Criteria

Text:
Display:

Results

Viewing 1 to 30 of 102
Article
2013-04-17
Debby Bezzina, Senior Program Manager for Safety Pilot Model Deployment at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, talks about where the program stands today and where it goes after completion in August 2013.
Technical Paper
2011-11-07
Srinivasan Sundararajan, Stephen W. Rouhana, Derek Board, Ed DeSmet, Priya Prasad, Jonathan D. Rupp, Carl S. Miller, Lawrence W. Schneider
This study evaluated the biomechanical performance of a rear-seat inflatable seatbelt system and compared it to that of a 3-point seatbelt system, which has a long history of good real-world performance. Frontal-impact sled tests were conducted with Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and with post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using both restraint systems and a generic rear-seat configuration. Results from these tests demonstrated: a) reduction in forward head excursion with the inflatable seatbelt system when compared to that of a 3-point seatbelt and; b) a reduction in ATD and PMHS peak chest deflections and the number of PMHS rib fractures with the inflatable seatbelt system and c) a reduction in PMHS cervical-spine injuries, due to the interaction of the chin with the inflated shoulder belt. These results suggest that an inflatable seatbelt system will offer additional benefits to some occupants in the rear seats. Further research is needed to assess the field effectiveness, customer comfort and acceptance and change in the belt usage rate with the inflatable seatbelt system.
Article
2011-10-03
Toyota's Collaborative Safety Research Center (CSRC) puts university researchers and other investigators at the forefront of several projects whose findings will lead to the development of next-generation safety technologies.
Technical Paper
2010-11-03
Kathleen D. Klinich, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Kristen Nicholson, Lawrence W. Schneider, Jonathan D. Rupp
The NASS-CDS (1998-2008) and CIREN datasets were analyzed to identify factors contributing to abdominal injury in crash environments where belt use and airbag deployment are common. In frontal impacts, the percentage of occupants sustaining abdominal injury is three times higher for unbelted compared to belted front-row adult occupants (p≺0.0001) at both AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury levels. Airbag deployment does not substantially affect the percentage of occupants who sustain abdominal injuries in frontal impacts (p=0.6171), while belt use reduces the percentage of occupants sustaining abdominal injury in both nearside and farside crashes (p≺0.0001). Right-front passengers in right-side impacts have the highest risk (1.91%) of AIS 3+ abdominal injury (p=0.03). The percentage of occupants with AIS 3+ abdominal injuries does not vary with age for frontal, nearside, or farside impacts. If an occupant sustains AIS 2+ rib fractures, the odds of the occupant sustaining an AIS 2+ abdominal injury increase dramatically.
Technical Paper
2009-06-09
F. Scott Gayzik, Craig A. Hamilton, Josh C. Tan, Craig McNally, Stefan M. Duma, Kathleen D. Klinich, Joel D. Stitzel
This study outlines a protocol for image data collection acquired from human volunteers. The data set will serve as the foundation of a consolidated effort to develop the next generation full-body Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models for injury prediction and prevention. The geometry of these models will be based off the anatomy of four individuals meeting extensive prescreening requirements and representing the 5th and 50th percentile female, and the 50th and 95th percentile male. Target values for anthropometry are determined by literature sources. Because of the relative strengths of various modalities commonly in use today in the clinical and engineering worlds, a multi-modality approach is outlined. This approach involves the use of Computed Tomography (CT), upright and closed-bore Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and external anthropometric measurements. CT data provide sub-millimeter resolution and slice thickness of the subjects in the supine and an approximately seated position.
Technical Paper
2008-11-03
Chia-Yuan Chang, Jonathan D. Rupp, Noboru Kikuchi, Lawrence W. Schneider
A finite element (FE) model with knee-thigh-hip (KTH) and lower-extremity muscles has been developed to study the potential effects of muscle tension on KTH injuries due to knee bolster loadings in frontal crashes. This model was created by remeshing the MADYMO human lower-extremity FE model to account for regional differences in cortical bone thickness, trabecular bone, cortical bone with directionally dependent mechanical properties and Tsai-Wu failure criteria, and articular cartilage. The model includes 35 Hill-type muscles in each lower extremity with masses based on muscle volume. The skeletal response of the model was validated by simulating biomechanical tests without muscle tension, including cadaver skeletal segment impact tests documented in the literature as well as recent tests of seated whole cadavers that were impacted using knee-loading conditions similar to those produced in FMVSS 208 testing. Simulations of knee-to-knee-bolster impacts conducted with and without different levels of lower-extremity muscle activation reported in the literature for braking/bracing suggest that muscle tension has the potential to decrease the externally applied force required to cause KTH fracture, and the potential to increase the likelihood of femoral shaft fracture relative to hip fracture by increasing bending moments in the femoral shaft.
