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Viewing 1 to 30 of 92
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Haifeng Liu, Mingfa Yao, Ming Huo, Chia-fon F. Lee
Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel in diesel engines, which is of particular interest as a renewable fuel because it possesses the similar properties as the diesel fuel. The pure soybean biodiesel was tested in an optical constant volume combustion chamber using natural flame luminosity and forward illumination light extinction (FILE) methods to explore the combustion process and soot distribution at various ambient temperatures (800 K and 1000 K) and oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, 10.5%). Results indicated that, with a lower ambient temperature, the autoignition delay became longer for all three oxygen concentrations and more ambient air was entrained by spray jet and more fuel was burnt by premixed combustion. With less ambient oxygen concentration, the heat release rate showed not only a longer ignition delay but also longer combustion duration. The flame volume increased as the oxygen concentration decreased at all ambient temperatures, and more combustion occurred at near wall region at lower oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Haifeng Liu, Peng Zhang, Zheming Li, Zunqing Zheng, Mingfa Yao, Xuan Feng
The influence of different combustion chamber configuration, intake temperature, and coolant temperature on HCCI combustion processes were investigated in a single-cylinder optical engine. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. Three combustion chamber geometries with different squish lip, salient, orthogonal, reentrant shape, referred as V-type, H-type, and A-type respectively, were used in this study. Intake temperature was set to 65°C and 95°C, while coolant temperature was set to 85°C. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicated that the different combustion chamber geometries result in different turbulence intensity in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. For the A-type combustion chamber, the high temperature autoignition occurred in the center of chamber, while autoignition location for the V-type combustion chamber was more dispersive and was closer to the chamber wall.
Technical Paper
2009-07-12
Haibei Jiang, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
Environmental control and life support systems are usually associated with high demands for performance robustness and cost efficiency. However, considering the complexity of such systems, determining the balance between those two design factors is nontrivial for even the simplest space missions. Redundant design is considered as a design optimization dilemma since it usually means higher system reliability as well as system cost. Two coupled fundamental questions need to be answered. First, to achieve certain level of system reliability, what is the corresponding system cost? Secondly, given a budget to improve system reliability, what is the most efficient design for component or subsystem redundancy? The proposed analysis will continue from previous work performed on series systems by expanding the scope of the analysis and testing parallel systems. Namely, the online and offline redundancy designs for a Lunar Outpost Mission are under consideration. At the current stage, components in parallel are still considered non-repairable.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Valerie L. Stringer, Way Lee Cheng, Chia-Fon F. Lee, Alan C. Hansen
The KIVA-3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, with modifications that improve its capability with biodiesel simulations was used to model the operation of an HSDI engine using blends of soybean biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel and their blends with diesel are frequently used to reduce emissions from diesel engines, although previous studies showed that biodiesel may increase NOx emission. The paradox may be resolved by running the engine in low temperature combustion mode with biodiesel/diesel blends, as low temperature combustion simultaneously reduced NOx and soot. The modified KIVA code predicts the major combustion characteristics: peak combustion pressure, heat release rate and ignition timing accurately when compared with experimental measurements. It also correctly predicts the trend of NOx emissions. It was observed that the cylinder temperature distribution has a strong effect on emission levels. The combustion process, engine performance and emissions are conventional with conventional and low temperature combustion injection schemes.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Way Lee Cheng, Chia-Fon F. Lee, Deyang Hou
The operation of a small bore high speed direct injection (HSDI) engine with a MVCO injector is simulated by the KIVA 3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MVCO injector extends the range of injection timings over conventional injectors and it extra flexibility in designing injection schemes. Combustion from very early injection is observed with MVCO injections but not with conventional injection. This improves the fuel economy of the engine in terms of lower ISFC. Even better efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel, which may be due to extra oxygen in the fuel improving the combustion process. Biodiesel sees a longer ignition delay for the initial injection. It also exhibits a faster burning rate and shorter combustion duration. Biodiesel also lowered both NOx and soot emissions. This is consistent with the general observation for soot emissions. The cylinder is under lower temperature upon main injection with biodiesel due to the longer ignition delay for the initial injection.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Deyang Hou, Houshun Zhang, Yury Kalish, Chia-fon F. Lee, Way Lee Cheng
This paper presents the latest results for a new high efficiency clean diesel combustion system – Adaptive PCCI Combustion (a premixed charge compression ignition mixed-mode combustion) using a micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector. Key characteristics of the new combustion system such as low NOx and soot emissions, high fuel efficiency, increased engine torque are presented through KIVA simulation results. While early premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion reduces engine-out NOx and soot, it's limited to partial loads by known issues such as combustion control, high HC and CO, and high pressure rise rate, etc. Conventional combustion is well controlled diffusion combustion but comes with high NOx and soot. Leveraging the key merits of PCCI and conventional combustion in a practical engine is both meaningful and challenging. A new Adaptive PCCI combustion system, which couples early PCCI with an Accelerated Diffusion Combustion (ADC) in the same power cycle, successfully merges the merits of early PCCI and diffusion combustion for different operating conditions.
