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Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Morteza Borhanipour, Preechar Karin, Manida Tongroon, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Abstract The increase of air pollution and global warming is a threat for human life. Besides, the price of petroleum is increasing rapidly and the resources are diminishing. This obliged scientists and engineers to look for alternative sources of energy, which are cleaner and more sustainable. Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyls of esters from vegetable oils and animals fat, is a cleaner renewable fuel and has been considered as the best alternative for petroleum based diesel fuel hence it can be used in any compression ignition engines without any significant modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions due to their higher content of oxygen. The produce less soot and hence the feed stuck is plant it will regenerate the CO2 by the photosynthesis which ensures the renewability and reduces global warming. But these alternative fuels have faced some obstacles while utilizing in CI engines which are due to some of their physical and chemical characteristics.
Technical Paper
2014-03-24
Teerapharp Amornsawaddirak, Sittikorn Lapapong, Szathys Songschon, Masaaki Okuma
In an automotive suspension, a shock absorber plays a significant role to enhance the vehicle performances, particularly ride comfort and road holding. Because of its important influences on the overall vehicle performances, the understanding of its physical characteristics is essential. Thus, this paper develops a mathematical model of twin-tube shock absorber that is widely used in modern production cars. The model is derived based on a rational polynomial formulation. This formulation generally represents the flow behaviors of fluid across a restriction. Further, simulation results are compared to those obtained from experiments to determine the model accuracy. The result comparison illustrates that the model is able to describe the behavior of shock absorber with slight discrepancies.
Technical Paper
2013-10-15
Preechar Karin, Yutthana Songsaengchan, Songtam Laosuwan, Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
Nanostructures of diesel and biodiesel engine particulate matters (PMs) were investigated by using a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average single particle sizes of biodiesel and diesel PMs are approximately 30-40 nm and 50-60 nm, respectively. Image processing process was used to estimate each carbon platelet length by using TEM image. The average carbon platelet length of biodiesel and diesel PMs are in the range of 0.1-7.0 nm. Moreover, carbon atoms per cubic volume of PMs are approximately 500-900. The result shows that engine load and fuel property are strongly impact on the size of single particle and carbon atom density of particle. This is one of interesting behaviors need to be investigated for better understanding. The results of this research would be used as basic information for design and develop removing process of PM emitted from engine combustion which using in diesel and biodiesel fuels.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Kazunari Okabe, Haruo Houjoh
Wet multiple plate clutches consist of friction plates, on which a friction material is bonded, and mating plates that are plain metal plates. Since the frequency and the range of load in the field of forklift trucks vary widely and are more severe than those for passenger cars, the wet multiple plate clutches on forklift trucks are often damaged. Damaged clutches that were returned from the field typically had 3 types of symptoms: 1.Only the friction material was damaged, 2.Only the mating plates were deformed, 3.Both symptoms were observed. It was clear that the cause of these symptoms depended on the difference of the operating application and the strength criteria of each part. This showed that a design guide for wet multiple plate clutches considering the strength balance between the two parts according to the work application was required. The relevant flow chart of this design process was proposed.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Keisuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Oki, Ryoko Sanui, Nobuhiro Hidaka, Masamichi Tanaka, Hiroaki Matsumoto, Katsunori Hanamura