Technical Paper
2008-11-03
Priya Prasad, Lawrence W. Schneider, Warren N. Hardy
The objectives of this study were to examine the response, repeatability, and injury predictive ability of the Hybrid III small-female dummy to static out-of-position (OOP) deployments using a depowered driver-side airbag. Five dummy tests were conducted in two OOP configurations by two different laboratories. The OOP configurations were nose-on-rim (NOR) and chest-on-bag (COB). Four cadaver tests were conducted using unembalmed small-female cadavers and the same airbags used in the dummy tests under similar OOP conditions. One cadaver test was designed to increase airbag loading of the face and neck (a forehead-on-rim, or FOR test). Comparison between the dummy tests of Lab 1 and of Lab 2 indicated the test conditions and results were repeatable. In the cadaver tests no skull fractures or neck injuries occurred. However, all four cadavers had multiple rib fractures. These results suggested that an older, osteoporatic, small-female driver would experience AIS≥3 thoracic injury if exposed to this type of depowered airbag inflation for the three positions tested, but would be unlikely to experience any head or neck injury.
Technical Paper
2008-11-03
Jonathan D. Rupp, Carl S. Miller, Matthew P. Reed, Nathaniel H. Madura, Kathleen D. Klinich, Lawrence W. Schneider
Development and validation of crash test dummies and computational models that are capable of predicting the risk of injury to all parts of the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex in frontal impact requires knowledge of the force transmitted from the knee to the hip under knee impact loading. To provide this information, the knee impact responses of whole and segmented cadavers were measured over a wide range of knee loading conditions. These data were used to develop and help validate a computational model, which was used to estimate force transmitted to the cadaver hip. Approximately 250 tests were conducted using five unembalmed midsize male cadavers. In these tests, the knees were symmetrically impacted with a 255-kg padded impactor using three combinations of knee-impactor padding and velocity that spanned the range of knee loading conditions produced in FMVSS 208 and NCAP tests. Each subject was tested in four conditions. Following test of whole seated cadavers, the subjects were impacted after the connection between the thigh flesh and pelvis was cut, after the thigh flesh was removed, and after the torso was removed.
Technical Paper
2008-06-17
Matthew P. Reed, Stephanie Huang
The ease of getting into and out of passenger cars and light trucks is a critical component of customer acceptance and product differentiation. In commercial vehicles, the health and safety of drivers is affected by the design of the steps and handholds they use to get into and out of the cab. Ingress/egress assessment appears to represent a substantial application opportunity for digital human models. The complexity of the design space and the range of possible biomechanical and subjective measures of interest mean that developing useful empirical models is difficult, requiring large-scale subject testing with physical mockups. Yet, ingress and egress motions are complex and strongly affected by the geometric constraints and driver attributes, posing substantial challenges in creating meaningful simulations using figure models. Previous approaches to simulating ingress and egress have focused on the modification of stored motions from laboratory studies to achieve complex motion simulations.
Technical Paper
2007-06-12
Matthew B. Parkinson, Matthew P. Reed
Standing reach envelopes are important tools for the design of industrial and vehicle environments. Previous work in this area has focussed on manikin-based (where a few manikins are used to simulate individuals reaching within the region of interest) and population-based (where data are gathered on many individuals reaching in a constrained environment) approaches. Each of these methods has merits and shortfalls. The current work bridges the manikin- and population-based approaches to assessing reach by creating population models using kinematic simulation techniques driven by anthropometric data. The approach takes into account body dimensions, balance, and postural cost to create continuous models that can be used to assess designs with respect to both maximal and submaximal reaches. Cost is quantified as the degree to which the torso is involved in the reach, since the inclination of the torso is a good measure of lower-back load and may be related to subjective reach difficulty. A simplified planar analysis is presented to illustrate the modeling approach.