Technical Paper
2008-06-29
Haibei Jiang, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
A reconfigurable control system is an intelligent control system that detects faults within the system and adjusts its performance automatically to avoid mission failure, save lives, and reduce system maintenance costs. The concept was first successfully demonstrated by NASA between December 1989 and March 1990 on the F-15 flight control system (SRFCS), where software was integrated into the aircraft's digital flight control system to compensate for component loss by reconfiguring the remaining control loop. This was later adopted in the Boeing X-33. Other applications include modular robotics, reconfigurable computing structure, and reconfigurable helicopters. The motivation of this work is to test such control system designs for future long term space missions, more explicitly, the automation of life support systems. Due to the complexity of the system, a large amount of automation will be required and the corresponding control system will need to perform normally even in the presence of drastic changes in the system dynamics due to abrupt system component failures (sensors or actuators) or rapid change in operating conditions (temperature or energy).
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Thomas L. McKinley, Andrew G. Alleyne
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time. This is especially challenging for thermal-fluid networks because there can be differences of several orders of magnitude between the fastest eigenvalues (usually due to pressure development and flow redistribution within the network) and the slowest eigenvalues (usually due to energy storage in metal components).
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Chad D. Bowers, Predrag S. Hrnjak
This paper presents a mapping of developing adiabatic two-phase R134a flow directly after the expansion valve until the flow is “fully developed” in a 15.3mm inner diameter pipe. Flow characteristics of separation distance, flow type in the homogenous region, void fraction as a function of tube length, and fully developed flow region void fraction and regime were quantified and described.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Valerie L. Stringer, Way Lee Cheng, Chia-fon F. Lee, Alan C. Hansen
Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel. For the injection case that achieves low temperature combustion, with injection at 330° and 370°, both NOx and soot emissions are reduced.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Tiegang Fang, Yuan-chung Lin, Tien Mun Foong, Chia-fon F. Lee
An optically accessible single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) Diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common rail injection system was used to study the spray and combustion processes for European low sulfur diesel, bio-diesel, and their blends at different blending ratio. Influences of injection timing and fuel type on liquid fuel evolution and combustion characteristics were investigated under similar loads. The in-cylinder pressure was measured and the heat release rate was calculated. High-speed Mie-scattering technique was employed to visualize the liquid distribution and evolution. High-speed combustion video was also captured for all the studied cases using the same frame rate. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. The experimental results indicated that for all of the conditions the heat release rate was dominated by a premixed combustion pattern and the heat release rate peak became smaller with injection timing retardation for all test fuels. Bio-diesel fuels greatly affected the combustion process and emissions.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Chia-fon F. Lee, Kuo-Ting Wang, Way Lee Cheng
A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion. It is shown in the simulation results for small droplets, the secondary atomization of bio-fuel and diesel blends can be achieved by micro-explosion under typical diesel engine operation conditions.
Technical Paper
2007-07-09
Haibei Jiang, Kaustubh Bhalerao, Luis F. Rodríguez, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp, Alfred Soboyejo
High costs and extreme risks prevent the life testing of NASA hardware. These unavoidable limitations prevent the determination of sound reliability bounds for NASA hardware; thus the true risk assumed in future missions is unclear. A simulation infrastructure for determining these risks is developed in a configurable format here. Positive preliminary results in preparation for validation testing are reported. A stochastic filter simulates non-deterministic output from the various unit processes. A maintenance and repair module has been implemented with several levels of complexity. Two life testing approaches have been proposed for use in future model validation.
