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Viewing 1 to 30 of 462
2017-10-08
Journal Article
2017-01-2431
Michitaka Yamamoto, Takayuki Hosogi, Tetsuji Watanabe, Yuki Nishida
Over the past decades, the automotive industry has made significant efforts to improve engine fuel economy by reducing mechanical friction in cold conditions. One of countermeasures is an improvement of warming up time by restricting coolant flow. Another way to reduce the friction is to optimize an oil pump function to provide minimum, but necessary and sufficient oil pressure to the lubrication system. Another challenge for the automotive industry is the reduction of exhaust emission. An oil dilution ratio by fuel and a particle number (PN) have been a recent concern. A piston surface temperature has negative impact to them. Appropriate piston cooling is an important technical issue while increasing power density of engines. In order to achieve these requirements in engines, a new type of oil pump with a function to vary the oil pressure depending on its demand was developed. An internal gear optimum pressure oil pump design was adopted first in the world.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1812
Steven Sorenson, Gordon Ebbitt, Scott Smith, Todd Remtema
Abstract In an effort to reduce mass, future automotive bodies will feature lower gage steel or lighter weight materials such as aluminum. An unfortunate side effect of lighter weight bodies is a reduction in sound transmission loss (TL). For barrier based systems, as the total system mass (including the sheet metal, decoupler, and barrier) goes down the transmission loss is reduced. If the reduced surface density from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, however, performance can be restored (though, of course, this eliminates the mass savings). In fact, if all of the saved mass from the sheet metal is added to the barrier, the TL performance may be improved over the original system. This is because the optimum performance for a barrier based system is achieved when the sheet metal and the barrier have equal surface densities. That is not the case for standard steel constructions where the surface density of the sheet metal is higher than the barrier.
2017-06-05
Technical Paper
2017-01-1865
Peter Van der Linden, Frank Daenen, Masashi Komada, Hideto Ogawa
Abstract The tendency for car engines to reduce the cylinder number and increase the specific torque at low rpm has led to significantly higher levels of low frequency pulsation from the exhaust tailpipe. This is a challenge for exhaust system design, and equally for body design and vehicle integration. The low frequency panel noise contributions were identified using pressure transmissibility and operational sound pressure on the exterior. For this the body was divided into patches. For all patches the pressure transmissibility across the body panels into the interior was measured as well as the sound field over the entire surface of the vehicle body. The panel contributions, the pressure distribution and transmissibility distribution information were combined with acoustic modal analysis in the cabin, providing a better understanding of the airborne transfer.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1632
Norihiro Tsukamoto, Tomohiro Chimbe, Tomohiro Asami, Keisuke Ota, Seiji Masunaga
Abstract A new shift control system using a model-based control method for stepped automatic transmissions. Using a gear train numerical formula model, the model-based shift control system is constructed using minimum calibration parameters with feedforward and feedback controllers. It also adopts control target values for the input shaft revolution and output shaft torque, thus enabling precise control that provides the most suitable shift feeling in various driving situations and for various vehicle characteristics. Furthermore, the model-based shift control system improves robustness in terms of disturbance elements such as production tolerance, time degradation, and use environment. Toyota has adopted this model-based shift control system in its UA80/UB80 8-speed automatic transmissions for front-wheel-drive vehicles and its AGA0 10-speed automatic transmission for rear-wheel-drive vehicles. This paper describes the details of this model-based shift control system.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1408
Satoshi Kozai, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Akihiro Kida, Takayuki Hiromitsu, Shinji Kitaura, Sadamasa Sawada, Gladys Acervo, Marius Ichim
Abstract A Rear Cross Traffic Auto Brake (RCTAB) system has been developed that uses radar sensors to detect vehicles approaching from the right or left at the rear of the driver’s vehicle, and then performs braking control if the system judges that a collision may occur. This system predicts the intersecting course of approaching vehicles and uses the calculated time-to-collision (TTC) to control the timing of automatic braking with the aim of helping prevent unnecessary operation while ensuring system performance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1398
