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Viewing 1 to 30 of 164
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Donald T Ward, Steven B Helton
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a “single-truth” architectural framework. The SAVI approach of “Integrate, then Build” provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a “single-truth” reference architectural model. From the outset SAVI developers anticipated that a quantified prediction of the productivity of the SAVI Virtual Integration Process (VIP) would be necessary to close the business case for using it.
Technical Paper
2011-06-13
Robert Narducci, Tonja Reinert
The desire to operate rotorcraft in icing conditions has renewed the interest in developing high-fidelity analysis methods to predict ice accumulation and the ensuing rotor performance degradation. A subset of providing solutions for rotorcraft icing problems is predicting two-dimensional ice accumulation on rotor airfoils. While much has been done to predict ice for fixed-wing airfoil sections, the rotorcraft problem has two additional challenges: first, rotor airfoils tend to experience flows in higher Mach number regimes, often creating glaze ice which is harder to predict; second, rotor airfoils oscillate in pitch to produce balance across the rotor disk. A methodology and validation test cases are presented to solve the rotor airfoil problem as an important step to solving the larger rotorcraft icing problem. The process couples Navier-Stokes CFD analysis with the ice accretion analysis code, LEWICE3D. The process is applied to several airfoil cases for which there are experimental data.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Landon Onyebueke, Akindeji Ojetola, Edward Winkler
This paper presents a PC based mathematical and rapid prototyping technique for anthropometric accommodation in a maintenance environment using the principle of simulation based design. The developed technique is capable of analyzing anthropometric data using multivariate (Principal component Analysis) approach to describe the body size variability of any given population. A number of body size representative cases are established which, when used properly within the constraints of the maintenance environments, will ensure the accommodation of a desired percentage of a population. This technique evaluates the percentage accommodation of a given population for the environment using the specific manikin cases as boundary conditions. In the case where any member of a maintenance crew cannot be accommodated, the technique has the capability of informing the designer of the environment why the member(s) is/are not accommodated. This is very important especially when maintenance is required in a confined environment.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Akindeji Ojetola, Landon Onyebueke, Edward Winkler
Jet fighter missions have been known to last extended period of time. The need for a comfortable and safe seat has become paramount considering that fact that uncomfortable seats can lead to numerous health issues. Several health effects like numbness, pressure sore, low back pain, and vein thrombosis have been associated with protracted sitting. The cushion, and of late the installation rail angle are the only components of the ejection seat system that can be modified to reduce these adverse effects. A comprehensive static comfort evaluation study for ejection seats was conducted. It provides comparison between a variety of operational and prototype cushions (baseline cushion, honeycomb and air-cushion) and three different installation rail angles (14°, 18°, and 22°). Three operational cockpit environment mockups with adjustable installation rail angle were built. Ten volunteer subjects, six females and four males, ages 19 to 35, participated in the seat comfort evaluation. The volunteers fit within the JPATS cases 1-7 range of anthropometry, and all of them tested all cushions in all the three installation rail angles.
Technical Paper
2010-11-02
Kevin McCarthy, Alex Heltzel, Eric Walters, Jeffrey Roach, Steven Iden, Peter Lamm
Modern aircraft are aerodynamically designed at the edge of flight stability and therefore require high-response-rate flight control surfaces to maintain flight safety. In addition, to minimize weight and eliminate aircraft thermal cooling requirements, the actuator systems have increased power-density and utilize high-temperature components. This coupled with the wide operating temperature regimes experienced over a mission profile may result in detrimental performance of the actuator systems. Understanding the performance capabilities and power draw requirements as a function of temperature is essential in properly sizing and optimizing an aircraft platform. Under the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL's) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, detailed models of high performance electromechanical actuators (HPEAS) were developed and include temperature dependent effects in the electrical and mechanical actuator components. These models couple directly to dynamic models of the aircraft bays that enclose the actuators and the electrical power system (EPS).