Technical Paper
2007-07-09
Luis F. Rodríguez, Haibei Jiang, Scott Bell, David Kortenkamp
BioSim is a simulation tool which captures many basic life support functions in an integrated simulation. Conventional analyses can not efficiently consider all possible life support system configurations. Heuristic approaches are a possible alternative. In an effort to demonstrate efficacy, a validating experiment was designed to compare the configurational optima discovered by heuristic approaches and an analytical approach. Thus far, it is clear that a genetic algorithm finds reasonable optima, although an improved fitness function is required. Further, despite a tight analytical fit to data, optimization produces disparate results which will require further validation.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Tiegang Fang, Robert E. Coverdill, Chia-fon F. Lee, Robert A. White
Combustion processes employing different injection strategies in a High-Speed Direct Inject (HSDI) diesel engine were investigated using a narrow angle injector (70 degree). Whole-cycle combustion was visualized using a high-speed digital video camera. The liquid spray evolution process was imaged by the Mie-scattering technique. Different injection strategies were employed in this study including early pre-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection, post-TDC injection, multiple injection strategies with an early pre-TDC injection and a late post-TDC injection. Smokeless combustion was obtained under some operating conditions. Compared with the original injection angle (150 degree), some new combustion phenomena were observed for certain injection strategies. For early pre-TDC injection strategies, liquid fuel impingement is observed that results in some newly observed fuel film combustion flame (pool fires) following an HCCI-like weak flame. For late post-TDC injection strategies, strong fuel impingement is seen for injection timing close to TDC with very strong soot luminosity in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Jonathon P. McCrady, Valerie L. Stringer, Alan C. Hansen, Chia-fon F. Lee
Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Joshua W. Powell, Chia-fon F. Lee
Laser diagnostics of fuel sprays are often hampered by multiple scattering effects. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (PLIEF) and Mie scattering images of a spray are presented, and the effects of multiple signal scattering are explored. A hollow-cone spray is cut in half with a spray cutter, and then imaged from either side. In one set, signal passes through the spray to the camera (back-cut images), and in the other set it does not (front-cut images), showing the effect of passing the signal through the spray to the camera. The cut spray is characterized with a phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) and Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) is seen to range from 10-30 μm. Operational guidelines for using the cutter are presented. It was determined that a film forms on the cutter face 3-5 ms after the start of injection (ASOI) depending on the cutter temperature. Stripped droplets from this film increase droplet concentration and SMD in the center of the spray if the cutter is used improperly.
Technical Paper
2006-07-04
Sang-Wook Lee, Xudong Zhang
A prediction model for hand prehensile movements was developed and validated. The model is based on a new approach that blends forward dynamics and a simple parametric control scheme. In the development phase, model parameters were first estimated using a set of hand grasping movement data, and then statistically analyzed. In the validation phase, the model was applied to novel conditions created by varying the subject group and size of the object grasped. The model performance was evaluated by the prediction errors under various novel conditions as compared to the benchmark values with no extrapolation. Analyses of the model parameters led to insights into human movement production and control. The resulting model also offers computational simplicity and efficiency, a much desired attribute for digital applications.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Chul-Hee Lee, Andreas A. Polycarpou
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints. In this research, an instrumented advanced CV joint friction tester was developed to measure the internal friction behavior of CV joints using actual tripod-type joint assemblies.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Jia X. Zhao, Chia-fon F. Lee
The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data. For the combustion cases, chemical reaction is calculated using the Shell ignition model and KIVA's combustion subroutine.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Robert C. Wang, Tiegang Fang, Chia-fon F. Lee
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine. The selected cases utilized both single and multiple injection schemes with output ranging from 3 to 7 bars IMEP.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Glen C. Martin, Charles J. Mueller, Chia-fon F. Lee
In-cylinder concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in a diesel engine were studied using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique that employs two-photon excitation. Two-photon NO LIF images were acquired during the expansion and exhaust portions of the engine cycle providing useful NO fluorescence signal levels from 60° after top dead center through the end of the exhaust stroke. The engine was fueled with the oxygenated compound diethylene glycol diethyl ether to minimize soot within the combustion chamber. Results of the two-photon NO LIF technique from the exhaust portion of the cycle were compared with chemiluminescence NO exhaust-gas measurements over a range of engine loads from 1.4 to 16 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. The overall trend of the two-photon NO LIF signal showed good qualitative agreement with the NO exhaust-gas measurements.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Michael Keir, Bryan Rasmussen, Andrew Alleyne
This paper presents an experimental analysis of the performance of various control strategies applied to automotive air conditioning systems. A comparison of the performance of a thermal expansion valve (TEV) and an electronic expansion valve (EEV) over a vehicle drive cycle is presented. Improved superheat regulation and minor efficiency improvements are shown for the EEV control strategies. The efficiency benefits of continuous versus cycled compressor operation are presented, and a discussion of significant improvements in energy efficiency using compressor control is provided. Dual PID loops are shown to control evaporator outlet pressure while regulating superheat. The introduction of a static decoupler is shown to improve the performance of the dual PID loop controller. These control strategies allow for system capacity control, enabling continuous operation and achieving significant energy efficiency improvements.
Technical Paper
2005-05-10
Steve Memory, Jian-Min Yin, Sam Collier, Mark Gunter, Pega Hrnjak, Steffen Peuker, Stefan Elber, John Manzione, Nicholas Schultz, John Dolney
The US Army uses a light tactical High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) which, due to the amount of armor added, requires air conditioning to keep its occupants comfortable. The current system uses R134a in a dual evaporator, remote-mounted condenser, engine-driven compressor system. This vehicle has been adapted to use an environmentally friendly refrigerant (carbon dioxide) to provide performance, efficiency, comfort and logistical benefits to the Army. The unusual thermal heat management issues and the fact that the vehicle is required to operate under extreme ambient conditions have made the project extremely challenging. This paper is a continuation of work presented at the SAE Alternate Refrigerants Symposium held in Phoenix last June [1]. It presents both wind tunnel and on-road field test data taken on the vehicle as well as breadboard data in the laboratory that demonstrate both superior efficiency and capacity of the CO2 system when compared to the R134a system.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Alan P. Druschitz, Heinrich L. Folz, Dick DeVor, Shiv Kapoor, Ashwin Balasubramanian, Katherine Bronk, John Bussema, Martin Glowik, Nicholaus Malkewicz, Scott Etling, Parag Hegde
High strength materials have desirable mechanical properties but often cannot be machined economically, which results in unacceptably high finished component cost. MADI™ (machinable austempered ductile iron) overcomes this difficultly and provides the highly desirable combination of high strength, excellent low temperature toughness, good machinability and attractive finished component cost. The Machine Tool Systems Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign performed extensive machinability testing and determined the appropriate tools, speeds and feeds for milling and drilling (https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/malkewcz/www/MADI.htm). This paper provides the information necessary for the efficient and economical machining of MADI™ and provides comparative machinability data for common grades of ductile iron (EN-GJS-400-18, 400-15, 450-10, 500-7, 600-3 & 700-2) for comparison.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Tiegang Fang, Robert E. Coverdill, Chia-fon F. Lee, Robert A. White
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion employing single main injection strategies in an optically accessible single cylinder small-bore High-Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine equipped with a Bosch common-rail electronic fuel injection system was investigated in this work. In-cylinder pressure was taken to analyze the heat release process for different operating parameters. The whole cycle combustion process was visualized with a high-speed digital camera by imaging natural flame luminosity. The flame images taken from both the bottom of the optical piston and the side window were taken simultaneously using one camera to show three dimensional combustion events within the combustion chamber. The engine was operated under similar Top Dead Center (TDC) conditions to metal engines. Because the optical piston has a realistic geometry, the results presented are close to real metal engine operations. In this paper, six operating conditions were investigated to address the influences of injection pressure, EGR rate and injection timing on the evolution of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Dongyao Wang, Chia-fon F. Lee
A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly. The new model was verified against accurate numerical solutions obtained with the finite difference method solving the governing equations, and good agreement was achieved for the vaporization process of a film on a flat plate.
Technical Paper
2004-10-26
Wei Liang, Jure Medanic, Roland Ruhl
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
Technical Paper
2004-06-08
Charles J. Mueller, Glen C. Martin, Thomas E. Briggs, Kevin P. Duffy
Fuel-injection schedules that use two injection events per cycle (“dual-injection” approaches) have the potential to simultaneously attenuate engine-out soot and NOx emissions. The extent to which these benefits are due to enhanced mixing, low-temperature combustion modes, altered combustion phasing, or other factors is not fully understood. A traditional single-injection, an early-injection-only, and two dual-injection cases are studied using a suite of imaging diagnostics including spray visualization, natural luminosity imaging, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of nitric oxide (NO). These data, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are used to enhance understanding of the in-cylinder processes that lead to the observed emissions reductions. Results show that combustion of the early-injected fuel occurs in two phases: a cool-flame phase characterized by very weak chemiluminescence, followed by a premixed-burn phase characterized by localized regions of bright soot incandescence.
Technical Paper
2003-06-16
Michael B. Bragg, Tamer Basar, William R. Perkins, Michael S. Selig, Petros G. Voulgaris, James W. Melody, Nadine B. Sarter
Aircraft incidents and accidents in icing are often the result of degradation in performance and control. However, current ice sensors measure the amount of ice and not the effect on performance and control. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot. In this paper research is reported on a system to estimate aircraft performance and control changes due to ice, then use this information to automatically operate ice protection systems, provide aircraft envelope protection and, if icing is severe, adapt the flight controls. Key to such a safety system would be he proper communication to, and coordination with, the flight crew. This paper reviews the basic system concept, as well as the research conducted in three critical areas; aerodynamics and flight mechanics, aircraft control and identification, and human factors. In addition, the flight simulation development is reviewed, as well as the joint program with NASA Glenn using the Twin Otter flight test aircraft.
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