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) offers good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot-trapping process. We found that one specific design of DPMF has the effect of reducing the apparent activation energy of the soot oxidation. The membrane is made of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm, which are covered with a thin silicon-oxy-carbide layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. The apparent activation energy of soot oxidation on the DPMF was reduced by 30-40 kJ/mol than conventional SiC-DPF. Furthermore, the light-off temperature of soot oxidation on the DPMF (with single nanosized Pt) is about 100°C lower than that of the DPMF (without Pt). The single nanosized Pt particles are embedded in the silicon-oxy-carbide layer. The formation of additional Pt is different from that which takes place in a conventional catalyzed soot filter (CSF). In a conventional CSF, the surface of the Pt particles is exposed to the atmosphere. The reaction path of soot oxidation on the DPMF is likely to be different from that of a conventional CSF.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Ronnachart Munsin, Yossapong Laoonual, Sumrerng Jugjai, Masataka Matsuki, Hidenori Kosaka
This work investigates the effects of ignition improvers on the ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight water and 1% by weight Lauric acid (Eh95) under simulated diesel engine conditions using the rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Results indicate that hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95) and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate in hydrous ethanol exhibit a near identical rate-of-pressure-rise and heat release rate. Ignition delay of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate is shorter, but hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate has longer ignition delay time and different combustion characteristics compared with hydrous ethanol with commercial additive (ED95). Hydrous ethanol with 1% by weight glycerol ethoxylate and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight glycerol ethoxylate are considered suitable fuels for high compression-ratio diesel engines. Ignition and combustion characteristics of hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight DEE and hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight biodiesel are similar to hydrous ethanol with 5% by weight water and 1% by weight Lauric acid (Eh95), with the longest ignition delay and the highest peak rate-of-pressure-rise of tested fuels.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Keisuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Oki, Ryoko Sanui, Katsunori Hanamura, Masamichi Tanaka, Nobuhiro Hidaka, Hiroaki Matsumoto
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) has good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot accumulation process on the diesel particulate filter wall. The activation energy reduction effect of the soot oxidation reaction by DPMF was clarified. The membrane consists of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm. A thin oxide layer is formed on the SiC particle surface, and nanoscale noble metal particles are distributed on the surface. The reduction mechanism for the activation energy was investigated in detail. Nanoscale soot was accumulated on DPMF from a diesel lamp. Furthermore, the soot oxidation in the regeneration process was observed using an optical microscope. An Arrhenius plot was made from the change of the concentration of the product gases CO and CO₂ with respect to time. The performance and the temperature dependence of oxygen desorption on the oxide layer was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Pt-CeO₂/ZrO₂-based materials are commonly used as oxygen storage capacity (OSC) materials and the TDS chart shows two peaks of oxygen desorption.
Technical Paper
2011-11-08
Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Piyaboot Ornman, Preechar Karin, Hidenori Kosaka, Nuwong Chollacoop
The increasing of global energy demand and stringent pollution regulations have promoted research on alternative fuels. In Thailand, ethanol, can be produced from many sources of national agriculture products as renewable fuel, which was strongly promoted by government due to its many merits for use in transportation field. In this study, combustion characteristics of ethanol-gasoline blend (20%, 85%, and 100%) as well as pure gasoline (E0) were investigated by using a swirl-generated constant volume combustion chamber. Flame propagations of different fuel blends were observed by high speed Schlieren photography technique while pressure history data were recorded for detailed combustion analysis. Combustion behavior, combustion duration and rate of pressure rise of all tested fuels were investigated in various swirl intensities and equivalence ratios. In addition, effect of swirl intensities and ethanol concentration on lean misfire limit were also discussed. The results showed that the high concentration of ethanol blend with the high swirl intensity can significantly extended lean misfire limit while lowering combustion variations.