Technical Paper
2010-11-02
Kevin McCarthy, Brian Raczkowski, Marco Amrhein, Eric Walters, Jeffrey Roach, Tom Omohundro, Steven Iden, Peter Lamm, James Narey, Arthur Schuetze, Travis Clement
The trend of moving towards model-based design and analysis of new and upgraded aircraft platforms requires integrated component and subsystem models. To support integrated system trades and design studies, these models must satisfy modeling and performance guidelines regarding interfaces, implementation, verification, and validation. As part of the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Integrated Vehicle and Energy Technology (INVENT) Program, standardized modeling and performance guidelines have been established and documented in the Modeling Requirement and Implementation Plan (MRIP). Although these guidelines address interfaces and suggested implementation approaches, system integration challenges remain with respect to computational stability and predicted performance over the entire operating region for a given component. This paper discusses standardized model evaluation tools aimed to address these challenges at a component/subsystem level prior to system integration. These tools are analogous to component hardware acceptance testing, allow impartial and qualitative assessment of component models, and assist in determining if a component model could be successfully integrated in a subsystem- or platform-wide simulation.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
K. Paul Hemmaplardh, Kenneth M. Milburn, Timothy W. Matthews, Kevin K. Chang, Ludwig S. Donaty
Boeing has contracts for military application of twin engine airplanes generically identified in this paper as the MX airplane. Unlike previous derivatives, the MX airplanes are produced with a streamlined manufacturing process to improve cost and schedule performance. The final assembly of each MX airplane includes a series of integration tests, called factory functional tests (FFTs), which are modified from those of typical commercial versions and verify correctness of equipment installation and basic functionalities. Two airplanes have been through the production line resulting in a number of FFT lessons learned. Addressed are the power distribution lessons learned: 1) the expanded coverage of the basic automated power-on generation system test, 2) the need for a manual wire continuity test, 3) salient features of the power distribution tests, and 4) keys to make first pass power distribution test smooth and successful. These points are discussed in generic terms to stay within non-proprietary confines and where not prohibited by US export laws and regulations, including those of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and the US Export Administration Regulations (EAR).
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Kay Y. Blohowiak, Joseph H. Osborne, Jill E. Seebergh
A family of water-based sol-gel coatings has been developed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to traditional aerospace finishing materials and processes. The sol-gel hybrid network is based on a reactive mixture of an organo-functionalized silane with a stabilized zirconium complex. Thin films of the material self-assemble on metal surfaces, resulting in a gradient coating that provides durable adhesion for paints, adhesives, and sealants. Use of the novel coating as a surface pretreatment for the exterior of commercial aircraft has enabled environmental, health, and safety benefits due to elimination of hexavalent chromium, and flight test and early fleet survey data support the laboratory observations that the sol gel coating reduces the occurrence of “rivet rash” adhesion failures. Modifications of the basic inorganic/organic hybrid network have yielded multifunctional coatings with promise for applications such as corrosion control and oxidation protection.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Sharanpal (Paul) Sikand, John Carr, Mark Kuntavanish
The C-17 airplane operates in some of the most challenging environments in the world including semi prepared runway operations (SPRO). Typical semi-prepared runways are composed of a compacted soil aggregate of sand, silt, gravel, and rocks. When the airplane lands or takes off from a semi-prepared runway, debris, including sand, gravel, rocks and, mud is kicked up from the nose landing gear (NLG) and the main landing gear (MLG) tires. As the airplane accelerates to takeoff or decelerates from landing touchdown, this airborne debris impacts the underbelly and any component mounted on the underbelly. The result is the erosion of the protective surface coating and damage to systems that protrude below the fuselage into the debris path. The financial burden caused by SPRO damage is significant due to maintenance costs, spares costs and Non-Mission Capable (NMC) time. A study was commissioned by Air Mobility Command in 2007 to develop integrated solutions to protect the airplane from damage during SPRO operations.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Stephen A. Ridlon
Managing the security of the infrastructure and applications for any aviation IT system necessitates some sort of control mechanism(s) for defining how the various components and processes of the system work. This is true for both the network components, applications within the infrastructure, and the various security infrastructure components such as access control mechanisms, intrusion detection systems, etc. The need for a comprehensive, defense in depth, solution to security can only be met if there is an association between the controls regulating the various security components, so that there is a consistent approach to regulating and controlling security. To meet this need we propose a unifying Global Policy Framework concept, that includes a Policy Workbench for developing and administrating the policies associated with security components and the security infrastructure.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Zeyad A. Al-Aqrabawi, Donald T. Fleming, Ariel S. Maranan, Herman Lam, Cliff J. Kirkham, Roberto F. Lu, Richard L. Storch
