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Viewing 1 to 30 of 311
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2515
Ken-ichi Kohashi, Yuichiro Kimura, Motoichi Murakami, Yann Drouvin
The purpose of this study is to analyze the piston skirt friction reduction effect of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated wrist pin. The floating liner method and elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation were used to analyze piston skirt friction. The experimental results showed that a DLC-coated wrist pin reduced cylinder liner friction, and that this reduction was particularly large at low engine speeds and large pin offset conditions. Friction was particularly reduced at around the top and bottom dead center positions (TDC and BDC). EHL simulation confirmed that a DLC-coated wrist pin affects the piston motion and reduces the contact pressure between the piston skirt and cylinder liner.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1447
Takahito Nozawa, Sumikazu Shamoto, Tomoya Katanoda
Recently, automakers have launched various types of electric vehicles (EVs) to help reduce global CO₂ emissions and reduce dependency on fossil fuel energy. Because the lithium-ion batteries that are currently under development are restricted by energy density, the physical size and mass of the battery must be significantly increased to extend the cruising range of the EV. Furthermore, dedicated charging infrastructure is required to charge the battery in a short time. At SAE in 2012, Toyota Motor Corporation proposed a concept that described the EV as suitable mainly for short-distance transportation now and in the near future. Later in the same year, Toyota launched a new EV that embodies this concept in the American and Japanese markets. This new EV is light-weight and has a compact body size, and its battery capacity is designed to sufficiently cover distances traveled in daily life. Charging is assumed to take place mainly at home.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0483
Shin Noumura, Shogo Matsumoto, Toshio Tanahashi
The purpose of this research is to develop an automatic shift control method that emulates an experienced driver's manual shift maneuver which enhances driving performance during sporty driving. Driver control maneuvers and vehicle behavior were observed throughout the process of braking, cornering, and accelerating out of a corner on a winding test track. Close correlations were found between driving maneuvers, longitudinal and lateral acceleration, and the selected engine speed. Based on the analysis, an index is proposed for estimating the intention of the driver to drive in a sporty manner. This index consists of the magnitude of acceleration in a friction circle and the maximum longitudinal acceleration restricted by the performance of the power train. An automatic transmission control based on the estimated driving intention was then developed to achieve the necessary and sufficient available force.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0366
Toshinari Sano, Mitsuaki Tomita, Masashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Muneo Yorinaga
This report proposes a rheological model and a thermal analysis model for oil films, which transmit power through a variator, as a prediction method for the maximum traction coefficient, and then describes the application and verification of this method. The rheological model expresses the conditions inside the contact ellipse using a combination of viscosity and plasticity. The thermal analysis model for oil films was confirmed by comparison of previously obtained temperatures directly measured from the traction contact area of the four-roller experimental apparatus [1]. The measurement used a thin-film temperature sensor and the consistency between the calculated and measured values was verified in the estimation model by reflecting the precise thermal properties of the thin film. Most values were consistent with the calculated values for the middle plane local shear heating model inside the oil film.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0368
Masashi Inoue, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Muneo Yorinaga, Toshinari Sano, Mitsuaki Tomita
The purpose of this paper is to construct the thermal analysis model by measuring and estimating the temperature at the traction contact area. For measurement of temperature, we have used a thin-film temperature sensor. For estimation of temperature, we have composed the thermal analysis model. The thin-film temperature sensor was formed on the contact surface using a spattering device. The sensor is constituted of three layers (sensor layer, insulation layer and intermediate layer). Dimensions of the sensor were sufficiently smaller than the traction contact area. The sensor featured high specific pressure capacity and high speed responsiveness. The thermal analysis model was mainly composed of three equations: Carslaw & Jaeger equation, Rashid & Seireg equation and heat transfer equation of shear heating in oil film. The heat transfer equation involved two models (local shear heating model at middle plane, homogeneous shear heating model).