Yoshiyuki Hatakeyema
Abstract Since drowsy driving is a major cause of serious traffic accidents, there is a growing requirement for drowsiness prevention technologies. This study proposes a drowsy driving prediction method based on eye opening time. One issue of using eye opening time is predicting strong drowsiness before the driver actually feels sleepy. Because overlooking potential hazards is one of the causes of traffic accidents and is closely related to driver cognition and drowsiness, this study focuses on eye opening movements during driving. First, this report describes hypotheses concerning drowsiness and eye opening time based on the results of previous studies. It is assumed that the standard deviation of eye opening time (SDEOP) indicates driver drowsiness and the following two transitions are considered: increasing and decreasing SDEOP. To confirm the hypotheses, the relationship between drowsiness and SDEOP was investigated.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1239
Naoya Take, Takuya Kadoguchi, Masao Noguchi, Kimihiro Yamanaka
Abstract Power modules are used to operate three-phase alternating current motors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles. Good fuel efficiency and high power density are required in the field of hybrid vehicles. To achieve this goal, the miniaturization of the power module will be necessary. This trend may make a current density, which is created by insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and free wheel diodes (FWDs), higher in power modules. Solder is often used as the joint material of power modules. It is known that a current density larger than 10 kA/cm2 causes solder electromigration. This phenomenon may cause delamination of the joint area. In addition, the ambient temperature has an influence on electromigration. The temperature of an engine compartment is high, so it is likely to cause electromigration. However, the current density of the double-sided cooling power modules in 2007 with solder joint is lower than 0.4 kA/cm2, and this value is lower than 10 kA/cm2.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1288
Noriko Shisa, Shinsuke Ishihara, Yougui Huang, Mikio Asai, Katsuhiko Ariga
Abstract Despite the fact that methanol is toxic to human health and causes serious damage to automobile engines and fuel system components, methanol-containing gasoline is becoming popular in some areas. Methanol demonstrates similar chemical properties to ethanol (which is already established as an additive to gasoline), so that it is difficult to identify methanol-containing gasoline without performing proper chemical analysis. In this study, we report a low-cost, portable, and easy-to-operate sensor that selectively changes color in response to methanol contained in gasoline. The colorimetric sensor will be useful for automobile users to avoid methanol-containing gasoline upon refueling.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0589
Shigeru Itabashi, Eiji Murase, Hiroya Tanaka, Masaaki Yamaguchi, Tomokazu Muraguchi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new series of engines under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy, which aims to satisfy customer requirements for both fun-to-drive dynamic performance and better fuel economy by adopting a high-speed combustion concept to improve thermal efficiency and specific power. This new engine series achieves a maximum engine thermal efficiency of 40%, a specific power ratio of 60 kW/l, and lower emissions by combining high-speed combustion and a high compression ratio with a high-tumble intake port, high-energy ignition coil, high-pressure multi-hole nozzle direct injector, and new electrical variable valve timing (VVT). The first engine in this series is a new 4-cylinder 2.5-liter gasoline naturally aspirated engine for use in passenger cars alongside a new TNGA 8-speed automatic transmission, which was introduced for minivans and SUVs in the U.S. market in 2016.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1162
Ken Laberteaux, Karim Hamza
Abstract Electric drive vehicles (EDV) have the potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and thus, there are many policies in place to encourage the purchase and use of gasoline-hybrid, battery, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell electric vehicles. But not all vehicles are the same, and households use vehicles in very different ways. What if policies took these differences into consideration with the goal of further reducing GHG emissions? This paper attempts to answer two questions: i) are there certain households that, by switching from a conventional vehicle to an EDV, would result in a comparatively large GHG reduction (as compared to other households making that switch), and, if so, ii) how large is the difference in GHG reductions? The paper considers over 65,000 actual GPS trip traces (generated by one-second interval recording of the speed of approximately 2,900 vehicles) collected by the 2013 California Household Travel Survey (CHTS).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1178