The repairing of commercial aircraft is a complex task. Service engineers at Boeing's Commercial Aviation Services group specialize in providing crucial repair information and technical support for its many customers. This paper details factors that influence Boeing's response time to service requests and how to improve it. Information pertaining to over 5000 service requests from 2008 and 2009 was collected. From analysis of this data set, important findings were discovered. One major finding is that between 6 and 8 percent of service requests are late because time/date stamps used in reports were created in a different time zone.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Lorrie Sivich, Ed Shroyer
This paper will describe the Efficient Assembly Integration and Test (EAIT) system level project operated as a partnership among Boeing business units, universities, and suppliers. The focus is on the successful implementation and sharing of technology solutions to develop a model based, multi-product pulsed line factory of the future. The EAIT philosophy presented in this paper focuses on a collaborative environment that is tightly woven with the Lean Initiatives at Boeing's satellite development center. The prototype is comprised of a platform that includes a wireless instrumentation system, rapid bonding materials and virtual test of guidance hardware there are examples of collaborative development in collaboration with suppliers. Wireless tools and information systems are also being developed across the Boeing Company. Virtual reality development will include university partners in the US and India. A unique double feedback loop system for continuous improvement for shop floor instruction is being developed in conjunction with university research.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Brett Lyons, Eric Deck, Aaron Bartel
The Selective laser sintering (SLS) process offers unique capabilities for production of complex, thin-walled geometries with internal features, integral attachments and flanges. The benefits of SLS have been realized on a variety of Boeing military platforms for a number of years. However, applications on commercial aircraft have been limited by material flammability requirements. To address this gap, Boeing, in cooperation with Advanced Laser Materials, developed a flame retardant polyamide material that is now commercially available (ALM FR-106). This paper introduces the general advantages of laser sintering as applied to the manufacturing of flight hardware and a description of the development of the flame retardant material in use.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
Jayant D. Patel, Vitor M. Amorim
Environmental Control Systems (ECS) ducts on airplanes are primarily fabricated from aluminum or thermoset composites, depending on temperature and pressure requirements. It is imperative to fabricate lightweight, cost effective, durable, and repairable systems with minimal tooling. It is also important that the duct systems are easy to assemble even with alignment issues resulting from structural variations, tolerance accumulation, variation from thermal expansion of different materials, and inherent duct stiffness. These requirements create an opportunity and need for a technology that can address all of these issues, while increasing performance at the same time. This report provides a background on current ECS ducting systems. It also introduces a new, innovative duct system technology and self-torquing attachment system for use in high temperature and pressure systems with the following characteristics: less than half the weight of current systems it is replacing, cost effective, environmentally friendly, superior durability, self-compensating (i.e. flexibility to conform to specific assembly configurations and accommodates factors such as structural variability and expansion), and inherent vibration and noise dampening capabilities.
Technical Paper
2009-11-10
P. J. Crothers, P. L. Freeman, I. Dressler, K. Nilsson, A. Robertsson, W. Zulauf, B. Felber, R. Loser, K. Siercks, T. Brogardh
A consortium of interested parties has conducted an experimental characterization of two Tau parallel kinematic machines which were built as a part of the EU-funded project, SMErobot1. Characteristics such as machine stiffness, work envelope, repeatability and accuracy were considered. This paper will present a brief history of the Tau parallel machine, the results of this testing and some comment on prospective application to the aerospace industry.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Brandon Dick, Tony Cook, Dan Leonard
The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen storage in the human spaceflight environment.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Dwight E. Link, David E. Williams
The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 “Unity” module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration. This paper outlines the design, development, certification, and implementation of these changes in support of ISS assembly complete.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Courtney Matzkind, William A. Seidler, William J. Atkinson
Electrical disturbances caused by charging of cables in spacecraft can impair electrical systems for long periods of time. The charging originates primarily from electrons trapped in the radiation belts of the earth. The model Space Electrons Electromagnetic Effects (SEEE) is applied in computing the transient charge and electric fields in cables on spacecraft at low to middle earth altitudes. The analysis indicated that fields exceeding dielectric breakdown strengths of common dielectric materials are possible in intense magnetic storms for systems with inadequate shielding. SEEE also computes the minimal shielding needed to keep the electric fields below that for dielectric breakdown.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Ariel V. Macatangay, Jay L. Perry, Paul L. Belcher, Sharon A. Johnson
A habitable atmosphere is a fundamental requirement for human spaceflight. To meet this requirement, the cabin atmosphere must be constantly scrubbed to maintain human life and system functionality. The primary system for atmospheric scrubbing of the US on-orbit segment (USOS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS). As part of the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems' (ECLSS) atmosphere revitalization rack in the US Lab, the TCCS operates continuously, scrubbing trace contaminants generated primarily by two sources: the metabolic off-gassing of crew members and the off-gassing of equipment in the ISS. It has been online for approximately 95% of the time since activated in February 2001. The TCCS is comprised of a charcoal bed, a catalytic oxidizer, and a lithium hydroxide post-sorbent bed, all of which are designed to be replaced on-orbit when necessary. In 2006, all three beds were replaced following an observed increase in the system resistance that occurred over a period several months.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Chang H. Son, Brian R. Dunaway, Evgueni M. Smirnov, Nikolay G. Ivanov, Denis S. Telnov