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0244
Hisahiro Ito, Hironori Yohata, Junichi Kako, Yukio Kuroda
A novel plant modeling method called High Level Modeling (HLM) to design and develop control-oriented plant model is introduced. The HLM method is specifically designed to expose the design intention at physics level of a target physical system in a straightforward manner so that plant models can be efficiently understood and peer-reviewed from the physical standpoint. The method also enables construction of system equations from the design information based on simple formal rules which guarantees conservation laws. To show the effectiveness of the HLM approach through a concrete use case, it is applied to turbocharger radial compressor modeling, and analysis on the model equations is performed by deriving compressor speed lines and efficiency.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0350
Hayato Nakada, Gareth Milton, Peter Martin, Akiyuki Iemura, Akira Ohata
This paper considers an application of reference governor (RG) to automotive diesel aftertreatment temperature control. Recently, regulations on vehicle emissions have become more stringent, and engine hardware and software are expected to be more complicated. It is getting more difficult to guarantee constraints in control systems as well as good control performance. Among model-based control methods that can directly treat constraints, this paper focuses on the RG, which has recently attracted a lot of attention as one method of model prediction-based control. In the RG, references in tracking control are modified based on future prediction so that the predicted outputs in a closed-loop system satisfy the constraints. This paper proposes an online RG algorithm, taking account of the real-time implementation on engine embedded controllers.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0881
Yusuke Takasu, Satoshi Kaneko, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Yoshikazu Namura, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Matsuei Ueda, Toshihiro Tani
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed. This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0310
Junji chisaki, Kazuya Yoshijima, Takashi Kikuchi, Shoichiro Morinaka, Kenichi Yamada, Masaaki Okamoto, Tsutomu Oda, Keisuke Manabe
Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1047
Yoshinori Otsuki, Tatsuki Kumagai, Hiroshi Nakamura, Katsushi Taguchi, Nobuhisa Mori
Conventional constant volume sampling (CVS) is well known as a precision emissions measurement method, even though the concentrations of THC, NOX, CO and CH₄ emitted from vehicles are getting lower by improvement of emissions control devices. Recently, fuel economy requirements have increased in many regions. Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), is one of the solutions for fuel economy improvement. HEVs and PHEVs have an all-electric range in which the internal combustion engines (ICEs) are completely shut down. This operation results in a high dilution factor (DF) and low concentrations of gaseous components, including CO₂, in the CVS system. Such dilution conditions directly cause an increase of numerical error for DF and an analysis error for gaseous components. Furthermore, a small amount of air flow across exhaust catalysts, drawn by slightly negative tailpipe pressure generated by the CVS during ICE shutdown may influence emission results.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0430
Jared Farnsworth, Koichi Ueda, Hideaki Mizuno, Michio Yoshida
The application of Model-Based Development (MBD) techniques for automotive control system and software development have become standard processes due to the potential for reduced development time and improved specification quality. In order to improve development productivity even further, it is imperative to introduce a systematic Verification and Validation (V&V) process to further minimize development time and human resources while ensuring control specification quality when developing large complex systems. Traditional methods for validating control specifications have been limited by control specification scale, structure and complexity as well as computational limitations restricting their application within a systematic model-based V&V process. In order to address these issues, Toyota developed Hierarchical Accumulative Validation (HAV) for systematically validating functionally structured executable control specifications.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0367
Kunio Hattori, Shinya Toyoda, Daisuke Inoue, Yuya Shimozato
Toyota has developed a new belt-type continuously variable transmission (CVT) for 1.5-liter compact vehicles. To improve both driveability and fuel economy over previous CVTs, pressure management was adopted as the shift control method. The new shift control system was designed using a model-based control method which uses a two-degree-of-freedom system composed of feedback and feedforward controls. Smooth shifting in all the target shift speed regions was realized by combining a feedback loop that considers the output limit of the pulley thrust into the feedforward controller. Furthermore, shift response was improved while maintaining or even improving stability. This paper describes the details of this shift control system.
