Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 597
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1406
Eric Randolph, Florent Bocher, Svitlana Kroll, Nolan Wright, Graham Conway, Craig Gibson
The objectives of this project were to investigate the corrosion potential of condensate in a stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engine when running exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and determine the effects of fuel sulfur on corrosion. A 2.0 L turbocharged direct-injected SI engine was operated with low-pressure EGR for this study. The engine was instrumented for visual, thermodynamic and electrochemical analyses to determine the corrosion potential at locations where condensation was deemed likely in an EGR engine. The electrochemical analysis was performed using multi-electrode array corrosion probes. Condensate was also collected and analyzed. These analyses were performed downstream of both the charge air cooler and the EGR cooler. It was found that while conditions existed for sulfuric acid to form with high sulfur fuel, no sulfuric acid was detected by any of the measurement methods.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1423
Graham Conway, Dennis Robertson, Chris Chadwell, Joseph McDonald, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Mark Stuhldreher
Low-pressure loop (LPL) EGR combined with higher compression ratio is a technology package that has been the focus of significant research to increase engine thermal efficiency on downsized, turbocharge GDI engines. Research shows that the addition of LPL-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LPL-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LPL-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. The paper presents the results of the baseline testing on a PSA engine run with a prototype SwRI controller and initially tuned to mimic OEM baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 AKI). The paper then presents test results after first adding LPL-EGR to the baseline engine, and then also increasing CR (using 12:1 pistons).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1456
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Garrett Anderson, Thomas Briggs
In much of the past LSPI work, the fuels used were simple component fuels or were splash blended to investigate oxygenates . These approaches do not fully represent real market fuels composed of hundreds of components and which are blended to maintain fuel octane when ethanol is added. To better understand real fuel effects on LSPI, a matrix was developed to vary certain chemical and physical properties of gasoline. The main properties of interest were: ratio of paraffinic, olefinic, and aromatic components, ethanol content at fixed RON and MON, and fuel volatility as defined by the T90 temperature. The LSPI rate increased with ethanol content but was insensitive to olefin content. Additionally, increased aromatic content uniformly led to increased LSPI rates. For both ethanol and non-ethanol blends, lower T90 temperatures resulted in decreased LSPI activity.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0161
Graham Conway, Dennis Robertson, Chris Chadwell, Joseph McDonald, Daniel Barba, Mark Stuhldreher, Aaron Birckett
The thermal efficiency benefits of low-pressure loop (LPL) EGR on spark-ignition engine combustion are well known. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of LPL-EGR, on high power-density applications, is the challenge of boosting. Variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures (EGT). The use of a single VNT as a boost device was preferred to two-stage boosting system or a 48 V electronic boost device for this study. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged GDI engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speed, load, EGR rate and fuel type.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0225
Bradley Denton, Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Jason Miwa
With increasing diesel engine emissions regulations and the desire to increase overall thermal efficiency of the engine, various combustion concepts have been explored. One of the potential pathways to higher efficiency is through reduction of in-cylinder heat transfer. In this paper, a concept aimed at decreasing in-cylinder heat transfer through increased piston temperature is explored. In order to increase piston temperature and ideally reduce in-cylinder heat transfer, a Zero-Oil-Cooling (ZOC) piston concept was explored. To study this concept, the test engine was modified to allow piston oil cooling to be deactivated so that its impact on parameters such as BTE, piston temperature, and emissions could be evaluated. The engine was equipped with in-cylinder pressure measurement for combustion analysis as well as a piston temperature telemetry system to evaluate piston crown temperature. This paper will discuss the process by which the engine was modified to achieve ZOC and tested.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0369
Yong Sun, Michael Fischer, Michael Bradford, Adam Kotrba, Eric Randolph
Water Injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of Exhaust Water Recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Using water injection, fuel enrichment was reduced at a full load condition (5000rpm/18.1bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine, yielding a 13% fuel economy improvement. Engine testing at a high load (3000rpm/14.0bar BMEP) condition showed that WI had a negligible effect on three-way catalyst (TWC) conversion efficiency under stoichiometric conditions. Water recovery testing was conducted at high load, as well as part load (2080rpm/6.8bar BMEP) conditions, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. EWR was shown to be effective both post exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and post charge air cooler (CAC).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0301
Khanh Cung, Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Thomas Briggs, Vickey Kalaskar, Zainal Abidin, Bansal Shah, Jason Miwa
The influence of nozzle geometry on spray and combustion of diesel continues to be a topic of great research interest. One area of promise, injector nozzles with micro-holes (i.e. down to 30 µm), still need further investigation. Reduction of nozzle orifice diameter and increased fuel injection pressure typically promotes air entrainment near-nozzle during start of injection. This leads to better premixing and consequently leaner combustion, hence lowering the formation of soot. Advances in numerical simulation have made it possible to study the effect of different nozzle diameters on the spray and combustion in great detail. In this study, a baseline model was developed for investigating the spray and combustion of diesel fuel at the Spray A condition (nozzle diameter of 90 µm) from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) community.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0324
Peter Lobato, Sankar Rengarajan, Jayant Sarlashkar, Peter Morgan, Scott Halley, Leah Prengaman
Conventional methods for determining automotive powertrain efficiency include (1) component-level testing, such as engine dynamometer, transmission stand or axle stand testing, (2) simulations based on component level test data and (3) vehicle-level testing, such as chassis dynamometer or on-road testing. This paper focuses on vehicle-level testing to show where energy is lost throughout a complete vehicle powertrain. This approach captures all physical effects of a vehicle driving in real-world conditions, including torque converter lockup strategies, transmission shifting, engine control strategies and inherent mechanical efficiency of the components. A modern rear-wheel drive light duty pickup truck was instrumented and tested on a chassis dynamometer. Power was measured at the engine crankshaft output, the rear driveshaft and at the dynamometer.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0868
Sankar B. Rengarajan, Jayant Sarlashkar, Ryan Roecker, Garrett Anderson
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) technology provides significant benefits such as better cycle efficiency, knock tolerance and lower NOx/PM emissions. However, EGR dilution also poses challenges in terms of combustion stability, power density and control. Conventional control schemes for EGR engines rely on a differential pressure sensor combined with an orifice flow model to estimate EGR flow rate. While EGR rate is an important quantity, SwRI believes that intake O2 mass fraction is a better indication of EGR capturing quantity as well as “quality” of EGR. SwRI has successfully used intake O2 mass fraction as a controlled state to manage different types of EGR engines – dual loop EGR diesel engines, low pressure loop /dedicated EGR gasoline engines as well as dual fuel engines. Several suppliers are currently developing intake O2 sensor but they typically suffer from limited accuracy, response time and reliability.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1136
Ian Smith, James Chiu, Gordon Bartley, Eugene Jimenez, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp
Recently conducted work has been funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions for heavy-duty on-road engines. In addition to NOX emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG), CO2 and methane emissions regulations from heavy-duty engines are also becoming more stringent. To achieve low cold-start NOX and methane emissions, the exhaust aftertreatment must be brought up to temperature quickly while keeping proper air-fuel ratio control; however, a balance between catalyst light-off and fuel penalty must be addressed to meet future CO2 emissions regulations. This paper details the work executed to improve catalyst light-off for a natural gas engine with a close-coupled and an underfloor three-way-catalyst while meeting an FTP NOX emission target of 0.02 g/bhp-hr and minimizing any fuel penalty.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0127
Logan Smith, Ian Smith, Scott Hotz, Mark Stuhldreher
Modern engine hardware and controls are very complex, requiring equally complex testing methodologies when performing powertrain benchmarking. Tethered benchmarking connects an engine in a test cell to a complete vehicle through an extended wire harness, enabling evaluation of stock powertrain calibration without manufacturer support. This test method can be used to develop brake specific fuel consumption maps and evaluate control strategies. However, this testing is limited to factory “on calibration” test points. To enable the evaluation of off-calibration powertrain operation, the selective interrupt and control (SIC) test capability was developed as part of an EPA evaluation of a 1.6 L EcoBoost® engine. A control and data acquisition device sits between the stock powertrain controller and the engine; the device selectively passes through, or modifies, control signals while also simulating feedback signals.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0980
Daniel Christopher Bitsis, Jason Miwa
As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation and allowed for pumps to be operated independent of engine speed. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0362
Imad A. Khalek, Huzeifa Badshah, Vinay Premnath, Rasto Brezny
Solid particle number emissions above and below 23 nm were investigated for a state-of-the-art stoichiometric heavy-duty natural gas engine with a three-way-catalyst and a diesel heavy-duty diesel engine with DFP. Furthermore, real time ash particle number emissions were measured using SwRI real time ash measurement instrument (RT-ASH). Both engines met the potential future CARB ultra low NOX emissions of 0.02 g/hp-hr, a 90% reduction from current emissions level in the USA. The engines were tested in an engine test cell under cold- and hot-start transient engine operation including FTP, WHTC and RMC. While both engines met comfortably the PM mass emissions, solid particle number emissions and ash emissions were significant for the natural gas engine. The emissions of solid particles from the natural gas was a factor of 5 to 10 higher than that of a diesel engine with DPF.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0353
Vinay Premnath, Imad A. Khalek, Peter Morgan
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by manufacturers in light-duty to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. This study focuses on the relationship among various particle metrics such as number, size, surface area and mass of dilute exhaust particles from 12 different light-duty vehicles equipped with GDI engines. The campaign included the measurement of total particulate matter (PM) using CFR 1066 compliant filter measurement, soot mass using photo-acoustics based analyzer, organic carbon (OC) & elemental carbon (EC) mass using thermo-optical analysis of quartz filter samples, solid particle number using European Union Regulation No. 49 compliant number system and solid particle size/number using a mobility based size spectrometer. The measurement campaign involved testing each vehicle over 16 LA-92 drive cycles which is a more aggressive drive cycle than the FTP-75.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1378
Samrat Patil, Ahmad Ghazi, Fabien Redon, Christopher Sharp, Dan Schum, John Headley
With the potential of further reduction in NOx emissions limit for heavy duty engines in the U.S. (from the current 2010 emissions standards of 0.2g/bhp-hr), there have been substantial studies and publications focusing on ultra-low NOx after treatment technologies that help achieve up to 0.02g/bhp-hr at tailpipe. Typical 2010 and later emission system does not achieve substantial NOX conversion rate until approximately 400-500 seconds into the cold-start FTP due to lack of heat from the engine, resulting in untreated NOx slipping through to tailpipe. To achieve ULNOx emission levels over the composite HD FTP cycle, rapid heat energy must be provided (so that time to reach SCR catalyst light-off temperature is considerably reduced) during cold start portion of the cycle, and peak NOx reduction efficiency must be maintained during the hot-start portion of cycle.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2285
Eric Randolph, Raphael Gukelberger, Terrence Alger, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Chadwell, Antonio Bosquez Jr.
Abstract The primary focus of this investigation was to determine the hydrogen reformation, efficiency and knock mitigation benefits of methanol-fueled Dedicated EGR (D-EGR®) operation, when compared to other EGR types. A 2.0 L turbocharged port fuel injected engine was operated with internal EGR, high-pressure loop (HPL) EGR and D-EGR configurations. The internal, HPL-EGR, and D-EGR configurations were operated on neat methanol to demonstrate the relative benefit of D-EGR over other EGR types. The D-EGR configuration was also tested on high octane gasoline to highlight the differences to methanol. An additional sub-task of the work was to investigate the combustion response of these configurations. Methanol did not increase its H2 yield for a given D-EGR cylinder equivalence ratio, even though the H:C ratio of methanol is over twice typical gasoline.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2393
E. Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
Abstract Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2414
Dongsheng Zhang, Qilong Lu, Michael Kocsis, Ian Gilbert, Marc Megel, Xihao Liu, Jiaxin Gu, Qingyan Liu, Yanming He
Abstract The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2348
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Peter Morgan, Alexander Michlberger, Ewan E. Delbridge, Oliver Smith
Abstract Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
2017-07-07
Article
Stringent fuel-efficiency and criteria-pollutant standards call for new combustion strategies. The Advanced Combustion Catalyst and Aftertreatment Technologies consortium led by Southwest Research Institute reinvents existing technologies and experiments with new catalysts to meet standards.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0580
Zainal Abidin, Kevin Hoag, Nicholas Badain
Abstract The promising D-EGR gasoline engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR gasoline engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty diesel engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0685
Michael Clifford Kocsis, Thomas Briggs, Garrett Anderson