Technical Paper
2011-11-08
Chinda Charoenphonphanich, Wittawat Imerb, Preechar Karin, Nuwong Chollacoop, Katsunori Hanamura
The present study aims to investigate the parameters affecting cold start characteristics of ethanol at low temperature, and suggest a solution to avoid cold starting problem without the installation of second fuel tank. The testing engine is a 125cc volume displacement, single-cylinder four strokes SI engine with fuel injection and ignition timing system controlled by ECU (electronic control unit). The cold starting performance tests were extensively conducted with different percentages of ethanol blends, surrounding temperatures, heating inside combustion chamber, heater injector, pre-cranking without fuel injection, and amount of fuel injection. From the experimental results, when using ethanol fuel in conventional engine, the problem of cold starting was observed at surrounding temperature lower than 20°C for ethanol. Increasing of injection duration can lower the possible cold start temperature of neat ethanol. Glow plug and pre-cranking heating methods can help the engine start at much lower temperature.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Hidenori Kosaka, Takuma Arai
In order to investigate the combustion phenomena in a combustion chamber of the diesel engine at transient operations, the simultaneous measurements of temperatures of flame and wall surface in a combustion chamber were conducted. The new technique for simultaneous measurements of flame temperature and wall surface was developed. Laser-Induced phosphorescence was used for the measurement of wall surface temperature which was coupled with the flame temperature measurement by a two-color pyrometry. The NOx and soot emissions were also measured simultaneously in transient operations. The relation between the temporal changes of emissions and temperatures of flame and surface wall are discussed. The results show that the temporal change of NOx emission during transient operation is similar to that of the average gas temperature in a chamber. On the other hand, the temporal change of soot emission is similar to neither that of flame temperature nor that of average gas temperature.
Technical Paper
2011-05-17
Hiroshi Uchida, Naota Fukushima, Ichiro Hagiwara
Energy optimal control theory (EOC) is applied to the energy flow control of a hybrid electric vehicle. Since the differential equation is solved analytically, the control law can be easily implemented in real time. Because the objective function is described in power form that permits negative value, not only the energy consumption is minimized but also the energy regeneration by the motor is maximized. In the simulation for the 10-mode driving, it is shown that the fuel cost of EOC is 15% lower than the rule based control (RBC).
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Hiroshi Oki, Preechar Karin, Katsunori Hanamura
Through microscopic visualization experiments, a process generally known as depth filtration was shown to be caused by surface pores. Moreover, the existence of a soot cake layer was an important advantage for filtration performance because it could trap most of the particulates. We proposed an ideal diesel particulate filter (DPF), in which a silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) instead of a soot cake was sintered on the DPF wall surface; this improved the filtration performance at the beginning of the trapping process and reduced energy consumption during the regeneration process. The proposed filter was called a diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF). A diesel fuel lamp was used in the trapping process to verify the trapping and oxidation mechanisms of ultrafine particulate matter. Thus, the filtration performance of the membrane filters was shown to be better than that of conventional DPFs. Furthermore, we found that surface pore filtration was initiated by Brownian motion in the pore and by electrostatic force between the particulates and the SiC-particles.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Shohji Tsushima, Issei Nakamura, Satoshi Sakashita, Shuichiro Hirai, Daisuke Kitayama
In this study, particle transport and captured behaviors in a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) was investigated with Lattice Boltzmann Method. LBM calculation was performed to a 3D-reconstructed micro porous DPF substrate, which was obtained by micro-focus 3D X-ray technique. Simulating advection-diffusion behaviors of diesel particulates in micro porous channel, we adapted a LBM method used for high Peclet number flow, simulating flow conditions in DPFs. We investigated flow behaviors in a wide variety of inlet velocity. LBM simulation has clearly shown that non-dimensional flow field is similar in wide range of flow conditions in the DPF, because flow Reynolds number in the micro porous substrate is sufficiently low, dominated by laminar flow regime. It was also revealed that less than 40% pore channels was responsible for more than 80% volume flux in the porous substrate without particle loading. We also examined particle deposition behaviors in the porous substrate with LBM simulation.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Preechar Karin, Katsunori Hanamura