2012-09-17
Technical Paper
2012-01-1825
Tomohiro Yokoyama, Toru Matsushima, Noriyoshi Matsui, Ryutaro Misumi
Brake squeal is a phenomenon of self-induced vibration of the brake components during braking. There are many kinds of brake squeal cases whose mechanisms require acting on a various number of potential root causes. Brake squeal phenomena can be generally separated into 2 main mode types related to the direction of disc vibration involved: in-plane mode and out-of-plane mode. For out-of-plane mode, a number of existing countermeasures can be potentially applied after characterization of the squeal occurrence condition by direct experiment or simulation analysis[1,2,3,4]. However, as there are many possible mechanisms and root causes for the in-plane modes[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13], it is generally necessary to perform a detailed analysis of the vibration mechanism before implementing a countermeasure.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1649
Satoshi Taniguchi, Masahiko Masubuchi, Koji Kitano, Kazuhisa Mogi
The Diesel Dual Fuel (DDF) vehicle is one of the technologies to convert diesel vehicles for natural gas usage. The purpose of this research was to study the possibility of a DDF vehicle to meet emission standards for diesel vehicles. This research was done for small passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles. The exhaust emissions compliance of such vehicles in a New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode which was composed of Urban Driving Cycles (UDC) and an Extra Urban Driving Cycle (EUDC) was evaluated. (see APPENDIXFigure A1) In this study, the passenger vehicle engine, compliant with the EURO4 standard, was converted to a DDF engine. Engine bench tests under steady state conditions showed similar result to previous papers. Total hydrocarbon (HC) emission was extremely high, compared to diesel engine. The NEDC mode emissions of the DDF vehicle were estimated based on these engine bench test results.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1744
Yuki Bisaiji, Kohei Yoshida, Mikio Inoue, Nobuyuki Takagi, Takao Fukuma
The details of Di-Air, a new NOx reduction system using continuous short pulse injections of hydrocarbons (HC) in front of a NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst, have already been reported. This paper describes further studies into the deNOx mechanism, mainly from the standpoint of the contribution of HC and intermediates. In the process of a preliminary survey regarding HC oxidation behavior at the moment of injection, it was found that HC have unique advantages as a reductant. The addition of HC lead to the reduction or metallization of platinum group metals (PGM) while keeping the overall gas atmosphere in a lean state due to adsorbed HC. This causes local O₂ inhibition and generates reductive intermediate species such as R-NCO. Therefore, the specific benefits of HC were analyzed from the viewpoints of 1) the impact on the PGM state, 2) the characterization of intermediate species, and 3) Di-Air performance compared to other reductants.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1614
Kosuke Fujimoto, Minoru Yamashita, Toyoharu Kaneko, Satoshi Hirano, Yusuke Ito, Shuzo Nemoto, Ko Onodera
We report in this paper our newly developed technology applied to ILSAC GF-5 0W-20 engine oil that offers great fuel economy improvement over GF-4 counterpart, which is a key performance requirement of modern engine oil to reduce CO2 emissions from a vehicle. Our development strategy of the oil consisted of two elements: (1) further friction reduction under mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication conditions considering use of roller rocker arm type valve train system and (2) lowering viscosity at low temperature conditions to improve fuel economy under cold cycles. Use of roller rocker arm type valve train system has been spreading, because of its advantage of reducing mechanical friction. Unlike engine with conventional direct-acting type valve train system, lubrication condition of engine with the roller rocker arm type valve train system has higher contribution of mixed or hydrodynamic lubrication conditions rather than boundary lubrication condition.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1615
Kazuo Takeuchi, Kosuke Fujimoto, Satoshi Hirano, Minoru Yamashita
Abnormal combustion referred to as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) may restrict low speed torque improvements in turbocharged Direct Injection (DI) - Spark Ignition (SI) Engines. Recent investigations have reported that the auto-ignition of an engine oil droplet from the piston crevice in the combustion chamber may cause unexpected and random LSPI. This study shows that engine oil formulations have significant effects on LSPI. We found that the spontaneous ignition temperature of engine oil, as determined using High-Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (HP-DSC) correlates with LSPI frequency in a prototype turbocharged DI-SI engine. Based on these findings, we believe that the oxidation reaction of the oil is very important factor to the LSPI. Our test data, using a prototype engine, shows both preventative and contributory effects of base oil and metal-based engine oil additives.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0960
Tomoyuki Kaga, Masakazu Adachi, Ichiro Hosotani, Masaaki Konishi