Technical Paper
2006-11-06
Stephen W. Rouhana, Sundeep V. Kankanala, Priya Prasad, Jonathan D. Rupp, Thomas A. Jeffreys, Lawrence W. Schneider
The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests.
Technical Paper
2006-10-16
T. Gordon, D. LeBlanc, J. Sayer, C. Winkler, M. Hagan, S. Bogard, J. Devonshire
This paper reviews the field operational test (FOT) methodology adopted in recent years for the evaluation of driver-assistance systems. The Road Departure Crash Warning System program is used both for illustration and as a case study. This project involved an extensive field operational test of a driver-assistance system using volunteers from the general public who drove instrumented research vehicles in place of their normal cars. Objective and subjective data were collected in these trials, and comparisons were made between driving behavior under conditions where the systems were either enabled or disabled. This paper presents sample results from the analyses and draws conclusions on the strengths and weaknesses of the FOT method.
Technical Paper
2006-10-16
Paul Green
Almost a million people are killed worldwide each year in motor vehicle crashes, over 42,000 of them in the U.S. Human/driver error (or induced error) is the most commonly identified contributing cause according to crash studies, especially studies conducted in the U.S. Accordingly, if crashes are to be reduced, a human-centered approach is needed. As part of its Intelligent Transportation Systems program, the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) is funding several major projects (e.g., VII, IVBSS) concerned with active safety, warnings, and communications. As part of these and other projects, several meta-issues have arisen that deserve further attention. These pertain to: (1) what additional information would drivers want to know, or could drivers use about the driving situation, (2) presentation of the driving situation and warnings to drivers, (3) and (4) determining the processing time and detection performance for the entire warning system including the driver, (5) modeling driver responses to warnings, (6) driver distraction detection and warning presentation, and (7) models of driver performance.
Technical Paper
2006-07-04
Matthew B. Parkinson, Matthew P. Reed
A person's ability to perform a task is often limited by their ability to maintain balance. This is particularly true in lateral work performed in seated environments. For a truck driver operating the shift lever of a manual transmission, excessive shift forces can necessitate pulling on the steering wheel with the other hand to maintain balance, creating a potentially unsafe condition. An analysis of posture and balance in truck shifter operation was conducted using balance limits to define the acceptable range of shifter locations. The results are dependent on initial driver position, reach postures, and shoulder strength. The effects of shifter force direction and magnitude were explored to demonstrate the application of the analysis method. This methodology can readily be applied to other problems involving hand-force exertions in seated environments.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Nichole L. Ritchie, Stewart C. Wang, Mark R. Sochor, Lawrence W. Schneider
A method has been developed to identify and document the locations of rib fractures from two-dimensional CT images obtained from occupants of crashes investigated in the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN). The location of each rib fracture includes the vertical location by rib number (1 through 12), the lateral location by side of the thorax (inboard and outboard), and the circumferential location by five 36-degree segments relative to the sternum and spine. The latter include anterior, anterior-lateral, lateral, posterior-lateral, and posterior regions. 3D reconstructed images of the whole ribcage created from the 2D CT images using Voxar software are used to help identify fractures and their rib number. A geometric method for consistently locating each fracture circumferentially is described. Patterns of rib fractures resulting from different crash types and restraint conditions based on these methods can be compared to patterns of rib fractures resulting from biomechanical testing using unembalmed cadavers under different loading scenarios, and thereby validate the experimental test methods and provide a possible means to extrapolate skeletal injury data from biomechanical testing to more general thoracic injury criteria.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Paul Green
This paper (1) summarizes previous human factors/safety research on parking (8 studies, mostly over 20 years old), (2) provides statistics for 10,400 parking-related crashes in Michigan from 2000-2002, and (3) summarizes interviews with 6 insurance agents concerning parking crashes. These sources indicate: 1 About 1/2 to 3/4 of parking crashes involve backing, often into another moving vehicle while emerging from a parking stall. 2 Eight-and-a-half foot-wide stalls had higher crash rates than wider stalls. 3 Most parallel parking crashes occur on major streets, not minor streets. 4 Lighting and driver impairment were minor factors in parking crashes.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Stephanie Huang, Matthew P. Reed
Children who are too large for harness restraints but too small to obtain good restraint from a vehicle seatbelt alone should be seated in a belt-positioning booster. Boosters have been shown to significantly reduce abdominal injuries caused by seatbelts. This effectiveness may be due in part to the fact that boosters reduce the effective seat cushion length, allowing children to sit more comfortably without slouching. NHTSA recommends that children who do not use harness restraints use boosters until they are at least 145 cm tall. In this paper, data from several sources were combined to assess how well children fit on rear seat cushions. Data from NASS-GES were analyzed to determine the age distribution of rear-seat occupants. Anthropometric data from several sources were analyzed to determine the distribution of buttock-popliteal length, a measure of thigh length that is a key determinant of seat fit, as a function of age and gender. Second- and third-row cushion lengths were measured on a convenience sample of 56 late-model vehicles.