Ken Laberteaux, Karim Hamza
Abstract This work presents a simulation-based modeling of the equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) of plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for real driving patterns obtained from monitoring of real vehicles in public survey data sets such as the California Household Travel Survey (CHTS). Aim of the work is to highlight differences in attainable GHG reduction by adopting a PHEV instead of a conventional vehicle (CV) for different driving patterns obtained from real-world sub-populations of vehicles. Modeling of the equivalent GHG for a trip made by a PHEV can be challenging since it not only depends on the vehicle design and driving pattern of the trip in question, but also on: i) all electric range (AER) of the PHEV, ii) “well to tank” (W2T) equivalent GHG of the electricity used to charge the battery, as well as, iii) battery depletion in previous trips since the last charging event.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1188
Daisuke Hayashi, Atsushi Ida, Shota Magome, Takahisa Suzuki, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Ryosuke Hori
Abstract The key challenge in designing a high power density fuel cell is to reduce oxygen transport loss due to liquid water. However, liquid water transport from catalyst layers to channels under operating conditions is not completely understood. Toyota developed a high resolution space and time liquid water visualization technique using synchrotron x-ray (Spring-8) radiography. In addition, a simulation method was created based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify the cell performance relationship to water distribution. The relationship among gas diffusion layer (GDL) parameters, water distribution, and fuel cell performance was clarified by combining the techniques Toyota developed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1189
Tsuyoshi Maruo, Masashi Toida, Tomohiro Ogawa, Yuji Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Nada Mitsuhiro, Yoshihiro Ikogi
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) since 1992. As part of a demonstration program, TMC launched the FCHV-adv in 2008, which established major technical improvements in key performance areas such as efficiency, driving range, durability, and operation in sub-zero conditions. However, to encourage commercialization and widespread adoption of FCVs, further improvements in performance were required. During sub-zero operating conditions, the FC system output power was lower than under normal operating conditions. The FC stack in the FCHV-adv needed to dry the electrolyte membrane to remove unneeded water from the stack. This increased the stack resistance and caused low output power. In December 2014, TMC launched the world’s first commercially available FCV named the Mirai, which greatly improved output power even after start-up in sub-zero conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0917
Go Hayashita, Motoki Ohtani, Keiichiro Aoki, Shuntaro Okazaki
Abstract Exhaust systems must satisfy a wide range of requirements, including lowering emissions to comply with future fuel economy and emissions regulations. To help meet these requirements, new emissions control systems have been developed today. In addition, since air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) control has a major impact on emissions, a new two-A/F sensor system with A/F sensors provided both upstream and downstream of the catalyst was developed, incorporating an A/F control capable of further lowering emissions with greater robustness. This development identified the hysteresis characteristics of the O2 sensor downstream of the catalyst as an important factor affecting emissions during conventional A/F control. Subsequently, reaction analysis was carried out using sensor reaction models and by evaluating sensors under real-world operating conditions.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1130
Shinya Takamatsu, Nobuharu Imai, Koji Tsurumura, Seiji Yamashita, Hiroaki Tashiro
Abstract The renewed platform of the upcoming flagship front-engine, rear-wheel drive (FR) vehicles demands high levels of driving performance, fuel efficiency and noise-vibration performance. The newly developed driveline system must balance these conflicting performance attributes by adopting new technologies. This article focuses on several technologies that were needed in order to meet the demand for noise-vibration performance and fuel efficiency. For noise-vibration performance, this article will focus on propeller shaft low frequency noise (booming noise). This noise level is determined by the propeller shaft’s excitation force and the sensitivity of differential mounting system. In regards to the propeller shaft’s excitation force, the contribution of the axial excitation force was clarified. This excitation force was decreased by adopting a double offset joint (DOJ) as the propeller shaft’s second joint and low stiffness rubber couplings as the first and third joints.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1151