Automotive control systems such as powertrain control interact with the open physical environment, and from this nature, expensive prototyping is indispensable to capture a deep understanding of the system requirements and to develop the corresponding control software. Model-based development (MBD) has been promoted to improve productivity by virtual prototyping. Even with MBD, systematic validation of the software specification remains as a major challenge and it still depends heavily on individual engineers' skill and knowledge. Though the introduction of graphical software modeling improved the situation, it requires much time to identify the primal functions, so-called “design interests”, from a large complex model where irrelevant components are mixed with, and to validate it properly.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1161
Jun Tajima, Norihiko Sakamoto, Tsutomu Mochida, Shin Tanaka, Hiroshi Yasuda
This paper proposes a novel method of verifying comprehensive driver model used for the evaluation of driving safety systems, which is achieved by coupling the traffic simulation and the driving simulator (DS). The method consists of three-step procedure. In the first step, an actual driver operates a DS vehicle in the traffic flow controlled by the traffic simulation. Then in the next step, the actual driver is replaced by a driver model and the surrounding vehicle maneuvers are replayed using the recorded data from the first step. Then, the maneuver by the driver model is compared directly with the actual driver's maneuver along the simulation time steps.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0277
Yukou Takahashi, Fumio Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Okuyama, Iwao Imaizumi
The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0946
Kazuhiko Gotoh, Jerome Ceppi, Nicolas Sabatier, Yukisada Tsuchida
In making our products more attractive, it is becoming increasingly important to balance multiple areas of performance, such as fuel economy, emissions and drivability. Customer expectations and government legislations, to protect global environment, strongly increase the work complexity of auto firms in order to release high quality and eco-friendly vehicles. The balancing between several target is becoming a key factor in the car design: respect current (and anticipate future) emission limits optimization of fuel consumption insure high level of drivability maintain acceptable(or increase) performances sustain acceptable cost, reliability, etc. From recent emissions limitations, engine cold start (at the beginning of driving cycle) plays a major role in the total amount of pollutants. Especially, achievements of HC limitations are a big challenge for vehicles with a conventional spark ignition engine.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1253
Kaori Doi, Yoshihiro Nakamura, Ken Hanashi, Katushi Hashizume
In this paper, the authors introduce the spark plug for misfire detection system by ion current. In order to realize high accuracy misfire detection, the signal of ion current must be larger than that of noise. For maintaining ion signal in all designed lifetime, the configuration and initial condition of spark position are derived by an experiment and consideration about degradation in use. Additionally, the cause of noise is determined by an observation and a theoretical study, and we indicate the method to inhibit noise efficiently. Finally, effect of the methods found by these two approaches is confirmed with an engine, and we propose specifications of spark plug satisfying the condition that realize high accuracy detection by ion current.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0370
Yoshihisa Tsukamoto, Hiromasa Nishioka, Daichi Imai, Yuichi Sobue, Nobuyuki Takagi, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi
In this study, instead of investigating NOx storage reaction improvements, the NOx adsorption phenomenon was focused on and analyzed to improve NOx trapping performance at lower temperatures. As a NOx adsorbing material, "Ag" was expected to enhance NOx adsorption and reduce the sulfur regeneration temperature due to the abundance of adsorbed oxygen and moderate basicity. However, when using this material in an actual system, we had to reduce the sulfur regeneration temperature, increase NOx adsorption capacity and improve NOx desorption further. Addition of TiO₂, working as an acidic material, was found to decrease sulfur regeneration temperature. Additionally, it increased the NOx adsorption capacity through improved Ag dispersion which plays an important role in NOx adsorbing. Consequently, a greater NOx trapping performance than NSR catalyst was achieved at lower temperatures.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1230
Yoshiaki Naganuma, Kota Manabe, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Yasuhiro Nonobe
Cold weather operation has been a major issue for fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHV). To counteract the effects of low temperatures on FCHV operation, an approach for rapid warm-up operation based on concentration overvoltage increase and conversion efficiency decrease by limiting oxygen or hydrogen supply was adopted. In order to suppress increases in exhaust hydrogen concentration due to pumping hydrogen during rapid warm-up, dilution control using bypass air and reduction of concentration overvoltage by a minimum voltage guard were implemented. These approaches effectively control waste heat generation and suppress exhaust hydrogen concentrations during cold start and warm-up. These developments were incorporated into the 2008 Toyota FCHV-adv and it was confirmed that the rapid warm-up operation strategy allowed the FCHV-adv to be successfully and repeatedly started at -30°C.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1232
Shigetaka Hamada, Masaaki Kondo, Masahiro Shiozawa, Sogo Goto
For over a decade and a half, Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and is continuing various approaches to enable mass production. This study used new methods to quantitatively observe some of the mass transfer phenomena in the reaction field, such as oxygen transport, water drainage, and electronic conductivity. The obtained results are applicable to the design requirements of ideal reaction fields, and have the potential to assist to reduce the size of the fuel cell.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1157
Yukitoshi Aoyama, Ryo Hasegawa, Tomomi Yamada, Takekazu Itoh, Terutoshi Tomoda, Yuichi Shimasaki
Closed-loop robust control system that can monitor combustion state and control it into optimal state using crank angular velocity analysis was established. The system can be constructed without any change of the current hardware. It can avoid engine stall, deterioration of drivability and white smoke emission by misfire after filling low cetane fuels. This study was attempted to grasp the frequency characteristics of crank angular velocity both normal combustion and misfire with FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and Wavelet Transform. FFT used for frequency analysis is generic method to acquire the frequency characteristics of steady oscillation, however is unsuitable for acquiring the frequency characteristics of transient oscillation. Therefore authors adopted Wavelet Transform and succeeded in grasping the phenomenon in misfiring in time sequential.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0289
Shin Tanaka, Tsutomu Mochida, Masami Aga, Jun Tajima
It is known that the collisions caused by lane departure events account for range of percentages among the countries studied. To help prevent such collisions, the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system has started to be introduced in production vehicles, but there is little research on its benefits and limitations so far. In this paper we performed an in-depth analysis of the collisions and driver-related essential variables for the lane-departure collision scenarios and demonstrated the benefit estimation process. The benefit of the LDW system is estimated by comparing lane departure events when the vehicle has no LDW, and how they change with the addition of LDW. The event without LDW was modeled in 5 phases: (1) before departure, (2) starting of the departure, (3) departed the lane, (4) at the impact with an object, and, (5) after the impact. “An extensive analysis was conducted of traffic crash data compiled by the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA).
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1017
Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Takahashi, Ryoji Oki, Takahiko Hirasawa, Yusuke Kamijyo, Ikuo Ando, Ryuta Teraya, Makoto Nakamura
Reflecting on the world's trend on saving crude oil consumption and to create an economical fuel efficient vehicle for the increasing world population, a new THS-II HV powertrain has been developed for the compact vehicle class. The application of a THS type powertrain for the compact vehicle class was a first for the world and to achieve it, brand new hardware, and software needed to be developed. For the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), state of the art technologies such as the use of the Atkinson cycle with Variable Valve Timing (VVT), cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an electric water pump, a compact exhaust manifold, a Low Friction chain, beltless system and exhaust heat recovery system were applied. For the electric motor, copper wire with a rectangular cross section and divided stator cores combined with a newly developed production process were applied for higher volumetric density.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1312
Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Shinji Nakao, Katsutaka Nakagami, Masahiro Shioji, Akira Kato
The ignition delay and combustion characteristics of hydrogen jets in an argon-oxygen atmosphere were investigated to provide fundamental data for operating an argon-circulated hydrogen internal combustion engine. Experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel to study the effects of ambient temperature, ambient pressure, oxygen concentration and injection pressure on a pre-burning system. The hydrogen-jet penetration and flame were also investigated based on high-speed shadowgraph images. The experimental results indicated that the ignition delay (τ) increases as the ambient temperature (Ti) decreases, similar to the results obtained in an air atmosphere. The heat-release rate results also exhibited similar trends.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0689
Masaaki Kono, Masatoshi Basaki, Masaharu Ito, Takeshi Hashizume, Shinobu Ishiyama, Kazuhisa Inagaki
In diesel engines with a straight intake port and a lipless cavity to restrict in-cylinder flow, an injector with numerous small-diameter orifices with a narrow angle can be used to create a highly homogeneous air-fuel mixture that, during PCCI combustion, dramatically reduces the NOX and soot without the addition of expensive new devices. To further improve this new combustion concept, this research focused on cooling losses, which are generally thought to account for 16 to 35% of the total energy of the fuel, and approaches to reducing fuel consumption were explored. First, to clarify the proportions of convective heat transfer and radiation in the cooling losses, a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) was used to measure the local heat flux and radiation to the combustion chamber wall. The results showed that though larger amounts of injected fuel increased the proportion of heat losses from radiation, the primary factor in cooling losses is convective heat transfer.
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