Abstract The impact of additive and oil chemistry on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was evaluated. An additive metals matrix varied the levels of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), calcium sulfonate, and molybdenum within the range of commercially available engine lubricants. A separate test matrix varied the detergent chemistry (calcium vs. magnesium), lubricant volatility, and base stock chemistry. All lubricants were evaluated on a LSPI test cycle developed by Southwest Research Institute within its Pre-Ignition Prevention Program (P3) using a GM LHU 2.0 L turbocharged GDI engine. It was observed that increasing the concentration of calcium leads to an increase in the LSPI rate. At low calcium levels, near-zero LSPI rates were observed. The addition of zinc and molybdenum additives had a negative effect on the LSPI rate; however, this was only seen at higher calcium concentrations.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0684
Vickey B. Kalaskar, Raphael Gukelberger, Bradley Denton, Thomas Briggs
Abstract Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0865
Mark Walls, Michael Joo, Michael Ross
Abstract Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly known as autogas when used as a fuel for internal combustion engines. In North America, autogas primarily consists of propane, but can contain small amounts of butane, methane and propylene. Autogas is not a new fuel for internal combustion engines, but as engine technology evolves, the properties of autogas can be utilized to improve engine and vehicle efficiency. With support from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed testing to quantify efficiency differences with liquid autogas direct injection in a modern downsized and boosted direct-injected engine using the production gasoline fuel injection hardware. Engine dynamometer testing demonstrated that autogas produced similar performance characteristics to gasoline at part load, but could be used to improve brake thermal efficiency at loads above 9 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP).
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0882
Alexander Michlberger, Peter Morgan, Ewan E. Delbridge, Matthew D. Gieselman, Michael Kocsis
Abstract Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1095
Sankar B. Rengarajan, Jayant Sarlashkar, Peter Lobato
Abstract SAE Recommended Practice J1540 [1] specifies test procedures to map transmission efficiency and parasitic losses in a manual transmission. The procedure comprises two parts. The first compares input and output torque over a range of speed to determine efficiency. The second measures parasitic losses at zero input torque over a range of speed. As specified in J1540, efficiency of transmissions is routinely measured on a test-stand under steady torque and speed [2] [3]. While such testing is useful to compare different transmissions, it is unclear whether the “in-use” efficiency of a given transmission is the same as that measured on the stand. A vehicular transmission is usually mated to a reciprocating combustion engine producing significant torque and speed fluctuations at the crankshaft. It is thus a valid question whether the efficiency under such pulsating conditions is the same as that under steady conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1135
Sen Zhou, Bryan Williams
Abstract Transmission spin loss has significant influence on the vehicle fuel economy. Transmission output chain may contribute up to 10~15% of the total spin loss. However, the chain spin loss information is not well documented. An experimental study was carried out with several transmission output chains and simulated transmission environment in a testing box. The studies build the bases for the chain spin loss modeling and depicted the influences of the speed, the sprocket sizes, the oil levels, the viscosity, the temperatures and the baffle. The kriging method was employed for the parameter sensitivity study. A closed form of empirical model was developed. Good correlation was achieved.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0954
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Gary Neely, Michael Carter, Seungju Yoon, Cary Henry
Abstract The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0957
Ian Smith, Thomas Briggs, Christopher Sharp, Cynthia Webb
Abstract It is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards of 0.20 g/bhp-hr, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirements for ambient ozone will not be met. It is expected that further reductions in NOX emissions from the heavy-duty fleet will be required to achieve compliance with the ambient ozone requirement. To study the feasibility of further reductions, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to demonstrate the potential to reach 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the work executed to achieve this goal on the heavy-duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) with a heavy-duty natural gas engine equipped with a three-way catalyst. A Cummins ISX-12G natural gas engine was modified and coupled with an advanced catalyst system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0956
Christopher Sharp, Cynthia C. Webb, Seungju Yoon, Michael Carter, Cary Henry
Abstract The 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, the California Air Resource Board (ARB) projects that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter (PM) and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 597

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: