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Viewing 1 to 30 of 391
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0343
Xiao Wu, Zhigang Wei, HongTae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0667
George Lavoie, Robert Middleton, Jason Martz, Satheesh Makkapati, Eric Curtis
This study investigates the use of a characteristic reaction time as a possible method to speed up automotive knock calculations. In an earlier study of HCCI combustion it was found that for ignition at TDC, the ignition delay time at TDC conditions was required to be approximately 10 crank angle degrees (CAD), regardless of engine speed. In this study the analysis has been applied to knock in SI engines over a wide range of engine operating conditions including boosted operation and retarded combustion phasing, typical of high load operation of turbocharged engines. Representative pressure curves were used as input to a detailed kinetics calculation for a gasoline surrogate fuel mechanism with 312 species. The same detailed mechanism was used to compile a data set with traditional constant volume ignition delays evaluated at the peak pressure conditions in the end gas assuming adiabatic compression.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0116
Ankit Goila, Ambarish Desai, Feng Dang, Jian Dong, Rahul Shetty, Rakesh Babu Kailasa, Mahdi Heydari, Yang Wang, Yue Sun, Manikanta Jonnalagadda, Mohammed Alhasan, Hanlong Yang, Katherine R. Lastoskie
ADAS features development involve multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative way of developing ADAS features by using RC car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and one-beam type of Lidar are used together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate the high level concept algorithm architecture, development and potential operation as well as high level testing of various features and functionalities. The developed vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as functional safety testing bench.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0606
Ashley Wiese, Anna Stefanopoulou, Julia Buckland, Amey Y. Karnik
Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0260
Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann, Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
The increasing electrification of military vehicles is also increasing the need for accurate models of electric motors and generators for use in powertrain design. In particular, there is a strong need to accurately model the internal temperatures of these machines. Thus, an accurate yet computationally-efficient thermal model is required. In previous work, a technique capable of dramatically reducing the order of a 3-dimensional finite-element (FE) thermal conduction model was developed. The developed model has acceptable accuracy but is orders of magnitude faster than the FE model. This new model was validated by a locked-rotor test with close agreement, but the results are unsatisfactory when the rotor is spinning, since the resulting heat convection behavior is not precisely modeled. This paper will present a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0224
Zhangxing Chen, Yi Li, Yimin Shao, Tianyu Huang, Hongyi Xu, Yang Li, Wei Chen, Danielle Zeng, Katherine Avery, HongTae Kang, Xuming Su
Due to the increasing demand for vehicle light-weighting, chopped carbon fiber SMC(Sheet molding compound) as a promising material has attracted a lot of attentions. However, there exist few open data and researches on the property of this material as well as lack the method to predict the property. For these reasons, an RVE model for chopped carbon fiber SMC is proposed to predicting the material property.Voroni method are used to create the RVE model and fiber orientation tensor and fiber tow information for the RVE model are extracted from the different layer of material images.DIC test is also conducted to obtain the modulus of the materials.And the results of the RVE are filled into a tensile bar FEA model to compare with the experimental results,Great consistency can be seen between the model and experimental results which mean the proposed model can be used as a way to predict the property of this material.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0331
Qiuren Chen, Haiding Guo, Katherine Avery, Xuming Su, HongTae Kang
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0658
Achint Rohit, Sridev Satpathy, Jeongyong Choi, John Hoard, Gopichandra Surnilla, Mohannad Hakeem
Diminishing petroleum reserves and increasingly stringent emission targets globally, have forced the automotive industry to move towards downsized boosted direct injection engines. Boosted engines operate at high mean effective pressure (MEP) resulting in high in-cylinder pressure and thermal loading which could give rise to abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. These events could lead to damage of engine components; therefore the compression ratio and boost pressure are restricted, which in-turn limits the engine efficiency and power. To mitigate conditions where the engine is prone to knocking, the engine control system uses spark retard or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption. Several researchers have advocated water injection as an approach to replace existing knock mitigating techniques. The first studies on its potential for knock inhibition can be traced back to early 1930's studies by Ricardo.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1127
Pengchuan Wang, Nikolaos Katopodes, Yuji Fujii
Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structural interactions under rotating conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1586
Narayanan Kidambi, Gregory M. Pietron, Mathew Boesch, Yuji Fujii, Kon-Well Wang
A variety of vehicle control systems – from active safety to power management – greatly benefit from accurate, reliable, and robust estimation of vehicle mass and road grade. This paper develops a vehicle mass and road grade estimation scheme, termed parallel mass and grade (PMG) estimation, and presents the results of a study investigating its accuracy and robustness in the presence of various noise factors. An estimate of road grade is calculated by comparing the acceleration measured by an on-board longitudinal accelerometer with that obtained by differentiating the undriven wheel speeds, while mass is independently estimated by means of a longitudinal dynamics model and a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, using the longitudinal accelerometer to isolate grade effects. To account for the influences of acceleration-induced vehicle pitching on PMG estimation accuracy, a correction factor is developed from controlled tests under a wide range of throttle levels.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0223
Haolong Liu, Weidong Wen, Xuming Su, Carlos Engler-Pinto, HongTae Kang
Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0246
Sentao Miao, Xiuli Chao, Michael Tamor, Yan Fu, Margaret Strumolo
Most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States come from the transportation and electricity generation sectors. In this paper, we analyzed the possibility of cross-sector cooperation to cost-efficiently reduce these emissions. Specifically, we built a bi-level optimization model with renewable energy certificate (REC) purchasing to evaluate the effectiveness of the REC purchasing policy. This policy allows the transportation sector to purchase RECs, which are created by renewable generators built by the electricity generation sector, in order to gain extra emission allowance. We conclude from simulations that REC purchasing policy helps to lower the total cost to society while reducing GHG emissions significantly. Simulation results also show that REC purchasing policy can create electricity capacity beyond demand, which can potentially be used to make clean fuel and further cut emissions from existing fossil fuel powered vehicles.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0470
Lunyu Zhang, Shin-Jang Sung, Jwo Pan, Xuming Su, Peter Friedman
Structural stress solutions for flow drill screw (FDS) joints in lap-shear specimens of aluminum 6082-T6 sheets with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) are investigated. Analytical structural stress solutions at the critical locations of FDS joints based on the analytical solutions for a rigid inclusion in a thin plate under various loading conditions are first obtained. Finite element analyses are then conducted to verify the analytical solutions. The fatigue life estimations of the FDS joints in lap-shear specimens with and without clearance hole (without and with gap) based on the structural stress solutions are in agreement with those of the experimental results.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0475
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
The mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the pre-existing cracks near continuous and discontinuous gas metal arc welds in lap-shear specimens are investigated. Two-dimensional, plane strain finite element analyses were carried out in order to obtain the computational stress intensity factor solutions for the idealized and realistic weld geometries as the references. Then the stress intensity factor solutions for continuous and discontinuous welds were obtained by three-dimensional finite element analyses. The computational results indicate that the distributions of the mode I and mode II stress intensity factor solutions for the discontinuous weld are quite different from those for the continuous weld.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1374
Michael J. Flannagan, Shan Bao, Anuj Pradhan, John Sullivan, Yu Zhang
Abstract Mcity at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor provides a realistic off-roadway environment in which to test vehicles and drivers in complex traffic situations. It is intended for testing of various levels of vehicle automation, from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) to fully self-driving vehicles. In a recent human factors study of interfaces for teen drivers, we performed parallel experiments in a driving simulator and Mcity. We implemented driving scenarios of moderate complexity (e.g., passing a vehicle parked on the right side of the road just before a pedestrian crosswalk, with the parked vehicle partially blocking the view of the crosswalk) in both the simulator and at Mcity.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1104
William D. Dunham, Jinwoo Seok, Weitian Chen, Edward Dai, Ilya Kolmanovsky, Anouck Girard
The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent damaging transmission wear. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1626
Tomas Poloni, Jianbo Lu
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgement about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) of individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic features and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it needs to be changed or rotated. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainty such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR).
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1654
Arun Ganesan, Jayanthi Rao, Kang Shin
Modern vehicles house many advanced components; sensors and Electronic Control Units (ECUs) --- now numbering in the 100s. These components provide various advanced safety, comfort and infotainment features, but they also introduce additional attack vectors for malicious entities. Attackers can compromise one or more of these sensors and flood the vehicle's internal network with fake sensor values. Falsified values can confuse the driver, and even cause the vehicle to misbehave. Redundancy can be used to address compromised sensors, but adding redundant sensors will increase the cost per vehicle and is therefore less desirable. To balance the need for security and cost-efficiency, we exploit the natural redundancy found in vehicles. Natural redundancy occurs when the same physical phenomenon causes symptoms in multiple sensors. For instance, pressing the accelerator pedal will cause the engine to pump faster and increase the speed of the vehicle.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0497
Byoung-Keon Daniel Park, Matthew P. Reed
Abstract Reliable, accurate data on vehicle occupant characteristics could be used to personalize the occupant experience, potentially improving both satisfaction and safety. Recent improvements in 3D camera technology and increased use of cameras in vehicles offer the capability to effectively capture data on vehicle occupant characteristics, including size, shape, posture, and position. In previous work, the body dimensions of standing individuals were reliably estimated by fitting a statistical body shape model (SBSM) to data from a consumer-grade depth camera (Microsoft Kinect). In the current study, the methodology was extended to consider seated vehicle occupants. The SBSM used in this work was developed using laser scan data gathered from 147 children with stature ranging from 100 to 160 cm and BMI from 12 to 27 kg/m2 in various sitting postures.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1489
Duanxiang Zhang, Bo Lin, Ahmet Kirli, Chinedum Okwudire
Electric Power Assist Steering (EPAS) is widely adopted in modern vehicles to reduce steering effort. EPAS has been suffering from reliability issues of electrical and/or electronic (E/E) components, the failure of which may cause EPAS shutdown. In the event of EPAS failure, power assist becomes unavailable and the steering system reverts to a fully manual state, leading to excessive steering torque demands from drivers to maneuver the vehicle at lower speeds, usually under 30 mph. This situation has resulted in dozens of reported crashes and several OEM safety recalls in the past few years. Inspired by recent work which utilizes independent driving torque of in-wheel-motor vehicles to reduce steering torque, this paper proposes the use of Differential Braking Assist Steering (DBAS) to alleviate steep increases in steering torque upon EPAS failure. DBAS only requires software upgrades and minimal hardware modification, which is preferable for a backup system.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0670
Taehoon Han, George Lavoie, Margaret Wooldridge, André Boehman
Synthesis gas (syngas) aided combustion is of increasing interest in boosted lean burn SI engines due to its impact on dilution tolerance and knock resistance. Because of this interest in combustion of reformed fuel, a variety of fuel reforming systems have been developed including in-cylinder reformation, catalytic reformer using waste heat, and solid oxide fuel cell. Because of this interest in reformed fuel, more concrete understanding of how to leverage syngas supplementation is essential to optimize engine performance and derive the most benefit from the availability of syngas in the combustion process. While combustion stability with syngas supplementation has been studied, detailed understanding of the impact of syngas quantity on engine knock is still limited. This study investigates the effect of syngas (H2/CO) addition on knocking tendency under high Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) and air diluted conditions.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0723
Jacqueline O'Connor, Meghan Borz, Daniel Ruth, Jun Han, Chandan Paul, Abdurrahman Imren, Daniel Haworth, Jonathan Martin, Andre Boehman, Jian Li, Kevin Heffelfinger, Samuel McLaughlin, Richard Morton, Arne Andersson, Anders Karlsson
This paper describes a novel design and verification methodology used in the development of advanced combustion strategies for achieving 55% break thermal efficiency (BTE) as part of the US Department of Energy SuperTruck program. The tools and methods discussed consider spray formation and injection schedule along with piston bowl design to optimize combustion efficiency, air utilization, heat transfer, emission, and BTE. The methodology uses a suite of tools to optimize engine performance, including 1D engine simulation, high-fidelity CFD, lab-scale fluid mechanic experiments, and engine testing. First, a wide range of engine operating conditions are tested using 1D engine simulations in GT Power to thoroughly define a baseline; secondly,an optimization and down-select step is completed where further improvements in engine geometries and spray configurations are considered.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0614
Hao Chen, Volker Sick
Abstract Plenoptic particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) shows great potential for three-dimensional, three-component (3D3C) flow measurement with a simple single-camera setup. It is therefore especially promising for applications in systems with limited optical access, such as internal combustion engines. The 3D visualization of a plenoptic imaging system is achieved by inserting a micro-lens array directly anterior to the camera sensor. The depth is calculated from reconstruction of the resulting multi-angle view sub-images. With the present study, we demonstrate the application of a plenoptic system for 3D3C PTV measurement of engine-like air flow in a steady-state engine flow bench. This system consists of a plenoptic camera and a dual-cavity pulsed laser. The accuracy of the plenoptic PTV system was assessed using a dot target moved by a known displacement between two PTV frames.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0399
Mohammed Yusuf Ali, Wei-Jen Lai, Nikhil Kotasthane, Jagadish Sorab, Chari Sever, Jwo Pan