The paper presents the results of a CFD study for predictions of ventilation characteristics and convective heat transfer within the Shuttle Orbiter middeck cabin in the presence of seven suited crewmember simulation and Individual Cooling Units (ICU). For two ICU arrangements considered, the thermal environmental conditions directly affecting the ICU performance have been defined for landing operation. These data would allow for validation of the ICU arrangement optimization.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Savino De Palo, Roberto Passini, Albino Quaranta, Bruce D. Wright
After launch and activation activities, the Columbus module started its operational life on February 2008 providing resources to the internal and external experiments. In March 2008 two US Payloads were successfully installed into Columbus Module: Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG) and a US payload of the Express rack family, Express Rack 3, carrying the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) experiment. They were delivered to the European laboratory from the US laboratory and followed few months later by similar racks; Human Research Facility 1 (HRF1) and HRF2. The following paper provides an overview of US Payloads, giving their main features and experiments run inside Columbus on year 2008. Flight issues, mainly on the hydraulic side are also discussed. Engineering evaluations released to the flight control team, telemetry data, and relevant mathematical models predictions are described providing a background material for the adopted work-around solutions.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Chang H. Son, Evgueni M. Smirnov, Nikolay G. Ivanov, Denis S. Telnov
The objective of this study is to evaluate ventilation efficiency regarding to the International Space Station (ISS) cabin ventilation during the ISS assembly mission 1J. The focus is on carbon dioxide spatial/temporal variations within the Node 2 and attached modules. An integrated model for CO2 transport analysis that combines 3D CFD modeling with the lumped parameter approach has been implemented. CO2 scrubbing from the air by means of two ISS removal systems is taken into account. It has been established that the ventilation scheme with an ISS Node 2 bypass duct reduces short-circuiting effects and provides less CO2 gradients when the Space Shuttle Orbiter is docked to the ISS. This configuration results in reduced CO2 level within the ISS cabin.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
Karen M. Fleckner, Michael K. Neylon, George Roe, Alex Chien
The rising cost of fuel prices, in part due to the perception of diminishing supplies of common fuelstocks, as well as worldwide attention to reducing emissions has pushed the need to explore the use of many alternative fuels. The aviation industry has been under recent scrutiny due to its contribution of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Current contribution of GHG by airplanes is relatively small, 2% of the total GHG emissions, but world air traffic is anticipated to continue to grow and may have a corresponding increase in emissions. Both commercial and government aviation sectors have efforts to seek ways to lower fuel consumption through efficiency and reduce emissions. Development of a suitable alternative fuel that can be seamlessly used in place of conventional jet fuel is desirable. A strategy to enable this goal is to be fuel flexible; utilizing an array of fuels from bio-diesel to current jet fuel. One pathway to this fuel-flexibility is to start with bio-diesel and its next generation of alternative fuels.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
Henry Hoang, S. Johnny Fu
The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization has developed the critical capabilities in dynamic circuit modeling and simulation to analyze electrical system anomalies during testing and operation. This presentation provides an example of the processes, tools and analytical techniques applied to the improvement of science experiments over-voltage clamp circuit design which is widely used by ISS science experiments. The voltage clamp circuit of Science Rack exhibits parasitic oscillations when a voltage spike couples to the Field-Effect Transistor (FET) in the clamp circuit. The oscillation can cause partial or full conduction of the shunt FET in the circuit and may result in the destruction of the FET. In addition, the voltage clamp circuit is not designed to detect the high current through the FET, and this condition can result in damage to surrounding devices. These abnormal operations were analyzed by dynamic circuit simulation and tests. Test results show that the clamp circuit is highly susceptible to the false turn-on and parasitic oscillation when a voltage spike is coupled to the gate through the gate-to-drain capacitance or the diode capacitance.
Technical Paper
2008-11-11
Henry Hoang, S. Johnny Fu, Vu Dinh
International Space Station (ISS) Payload Engineering Integration (PEI) organization adopted the advanced computation and simulation technology to develop integrated electrical system models based on the test data of various sub-units. This system model was used end-to-end to mitigate system risk for the integrated Space Shuttle Pre-launch and Landing configurations. The Space Shuttle carries the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), a pressurize transportation carrier, and the Laboratory Freezer for ISS, a freezer rack for storage and transport of science experiments from/to the ISS, is carried inside the MPLM. An end-to-end electrical system model for Space Shuttle Pre-Launch and Landing configurations, including the MPLM and Freezer, provided vital information for integrated electrical testing and to assess Mission success. The Pre-Launch and Landing configurations have different power supplies and cables to provide the power for the MPLM and the Freezer. The integrated system including Space Shuttle, MPLM and Freezer had never been tested.