Technical Paper
2005-11-09
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert-Hamilton, Lawrence W. Schneider
The initial positioning of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) can influence the outcomes of crash tests. Current procedures for positioning ATDs in rear seats are not based on systematic studies of passenger postures. This paper compares the postures of three side-impact ATDs to the postures of 24 men and women in three vehicle rear seats and 16 laboratory conditions. When positioned using current procedures, the locations of the ES-2 and SID-HIII ATD heads are generally rearward of those observed with similar-size passengers. The SID-IIs head locations matched the expected locations of heads of passengers of similar size more closely. As the seat back angle was increased, people reclined less than the ATDs. Based on these findings, a new ATD positioning procedure for rear seats was developed. The primary objective of the new procedure is to place the ATD head in the location that is most likely for people of similar size. Linear regression equations specify the fore-aft location of the ATD hips and head with respect to the seat H-point as a function of seat back angle (SAE A40) and seat cushion length.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Matthew P. Reed, Michael J. Flannagan
Turn signals mounted on exterior rearview mirrors are increasingly being used as original equipment on passenger cars and light trucks. The potential for mirror-mounted turn signals (MMTS) to improve the geometric visibility of turn signals is examined in this paper. A survey of U.S. and UN-ECE regulations showed that the turn signals of a vehicle that is minimally compliant with U.S. regulations are not visible to a driver of a nearby vehicle in an adjacent lane. Measurements of mirror location and window geometry were made on 74 passenger cars and light trucks, including 38 vehicles with fender-mounted turn signals (FMTS). These data were combined with data on driver eye locations from two previous studies to assess the relative visibility of MMTS and conventional signals. Simulations were conducted to examine the potential for signals to be obstructed when a driver looks laterally through the passenger-side window. With a vehicle population that is fifty percent light trucks, MMTS are visible 52 percent more often than FMTS in this scenario.
Technical Paper
2004-11-01
Kathleen DeSantis Klinich, Sheila M. Ebert, Chris A. Van Ee, Carol A. C. Flannagan, Monica Prasad, Matthew P. Reed, Lawrence W. Schneider
In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 “normal” adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects’ cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects seated in a simulated automotive neutral posture, as well as with their necks in full-voluntary flexion and full-voluntary extension. Although the cervical spine and lower head geometry were previously measured manually and documented, new technologies have enabled computer digitization of the scanned x-ray images and a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of the variation in cervical spine and lower head geometry with subject age, stature, and gender. After scanning the radiographic images, 108 skeletal landmarks on the cervical vertebrae and 10 head landmarks were digitized. The resulting database of cervical spine and head geometry was used to study cervical spine curvature, vertebral dimensions, and head/neck orientation as functions of age, gender, and stature.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
John L. Campbell, David H. Hoffmeister, Raymond J. Kiefer, Daniel J. Selke, Paul Green, Joel B. Richman
This paper describes an effort to develop a valid and reliable process for comprehension testing of candidate automotive symbols and to conduct comprehension testing on a set of new symbols being considered for in-vehicle active safety systems. The comprehension testing process was developed though a multi-year effort, supported by Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) and other organizations, aimed at generating a test methodology that would: yield high-quality comprehension data for new automotive symbols, provide clear and specific guidance back to symbol developers based on the test results, and could be adopted and performed internationally to support international standards efforts. Seventeen (17) candidate symbols were evaluated for three classes of in-vehicle active safety systems: forward collision warning (4 symbols), side collision warning (6 symbols), and lane departure warning (7 symbols). So far, testing has been completed in Germany, Sweden, Japan, and the United States.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
Matthew P. Reed, Sheila M. Ebert, Michael E. Carlson
This paper describes the design and development of a family of surrogate child restraints that are intended for use in developing and testing occupant sensing and classification systems. Detailed measurements were made of the geometry and mass distribution characteristics of 34 commercial child restraints, including infant restraints, convertibles, combination restraints, and boosters. The restraints were installed in three test seats with appropriately sized crash dummies to obtain data on seat-surface pressure patterns and the position and orientation of the restraint with belt loading. The data were used to construct two surrogates with removable components. The convertible surrogate can be used to represent a rear-facing infant restraint with or without a base, a rear-facing convertible, or a forward-facing convertible. The booster surrogate can represent a high-back belt-positioning booster, a backless booster, or a forward-facing-only restraint with a five-point harness. The surrogates were designed to meet geometric and mass targets obtained by taking the mean values for analogous dimensions in each of the restraint categories.
Technical Paper
2003-10-27
Stephen W. Rouhana, Paul G. Bedewi, Sundeep V. Kankanala, Priya Prasad, Joseph J. Zwolinski, Alex G. Meduvsky, Jonathan D. Rupp, Thomas A. Jeffreys, Lawrence W. Schneider
The biomechanical behavior of 4-point seat belt systems was investigated through MADYMO modeling, dummy tests and post mortem human subject tests. This study was conducted to assess the effect of 4-point seat belts on the risk of thoracic injury in frontal impacts, to evaluate the ability to prevent submarining under the lap belt using 4-point seat belts, and to examine whether 4-point belts may induce injuries not typically observed with 3-point seat belts. The performance of two types of 4-point seat belts was compared with that of a pretensioned, load-limited, 3-point seat belt. A 3-point belt with an extra shoulder belt that “crisscrossed” the chest (X4) appeared to add constraint to the torso and increased chest deflection and injury risk. Harness style shoulder belts (V4) loaded the body in a different biomechanical manner than 3-point and X4 belts. The V4 belt appeared to shift load to the clavicles and pelvis and to reduce traction of the shoulder belt across the chest, resulting in a reduction in chest deflection by a factor of two.
Technical Paper
2003-10-27
Jonathan D. Rupp, Matthew P. Reed, Thomas A. Jeffreys, Lawrence W. Schneider
… The pattern of left- and right-side hip injuries to front-seat occupants involved in offset and angled frontal crashes suggests that hip posture (i.e., the orientation of the femur relative to the pelvis) affects the fracture/dislocation tolerance of the hip joint to forces transmitted along the femur during knee-to-knee-bolster loading in frontal impacts. To investigate this hypothesis, dynamic hip tolerance tests were conducted on the left and right hips of 22 unembalmed cadavers. In these tests, the knee was dynamically loaded in the direction of the long axis of the femur and the pelvis was fixed to minimize inertial effects. Thirty-five successful hip tolerance tests were conducted. Twenty-five of these tests were performed with the hip oriented in a typical posture for a seated driver, or neutral posture, to provide a baseline measure of hip tolerance. The effects of hip posture on hip tolerance were quantified using a paired-comparison experimental design. In six pairs of tests, one side of each cadaver was tested with the hip joint oriented in the neutral posture and the contralateral hip from the same cadaver was tested with the hip joint adducted 10° from the neutral posture.
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Mark R. Sochor, Daniel P. Faust, Stewart C. Wang, Lawrence W. Schneider
Late model passenger cars and light trucks incorporate occupant protection systems with airbags and knee restraints. Knee restraints have been designed principally to meet the unbelted portions of FMVSS 208 that require femur load limits of 10-kN to be met in barrier crashes up to 30 mph, +/- 30 degrees utilizing the 50% male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD). In addition, knee restraints provide additional lower-torso restraint for belt-restrained occupants in higher-severity crashes. An analysis of frontal crashes in the University of Michigan Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (UM CIREN) database was performed to determine the influence of vehicle, crash and occupant parameters on knee, thigh, and hip injuries. The data sample consists of drivers and right front passengers involved in frontal crashes who sustained significant injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] ≥ 3 or two or more AIS ≥ 2) to any body region. At the time of the analysis, the database included 138 occupants who were involved in frontal collisions, and eighty-one of these occupants sustained one or more AIS 2+ injuries to the knee, thigh, and/or hip (KTH).
Technical Paper
2003-03-03
Michelle Lehto Way, Matthew P. Reed
A new method is presented for physically measuring drivers' field of view in rearview mirrors. A portable coordinate measurement apparatus (FARO Arm) is used to measure the mirror locations, contours, and curvature. Measurements of the driver's head and eye locations while looking into each mirror are also made. Raytracing is used to map the two- or three-dimensional field of view in each mirror. The method differentiates between monocular, binocular, and ambinocular fields of view, and can account for head movements. This method has been applied to passenger cars, light trucks, and heavy trucks to document how drivers aim their mirrors during normal use.
Technical Paper
2002-11-11
Jonathan D. Rupp, Matthew P. Reed, Chris A. Van Ee, Shashi Kuppa, Stewart C. Wang, James A. Goulet, Lawrence W. Schneider
Based on an analysis of the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) database from calendar years 1995-2000, over 30,000 fractures and dislocations of the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex occur in frontal motor-vehicle crashes each year in the United States. This analysis also shows that the risk of hip injury is generally higher than the risks of knee and thigh injuries in frontal crashes, that hip injuries are occurring to adult occupants of all ages, and that most hip injuries occur at crash severities that are equal to, or less than, those used in FMVSS 208 and NCAP testing. Because previous biomechanical research produced mostly knee or distal femur injuries, and because knee and femur injuries were frequently documented in early crash investigation data, the femur has traditionally been viewed as the weakest part of the KTH complex. However, the relative risk of hip injuries to the risks of knee and thigh injuries in frontal crashes of late-model vehicles suggests that this may not be the case.
Technical Paper
2002-05-07
Robert Ervin, Christopher Winkler, Steven Karamihas
Various means for measuring a vehicle's roll stability performance are considered in terms of the pertinence of their test conditions to the rollover crash record, the practicality and quality of the measurement, and their ability to span the performance range of the population of light-duty vehicles. Classical static measures as well as the so-called “maneuver-type” tests that have been under extensive study by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation are specifically addressed. In light of limitations facing the existing methods, the concept of a centrifuge test device is introduced and discussed. The apparatus is comprised of a relatively large machine that mounts a full-sized vehicle tangent to the rotation of a radial arm which revolves at a controlled angular rate. The minimum steady speed of rotation that induces a rollover response in the mounted vehicle corresponds to the static rollover threshold, in units of lateral (or centripetal) acceleration. One version of such a centrifuge machine is presented in the paper and several of its key attributes are discussed.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Matthew P. Reed, Michelle M. Lehto, Benoit Anctil, Christina Brown, Ian Noy
As part of the Automotive Seat and Package Evaluation and Comparison Tools (ASPECT) program, UMTRI researchers developed a new H-point manikin that is intended to replace the current SAE J826 manikin. The original manikin is used in many automotive applications, including as a platform for a belt-fit test device (BTD). In the current project, components and procedures were developed to measure belt fit using the ASPECT manikin. Contoured lap and torso forms were constructed using anthropometric data from an earlier UMTRI study. Prototype forms were mounted on the ASPECT manikin for testing in a laboratory fixture and in vehicles. The testing demonstrated that the ASPECT-BTD produces consistent measures of belt fit that vary in expected ways with belt geometry.
Technical Paper
2002-03-04
Sheila M. Ebert, Matthew P. Reed
Improvements in the accessibility and ease of use of seatbelts require an understanding of driver belt donning behavior. Participants in a study of driving posture were videotaped as they put on their belts in their own vehicles, either an SUV or a midsize sedan. The participants were unaware that the purpose of the videotaping was related to the seatbelt. Videos from 95 men and women were analyzed to identify several categories of belt-donning behavior and to analyze the influence of body dimensions. The results have applicability to seatbelt system design, including the use of human figure models to assess seatbelt accessibility.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 102

Filter

  • Range:
    to:
  • Year: