gas. The opposite direction occurs when the supplied primary energy is increased. The testing results were then used to calibrate the secondary circuit model which consisted of the sparkplug, the sparkplug gap and the secondary wiring. A step-by-step method was used to calibrate the three constants of the model to match the calculated delivered energy with test data during arc / glow phase.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1025
Gordon J. Bartley
Abstract The drive to more fuel efficient vehicles is underway, with passenger car targets of 54.5 mpg fleet average by 2025. Improving engine efficiency means reducing losses such as the heat lost in the exhaust gases. However, reducing exhaust temperature makes it harder for emissions control catalysts to function because they require elevated temperatures to be active. Addressing this conundrum was the focus of the work performed. The primary objective of this work was to identify low temperature limiters for a variety of catalyst aftertreatment types. The ultimate goal is to reduce catalyst light-off temperatures, and the knowledge needed is an understanding of what prevents a catalyst from lighting off, why, and how it may be mitigated. Collectively these are referred to here as low temperature limiters to catalyst activity.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0781
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions is driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed to minimize some of the challenges of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages. The D-EGR engine is a high efficiency, low emissions internal combustion engine for automotive and off-highway applications. The core of the engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional LPL EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes. The second part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, knock resistance, combustion stability, and maximum load potential at high load conditions.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0783
Raphael Gukelberger, Jess Gingrich, Terrence Alger, Steven Almaraz, Bradley Denton
Abstract The ongoing pursuit of improved engine efficiency and emissions are driving gasoline low-pressure loop EGR systems into production around the globe. To minimize inevitable downsides of cooled EGR while maintaining its advantages, the Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) engine was developed. The core of the D-EGR engine development focused on a unique concept that combines the efficiency improvements associated with recirculated exhaust gas and the efficiency improvements associated with fuel reformation. To outline the differences of the new engine concept with a conventional low-pressure loop (LPL) EGR setup, a turbocharged 2.0 L PFI engine was modified to operate in both modes and also compared to the baseline. The first part of the cooled EGR engine concept comparison investigates efficiency, emissions, combustion stability, and robustness at throttled part load conditions.
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