Technical Paper
2008-09-16
Kurt Poechlauer, Craig A. Vyeson
One essential feature of the 787 production system is the 747-400 Large Cargo Freighter (LCF), also known as the Dreamlifter,[1] and its ability to quickly and efficiently transport large components from global manufacturing locations to the final assembly site in Everett, Washington. This unique airplane has a tail section (Swing Tail) that opens to allow cargo loading. Quickly loading and unloading cargo is largely dependent on the reliable operation of the integral swing tail door alignment and latching systems. The swing tail door is approximately 23 feet horizontally by 29 feet vertically in size. The alignment and latching systems are required to function in a wide range of environmental conditions including temperature extremes and high winds. At the same time, these systems must ensure that flight loads are safely transmitted from the tail to the airplane fuselage without inducing undue fuselage preloads and without excessive play in the latching system. These requirements presented a developmental challenge that called for an innovative solution for adjustment of the latching and alignment mechanisms.
Technical Paper
2008-09-16
Bobby J. Marsh
The patented (US 7,277,811 B1) Position Bar provides precise measurement, machining and drilling data for large Engineering and Tooling structure. The Position Bar also supports end item verification seamlessly in the same machining control code. Position Bar measurements are fast, accurate, and repeatable. The true centerline of the machine tool's spindle bearings are being measured to within .002 in a 20 foot cubic volume (20×20×20). True “I”, “J”, & “K” machine tool spindle positions are also precisely measured. Any Gantry or Post Mill Tool can be converted to a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) with this laser tracker controlled Position Bar. Determinant Assembly (D.A.) holes, for fuselage and wing structures are drilled and then measured to within .006 in X, Y, & Z, over a 40 foot distance. Average laser tracker measurement time, per hole, is 2 seconds. Precise D.A holes, drilled to within .007 in X.Y. & Z, over a distance of 45 feet, are possible with Position Bar and Laser Tracker corrected drilling.
Technical Paper
2008-09-16
Eric Whinnem, Gary Lipczynski, Ingvar Eriksson
The new materials and material combinations such as composites and titanium combinations used on today's new airplanes are proving to be very challenging when drilling holes during manufacturing and assembly operations. Orbital hole drilling technology has shown a great deal of promise for generating burr free, high quality holes in hard metals and in composite materials. This paper will show some of the orbital drilling development work Boeing is doing with Novator to overcome the obstacles of drilling holes in a combination of both hard metals and composites. The paper will include a new portable orbital drilling system designed for these challenging applications as well as some test results achieved with this system.
Technical Paper
2008-06-29
Ara Kulhanjian, David A. Yeoman, Cynthia L. Philistine
The International Space Station (ISS) recycles water to reduce the expense of launching water on resupply vehicles. However, since these recovery systems cannot recover 100% of all water used, some resupply is needed. Water consumption, as well as water recovery, varies from crew to crew making it difficult to judge how much water is needed and when. Therefore, the ground team tracks the water usage of the crew and determines a representative rate to predict each Expedition's water needs and identify trends in changing rates. This paper describes the analyses conducted to determine how much water each crew is using for drinking and hygiene purposes and how much is used for oxygen generation. It will also show how the water usage evolved over the last three Expeditions and compare these results to the published consumables tracking reports and the Russian water specialist reports. Finally, it will show the rate trends to help better conduct resupply planning and help the designers of future manned space vehicles.
Technical Paper
2008-06-29
Souzan Maleki Thoresen, George Steiner, John Granahan
This paper summarizes the first seven plus years of on-orbit operation for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The MCA is an essential part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer instrument in the US Destiny Laboratory Module, which provides critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents (nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O)). These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the ISS Sample Delivery System (SDS). Continuous readout of the partial pressures of these gases is critical to verifying safe operation of the Atmosphere Re-vitalization (AR) system, Atmosphere Control System (ACS), and crew safety for Airlock Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preparation. The system also supports dedicated rapid sampling of any one location, a feature used primarily to support Joint Airlock atmosphere sampling during crew preparations for EVAs and module atmosphere sampling during re-pressurizations of the ISS atmosphere with oxygen or nitrogen.
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