Yosuke Suzuki, Akiko Nishimine, Shinichi Baba, Kenji Miyasaka, Michitaka Tsuchida, Hiroatsu Endo, Norihiro Yamamura, Tomoyuki Miyazaki
Abstract To help respond to growing customer demand for environmentally friendly vehicles, a new transaxle for plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) has been developed that achieves excellent fuel economy and ensures high performance when the PHV operates in electric vehicle (EV) mode. Under the basic concept of sharing a large number of parts with the transaxle in the all new Prius, the newly designed PHV transaxle was developed with the aim of enhancing EV power and range. To achieve our goal, the new transaxle uses a Dual Motor Drive System that operates the generator as a motor to supplement the existing motor. It also features an electrical oil pump (EOP) that improves cooling performance in EV mode. The developed transaxle helps to advance the PHV as a key next-generation environmentally friendly vehicle by maximizing the performance of the Toyota Hybrid System (THS) and achieving even better dynamic EV mode performance than the new Prius HV.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1109
Keisuke Ota, Masami Kondo, Shuntaro Shinohara, Norihiro Tsukamoto, Seiji Masunaga, Ayumu Sagawa
Abstract To meet increasing driveability expectation and government stringent fuel economy regulations reducing CO2 emissions of passenger cars; Toyota developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission "Direct Shift-8AT". Direct Shift-8AT is the first stepped automatic transmission model based on “TNGA” philosophy. New models which received Direct Shift-8AT are the new Camry, Highlander and Sienna. Direct Shift-8AT has an innovative control method with gear train and torque converter models, providing enhanced driveability and fuel economy performance through high efficiency transmission technology. This paper describes details of the new technology and vehicle performance.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1278
Keisuke Isomura
Abstract In the automobile industry, interest in the prevention of global warming has always been high. The development of eco cars (HV, EV etc.), aimed at reducing CO2 emissions during operation, has been progressing. In the announcement of its "Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050", Toyota declared its commitment to creating a future in which people, cars, and nature coexist in harmony. In this declaration, Toyota committed to reducing CO2 emissions not only during operation but also over the entire life cycle of vehicles, and to using resources effectively based on a 4 R’s approach (refuse, reduce, reuse, and recycle). Although eco cars decrease CO2 emissions during operation, most of them increase CO2 emissions during manufacturing. For example, the rare-earths (Nd, Dy etc.) used in the magnets of driving motors are extracted through processes that produce a significant amount of CO2 emissions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1163
Shinji Ichikawa, Hiroaki Takeuchi, Shigeru Fukuda, Shigeki Kinomura, Yoshiki Tomita, Yosuke Suzuki, Takahiko Hirasawa
Abstract A next-generation plug-in hybrid system has been developed for the new Prius Prime. The objective of this development was to maximize the performance of the Toyota Hybrid System II (THS II) developed for the new fourth generation Prius HV, while achieving even better dynamic performance in electric vehicle (EV) mode. These objectives were accomplished by the adoption of new components and systems, as well as refinements to existing hybrid vehicle (HV) components. This paper describes the development of this new plug-in hybrid system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1179
Tatsuya Arai, Ozaki Takashi, Kazuki Amemiya, Tsuyoshi Takahashi
Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEFC) systems for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) require both performance and durability. Carbon is the typical support material used for PEFC catalysts. However, hydrogen starvation at the anode causes high electrode potential states (e.g., 1.3 V with respect to the reversible hydrogen electrode) that result in severe carbon support corrosion. Serious damage to the carbon support due to hydrogen starvation can lead to irreversible performance loss in PEFC systems. To avoid such high electrode potentials, FCV PEFC systems often utilize cell voltage monitor systems (CVMs) that are expensive to use and install. Simplifying PEFC systems by removing these CVMs would help reduce costs, which is a vital part of popularizing FCVs. However, one precondition for removing CVMs is the adoption of a durable support material to replace carbon.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0188
Yoichiro Higuchi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Zhiwei Shan, Mikiharu Kuwahara, Yoshiharu Endo, Yuha Nakajima
Abstract As vehicle emission regulations become increasingly rigorous, the automotive industry is accelerating the development of electrified vehicle platforms such as Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). Since the available waste heat from these vehicles is limited, additional heat sources such as electric heaters are needed for cabin heating operation. The use of a heat pump system is one of the solutions to improve EV driving range at cold ambient conditions. In this study, an efficient gas-injection heat pump system has been developed, which achieves high cabin heating performance at low ambient temperature and dehumidification operation without the assistance of electric heaters in ’17 model year Prius Prime.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1093
Yosuke Michikoshi, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hirofumi Ota, Masashi Ikemura, Noritaka Takebayashi, Ike Nobukazu, Yasuda Takashi, Inoue Ryohei
Abstract The new eight-speed automatic transmission direct shift-8AT (UA80) is the first automatic transmission to be developed based on the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) design philosophy. Commonizing or optimizing the main components of the UA80 enables compatibility with a wide torque range, including both inline 4-cylinder and V6 engines, while shortening development terms and minimizing investment. Additionally, it has superior packaging performance by optimizing the transmission size and arrangement achieving a low gravity center. It contributes to Vehicle’s attractiveness by improving driving performance and NVH. At the same time, it drastically improves fuel economy and quietness.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1118
Isamu Hachisuwa, Naoki Kato, Daisuke Kusamoto, Hideki Miyata, Takuya Okada, Hitoshi matsunaga, Takamitsu Kuroyanagi, Makoto nakazuru
Abstract Increasingly stringent environmental regulations requiring lower CO2 emissions and higher fuel economy have made it essential to develop vehicles with superior fuel efficiency and cleaner emissions. At the same time, there is growing demand for even more powerful and quieter vehicles. To help satisfy these requirements, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed a new 8-speed automatic transmission for front wheel drive vehicles, incorporating its first compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism. This newly developed compact torque converter with a multiple disk lock-up mechanism was designed under the Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) development concept to achieve an excellent balance between higher efficiency through the commonization of components and stronger product appeal through installation on a whole family of transmissions. This compact torque converter is compatible with a variety of engines from inline 4-cylinder to V6 configurations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1598
Koichi Go, Takahiro Hirano, Tatsuya Miyoshi, Daisuke Sato
Abstract Fuel consumption and CO2 emission regulations for vehicles, such as the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation, motivate renewable energy technologies in the automotive industry. Therefore, the automotive industry is focused on adopting solar charging systems. Some vehicles have adopted solar energy to power the ventilation system, but these vehicles do not use solar energy to power the drivetrain. One important issue facing the design of solar charging systems is the low power generated by solar panels. Compared to solar panels for residential use, solar panels for vehicles can’t generate as much power because of size and weight limitations. Also, the power generated by solar panels can be extremely affected depending on differences in solar radiation among the cells. Therefore, Toyota has developed a solar charging system that can use solar energy for driving the Prius PHV.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1244
Keisuke Kimura, Tasbir Rahman, Tadashi Misumi, Takeshi Fukami, Masafumi Hara, Sachiko Kawaji, Satoru Machida
Abstract One way to improve the fuel efficiency of HVs is to reduce the losses and size of the Power Control Unit (PCU). To achieve this, it is important to reduce the losses of power devices (such as IGBTs and FWDs) used in the PCU since their losses account for about 20% of the total loss of an HV. Furthermore, another issue when reducing the size of power devices is ensuring the thermal feasibility of the downsized devices. To achieve the objectives of the 4th generation PCU, the following development targets were set for the IGBTs: reduce power losses by 19.8% and size by 30% compared to the 3rd generation. Power losses were reduced by the development of a new Super Body Layer (SBL) structure, which improved the trade-off relationship between switching and steady-state loss. This trade-off relationship was improved by optimizing the key SBL concentration parameter.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1150
Kenta Kumazaki, Tooru Matsubara, Nobufusa Kobayashi, Shunya Kato, Kazuyuki Shiiba, Ikuo Ando, Hiromichi Kimura, Hiroatsu Endo
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation developed a new hybrid system, Multi Stage Hybrid System, for the Lexus flagship coupe LC500h with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission used in this new hybrid system includes a shift device located immediately after the power split device and motor. Compared with previous hybrid systems, the new hybrid system improves fuel economy by reducing electrical loss in the optimal gears, which are selected depending on the driving state. The system also improves acceleration performance by increasing the driving force at low and medium vehicle speeds in lower gears. In addition, the range of the power split device that cooperates with the shift device was widened to enable both an electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission mode and a ten-speed transmission mode, which creates a direct shift feeling to improve driving pleasure.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1156
Koichi Okuda, Yuji Yasuda, Masatoshi Adachi, Atsushi Tabata, Haruhisa Suzuki, Kiyonori Takagi, Tomoo Atarashi, Ryuta Horie
Abstract Toyota Motor Corporation developed the Multi Stage Hybrid System for the Lexus flagship LC500h coupe with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission used in this new hybrid system includes a shift device located immediately after the power split device and motor. Compared with previous hybrid systems, acceleration performance is improved by increasing the driving force at low and medium vehicle speeds in lower gears, fuel economy and heat management performance are improved by reducing electrical loss by selecting the optimal gear depending on the driving state. The Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission uses a shift device with a wide gear ratio range to maximize both fuel economy and acceleration performance. The transmission was designed to achieve the appropriate size to be mounted in a new platform, as well as class-leading low noise levels for adoption in luxury vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1098
Tatsuya Imamura, Atsushi Tabata, Tooru Matsubara, Yuji Iwase, Kenta Kumazaki, Keita Imai
Abstract Lexus developed the Multi Stage Hybrid Transmission for the flagship Lexus LC500h coupe with the aim of achieving an excellent balance between fuel economy and acceleration performance. To gain these benefits, this transmission utilizes a multi-stage approach with the input split mode as an enabler for a concept of multiple high- efficiency points. In order to apply this approach to the transmission, a shift device was located immediately after a power split device. For functioning of the input split mode electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission, the power split device is connected with the motor, generator, and inverters. The optimal gear selection of the shift device to reduce the power loss in accordance with the driving state improves not only fuel economy but also heat management performance compared with the previous hybrid transmission.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1173
Shunya Kato, Ikuo Ando, Koji Ohshima, Tooru Matsubara, Yasuhiro Hiasa, Hideki Furuta, Yuma Mori
Abstract Lexus launched the new hybrid luxury coupe LC500h in 2017 to help enhance its brand image and competitiveness for the new generation of Lexus. During the development of the LC500h, major improvements were made to the hybrid system by adopting the newly-developed Multi Stage Hybrid System, which combines a multi stage shift device with the transmission from the previous hybrid system to maximize the potential of the electrically-controlled continuously variable transmission. Optimum engine and electrical component specifications were designed for the new vehicle and transmission. As a result, the LC500h achieves a 0-to-60 mph acceleration time of 4.7 seconds, with a combined fuel economy of 30.0 mpg while satisfying SULEV emissions requirements. Two controls were constructed to help resolve the issues that arose due to adding the shift device.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0919
Takeru Yoshida, Hiromasa Suzuki, Yuki Aoki, Naohiro Hayashi, Kenichi Ito
Abstract Emission regulations in many countries and regions around the world are becoming stricter in reaction to the increasing awareness of environment protections, and it has now become necessary to improve the performance of catalytic converters to achieve these goals. A catalytic converter is composed of a catalytically active material coated onto a ceramic honeycomb-structured substrate. Honeycomb substrates play the role of ensuring intimate contact between the exhaust gas and the catalyst within the substrate’s flow channels. In recent years, high-load test cycles have been introduced which require increased robustness to maintain low emissions during the wide range of load changes. Therefore, it is extremely important to increase the probability of contact between the exhaust gas and catalyst.
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