Particulate matter (PM) trapping and oxidation in regeneration on the surface of a diesel particulate catalyst-membrane filter (DPMFs) were investigated in detail using an all-in-focus optical microscope. The DPMF consists of two-layer sintered filters, where a SiC-nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) covers the surface of a conventional SiC filter. Using a visualization experiment, it was shown that PMs were trapped homogeneously along fine surface pores of the membrane's top surface, whereas in the regeneration process, the particulates in contact with the membrane may have been oxidized with some catalytic effect of the SiC nanoparticles. A soot cake was reacted continuously on the nanoparticles since pushed by a gas flow. The oxidation temperature of particulate trapped on the SiC-nanoparticle membrane was about 75 degrees lower than that on the conventional diesel particulate filters (DPF) without a catalyst. The activation energy of reaction on the nanoparticle membrane became lower than that on the conventional SiC-DPF without catalyst.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Kimitoshi Tanoue, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Eiki Hotta, Naohiro Shimizu, Yuichiro Imanishi, Katsuji Iida
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with a semiconductor switch at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IES circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. An ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems in the previous papers. Experiments were conducted using constant volume chamber for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures. The ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to improve the inflammability of lean combustible mixtures, such as extended flammability limits, shorted ignition delay time, with increasing the number of pulses for CH₄ and C₃H₈-air mixtures under various conditions. The mechanisms for improving the inflammability were discussed and the effectiveness of IES circuit under EGR condition was also verified. Moreover, an application of this ignition system to a SI engine was conducted preliminarily and the effectiveness of IES circuit for the real engine was also confirmed.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Hiroyuki Yamada, Kentaro Misawa, Masaaki Fujii, Koichi Tanaka, Daisuke Suzuki, Jun Matsumoto, Kotaro Tanaka
A simultaneous multi-composition analyzing (SMCA) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) system was used to investigate gasoline engine exhaust. Observed peaks for exhaust were smaller mass numbers than those from diesel exhaust. However, large species up to three ring aromatics were observed suggesting that soot precursor forms even in the gasoline engine. At low catalyst temperature condition, the reduction efficiencies of a three-way catalyst were higher for higher mass numbers. This result indicates that the larger species accumulate in the catalyst or elsewhere due to their lower vapor pressures. To evaluate the emission of low volatility species, the accumulation should be taken into account. In the hot mode, reduction efficiencies for aromatic species of three-way catalyst were almost 99.5% however, they fall to 70% in the cold start condition.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Kentaro Misawa, Shun-ichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Jun Matsumoto, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shun-ichi Hayashi, Kotaro Tanaka, HiroYuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Kotaro Tanaka, Keitaro Watanabe, Hiroyuki Yamada, Yuichi Goto, Kentaro Misawa, Jun Matsumoto, Shunichi Ishiuchi, Masaaki Fujii, Koichi Tanaka, Jun Nakagawa, Katsumi Endo, Shunichi Hayashi
A simple real-time measurement system for the components of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in automobile exhaust gas using a laser ionization method was developed. This method was used to detect VOCs and PAHs in the exhaust gas of a diesel truck while idling, at 60 km/h, and in the Japanese driving mode JE05. As a result, various VOCs and PAHs, such as xylene and naphthalene, were simultaneously detected, and real-time changes in their concentration were obtained at 1 s intervals.
Technical Paper
2009-05-19
L.-R. Wang, Z.-H. LU, I. Hagiwara
Hydraulically damped rubber mount (HDM) can effectively attenuate vibrations transmitting between automotive powertrain and body/chassis, and reduce interior noise of car compartment. This paper involves an analytical qualitative analysis approach of dynamics characteristics of HDM. Analysis of experimental results verifies the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis approach. Frequency- and amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristic of HDM are investigated to clarify working mechanism of HDM. The presented qualitative analysis approach provides a convenient performance adjustment guideline of HDM to meet vibration isolation requirements of powertrain mount system.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Preechar Karin, Liyan Cui, Pedro Rubio, Teppei Tsuruta, Katsunori Hanamura
Trapping and regeneration processes in a SiC wall-flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) without a catalyst were investigated in detail through microscopic visualization. By microscopic observation of the cross section and surface, the transition from depth filtration to surface filtration could be observed clearly. The open pores on the wall surface were strongly related to the filtration depth of diesel particulate matter (PM). During the regeneration process, after the soot cake was burnt out, the particulates trapped inside the surface pores were oxidized. As a result, the particulate trapping and oxidation behaviors were strongly dependent on the microstructural surface pores.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Tetsuya Aizawa, Hidenori Kosaka
In order to investigate the mechanism of heat transfer on the chamber wall of direct-injection diesel engines, 2-D temperature imaging and heat flux measurement in the flame impinging region on the chamber wall were conducted using laser-induced phosphorescence technique. The temperature of the chamber wall surface was measured by the calibrated intensity variation of the 355nm-excited laser-induced phosphorescence from an electrophoretically deposited thin layer of La2O2S:Eu phosphor on a quartz glass plate placed in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Instantaneous 2-D images of wall temperature at different timings after start of injection and time-resolved (10kHz) heat flux near the flame impinging region were obtained for combusting and non-combusting diesel sprays with impinging distance of 23.4mm at different injection pressures (80 and 120MPa). The measured temperature images of the chamber wall for the combusting spray exhibited finely structured temperature distribution, while a smoother temperature distribution was observed for the non-combusting spray.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Kimitoshi Tanoue, Eiki Hotta, Yasuo Moriyoshi
A newly developed small-sized IES (inductive energy storage) circuit with static induction thyristor at turn-off action was successfully applied to an ignition system. This IEC circuit can generate repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges. In this paper, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was investigated as an alternative to conventional spark ignition systems. The experiments were conducted using spherically expanding flame configuration for CH4 and C3H8-air mixtures under various conditions. In conclusions, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges was found to extend lean flammability limits compared with conventional spark ignition systems. In addition, the ignition system using repetitive nanosecond pulse discharges could shorten ignition delay time.
Technical Paper
2007-07-23
Saiko Aoki, Masabumi Masuko, Akihito Suzuki
The major aim of this study is to investigate the tribofilm formation and friction-speed characteristics of ZnDTP in the presence of other lubricant additives. Simultaneous measurement of friction and electrical conductivity were employed using ZnDTP and several kinds of functionally different additives. Several analyses of friction surfaces were also carried out in order to measure the reaction film thickness and investigate the chemical composition of this film. It was demonstrated that the presence of each additive with ZnDTP prevented the formation of a ZnDTP tribofilm and thereby could provide lower friction than ZnDTP alone.
Technical Paper
2007-07-23
Hidenori Kosaka, Kentaro Nishida, Tetsuya Aizawa
In this study, the combustion characteristics of diesel flame achieved in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) at various patterns of oxygen distribution in the chamber are investigated in order to clarify the effect of heterogeneity of oxygen distribution in diesel engines induced by EGR on the soot and NOx emissions. To make the heterogeneous distribution of oxygen in a combustion chamber, the mixtures with different oxygen concentrations are injected through the each different port located on the cylinder wall. Results indicate that the amount of oxygen entrained into the spray upstream the luminous flame region affects the NO emission from diesel flame strongly.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Teppei Tsuruta, Katsunori Hanamura
Trapping of diesel particulates and phenomena of chemical reaction in regeneration were investigated by visualization through the cross-sectional area of a diesel-particulate-filter wall, using a digital-microscope with a high focusing depth. Herein, SiC-DPF walls were polished up to make a uniform height and to create a mirror-like surface on each SiC-particle-grain. At the beginning of the trapping process, it was observed that large particulates were trapped once in the small pores inside the wall, and then, since the flow-pattern was changed drastically, the trapped particulates were pushed out and blown off again, and finally, trapped in a region further downstream. As time passed, image analysis disclosed that since fine particulates were deposited around the SiC-particle-grain surface, the flow-channels became increasingly narrow. As a result, most of the particulates were trapped in the vicinity of the inlet of the wall, resulting in transition from depth-filtration to surface-filtration.
Technical Paper
2006-11-13
Takeshi Okada, Kazuyuki Shiomi, Tetsuro Ikeno, Tomatsu Taro, Masaaki Okuma
The method was established to identify the dynamic stiffness of the engine mount using modal parameters acquired from experimental modal analysis. Vibration tests were conducted using actual large outboard motor the BF225 (165 kW), and the dynamic stiffness of the mounts was identified. The results show that this method can identify the engine mount dynamic stiffness more adequately than the conventional method, even when the engine mounts are subjected to loads corresponding to thrust force or even in the case that the stiffness of the parts supporting an outboard motor is low.
Technical Paper
2005-09-11
Tetsuya Aizawa, Hidenori Kosaka
In order to investigate early soot formation process in diesel combustion, spectral analysis and optical thermometry of early soot formation region in a transient spray flame under diesel-like conditions (Pg2.8 MPa, Tg620-820K) was attempted via laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) from pyrene (C16H10) doped in the fuel. Pyrene is known to exhibit a temperature\-dependent variation of LIF spectrum; the ratio of S2/S1 fluorescence yields, from the lowest excited singlet state S1 and the second excited singlet state S2, depends on temperature. In the present study, pyrene was doped (1%wt) in a model diesel fuel (0-solvent) and the variation of LIF spectra from the pyrene in the spray flame in a rapid compression machine were examined at different ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, measurement positions and timings after start of fuel injection. An Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser pulse at 309 nm (5mJ) was used as the excitation source and the LIF spectra were measured by a spectrometer.
Technical Paper
2005-06-14
Yusuke Miyazaki, Sadayuki Ujihashi, Masaaki Mochimaru, Makiko Kouchi
The influence of the head shape on intracranial responses under impact was investigated by using Finite Element Method. Head shape models of 52 young adult male Japanese were analyzed by Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS), and a 2 dimensional distribution map of head shapes was obtained. Five finite element models of the Japanese head were constructed by a transformed finite element model of an average European adult male (H-Head model) using Free Form Deformation (FFD) technique. The constructed models represent the 5th and 95th percentile of the first 2 scales obtained by MDS. The same acceleration pulse was applied to the H-Head model and the five finite element models. The cause of the difference was considered to be differences in pressure distribution in the brain caused by the differences in the head shape. Variation in the head shape should be taken into account in simulating the effects of impact using a finite element model.
Technical Paper
2004-06-08
Shin Kimura, Hidenori Kosaka, Yukio Matsui, Ryutaro Himeno
The purpose of this study is to investigate the turbulent mixing in a diesel spray by large eddy simulation (LES). As the first step for the numerical simulation of diesel spray by LES, the LES of transient circular gas jets and particle laden jets were conducted. The simulation of transient circular jets in cylindrical coordinates has numerical instability near the central axis. To reduce the instability of calculation, azimuthal velocity around the central axis is calculated by the linear interpolation and filter width around the axis is modified to the radial or axial grid scale level. A transient circular gas jet was calculated by the modified code and the computational results were compared with experimental results with a Reynolds number of about 13000. The computational results of mean velocity and turbulent intensity agreed with experimental results for z/D>10. Predicted tip penetration of the jet also agreed to experimental data. Next, the simulations of transient circular particle laden jets were performed at the mass loading ratios of particles of 0.13 and 0.8.
Technical Paper
2003-05-19
Tetsuya Aizawa, Kenta Imaichi, Hidenori Kosaka, Yukio Matsui
Measurements of Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) of shock-heated vapors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at high temperature (750-1500K) and high pressure (0.3-1.3MPa) conditions were conducted using a multi-wavelength excitation laser in order to demonstrate the potential of the single-measurement EEM fluorometry for investigation of soot precursors. Argon-diluted vapors of naphthalene and pyrene, as PAH model compounds, were heated in an optically accessible shock tube. The PAH vapors were excited by a coherent multi-wavelength “rainbow” laser light generated by converting the 4th harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser using a Raman cell frequency converter filled with high-pressure (2MPa) methane-hydrogen mixture. The multi-wavelength laser spectrum, when pumped by a 50mJ pulse, consisted of the pump laser and its Stokes and Anti-Stokes shifted coherent lights of up to the 4th order and covered a spectral range between 250 and 360nm with spectral gaps between different wavelengths less than 20nm.
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