Abstract In this paper, the results of finite element analyses for nodular cast irons with different volume fractions of graphite particles based on an axisymmetric unit cell model under uniaxial compression and tension are presented. The experimental compressive stress-strain data for a nodular cast iron with the volume fraction of graphite particles of 4.5% are available for use as the baseline material data. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for the matrix of the cast iron is estimated based on the experimental compressive stress-strain curve of the cast iron with the rule of mixture. The elastic-plastic stress-strain relation for graphite particles is obtained from the literature. The compressive stress-strain curve for the cast iron based on the axisymmetric unit cell model with the use of the von Mises yield function was then obtained computationally and compared well with the compressive stress-strain relation obtained from the experiment.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0535
Chih-Kuang Kuan, Daniel Styles, Mitchell Bieniek, John Hoard
Abstract Thermal effectiveness of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) coolers used in diesel engines can progressively decrease and stabilize over time due to inner fouling layer of the cooler tubes. Thermophoretic force has been identified as the major cause of diesel exhaust soot fouling, and models are proposed in the literature but improvements in simulation are needed especially for the long-term trend of soot deposition. To describe the fouling stabilization behavior, a removal mechanism is required to account for stabilization of the soot layer. Observations from previous experiments on surrogate circular tubes suggest there are three primary factors to determine removal mechanisms: surface temperature, thickness, and shear velocity. Based on this hypothesis, we developed a 1D CFD fouling model for predicting the thermal effectiveness reduction of real EGR coolers. The model includes the two competing mechanisms mentioned that results in fouling balance.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0531
Rani Kiwan, Anna Stefanopoulou, Jason Martz, Gopichandra Surnilla, Imtiaz Ali, Daniel Styles
Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) promises fuel economy benefits at high loads in turbocharged SI engines as it allows better combustion phasing and reduces the need for fuel enrichment. Precise estimation and control of in-cylinder EGR concentration is crucial to avoiding misfire. Unfortunately, EGR flow rate estimation using an orifice model based on the EGR valve ΔP measurement can be challenging given pressure pulsations, flow reversal and the inherently low pressure differentials across the EGR valve. Using a GT-Power model of a 1.6~L GDI turbocharged engine with LP-EGR, this study investigates the effects of the ΔP sensor gauge-line lengths and measurement noise on LP-EGR estimation accuracy. Gauge-lines can be necessary to protect the ΔP sensor from high exhaust temperatures, but unfortunately can produce acoustic resonance and distort the ΔP signal measured by the sensor.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0601
Huayi Li, Kenneth Butts, Kevin Zaseck, Dominic Liao-McPherson, Ilya Kolmanovsky
The development of advanced model-based engine control strategies, such as economic model predictive control (eMPC) for diesel engine fuel economy and emission optimization, requires accurate and low-complexity models for online prediction and controller validation. This paper presents the NOx and smoke emissions modeling of a light duty diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. Such emission models can be integrated with an existing air path model into a complete engine mean value model (MVM), which can predict engine behavior at different operating conditions for controller design and validation before physical engine tests. The NOx and smoke emission models adopt an artificial neural network (ANN) approach with multi-layer perceptron (MLP) architectures. The networks are trained and validated using experimental data collected from engine bench tests.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0613
James R. MacDonald, Claudia M. Fajardo, Mark Greene, David Reuss, Volker Sick
Developing a complete understanding of the structure and behavior of the near-wall region (NWR) in reciprocating, internal combustion (IC) engines and of its interaction with the core flow is needed to support the implementation of advanced combustion and engine operation strategies. The NWR in IC engines is fundamentally different from canonical boundary layers, whose structure, similarity and dynamics have been thoroughly documented in the technical literature. Motivated by this need, this paper presents results from the analysis of two-component velocity data measured with particle image velocimetry near the head of a single-cylinder, optical engine. The interaction between the NWR and the core flow was quantified via two-point velocity correlations, computed at multiple distances from the wall and piston positions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2242
Dimitris Assanis, Nayan Engineer, Paul Neuman, Margaret Wooldridge
Abstract Pre-chambers are a means to enable lean burn combustion strategies which can increase the thermal efficiency of gasoline spark ignition internal combustion engines. A new engine concept is evaluated in this work using computational simulations of non-reacting flow. The objective of the computational study was to evaluate the feasibility of several engine design configurations combined with fuel injection strategies to create local fuel/air mixtures in the pre-chambers above the ignition and flammability limits, while maintaining lean conditions in the main combustion chamber. The current work used computational fluid dynamics to develop a novel combustion chamber geometry where the flow was evaluated through a series of six design iterations to create ignitable mixtures (based on fuel-to-air equivalence ratio, ϕ) using fuel injection profiles and flow control via the piston, cylinder head, and pre-chamber geometry.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2250
Elana Chapman, Mark Winston-Galant, Pat Geng, Reuben Latigo, Andre Boehman
Abstract The Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a very helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and vehicle OEMs as a metric to understand a fuels impact on automotive engine sooting, in preparation for new global emissions regulations. The calculation of the index involves generating detailed hydrocarbon analysis (hydrocarbon molecular speciation) using gas chromatography laboratory equipment and the PMI calculation requires the exact list of compounds and correct naming conventions to work properly. The analytical methodology can be cumbersome, when the gas chromatography methodology has to be adjusted for new compounds that are not in the method, or if the compounds are not matching the list for quantification. Also, the method itself is relatively expensive, and not easily transferrable between labs.
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