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Viewing 1 to 30 of 306
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1276
Benjamin Lawler, Joshua Lacey, Nicolas Dronniou, Jeremie Dernotte, John E. Dec, Orgun Guralp, Paul Najt, Zoran Filipi
Abstract Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0984
Aledoni Keci, Nia R. Harrison, S. George Luckey
Abstract The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0784
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
The failure modes of gas metal arc welds in notched lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are investigated. Notched lap-shear specimens of gas metal arc welds were first made. Quasi-static test results of the notched lap-shear specimens showed two failure locations for the welds. The specimens cut from coupons with shorter weld lengths failed near the weld root whereas the specimens cut from coupons with longer weld lengths failed near the weld toe. Micro-hardness tests were conducted in order to provide an assessment of the mechanical properties of the base metal, the heat affected zone, and the weld metal. In order to understand the failure modes of these welds, finite element models were developed with the geometric characteristics of the weld metals and heat affected zones designed to match those of the micrographs of the cross sections for the long and short welds.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0808
Pankaj K. Mallick, Rajesh Boorle
Abstract Sandwich panels with high modulus/high strength skin material and low density/low modulus core material have higher stiffness-to-weight ratio than monolithic panels. In this paper, sandwich panels with corrugated core are explored as a lightweighting concept for improved stiffness. The skin and the core materials are a high strength steel, aluminum alloy or carbon fiber-epoxy composite. The core has a triangular corrugation, a trapezoidal corrugation and a rectangular corrugation. The stiffness of the sandwich panels is analytically determined and compared with monolithic panels of equal mass. It is shown that the stiffness of the sandwich panels is 5 to 7 times higher than that of the monolithic panels.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0674
Byungchan Lee, Dohoy Jung, John Myers, Jae-Hoon Kang, Young-Ho Jung, Kwang-Yeon Kim
Abstract A numerical study is conducted to investigate the effect of changing engine oil and automatic transmission fluid (ATF) temperatures on the fuel economy during warm-up period. The study also evaluates several fuel economy improving devices that reduce the warm-up period by utilizing recycled exhaust heat or an electric heater. A computer simulation model has been developed using a multi-domain 1-D commercial software and calibrated using test data from a passenger vehicle equipped with a 2.4 / 4-cylinder engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission. The model consists of sub-models for driver, vehicle, engine, automatic transmission, cooling system, engine oil circuit, ATF circuit, and electrical system. The model has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to the changing engine oil and ATF temperatures during the cold start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle that is used for the fuel economy evaluation.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0488
Peter Kempf
Abstract Discuss the basics of posturing and positioning of the full range of occupants necessary to cover the required anthropometric demographics in combat vehicles, both ground and air, since there are similarities to both and that they are both very different than the traditional automotive packaging scenarios. It is based on the Eye Reference Point and the Design Eye Point. Discuss the three Reach Zones: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. Discuss Vision Zones and potentially ground intercepts. Discuss body clearances, both static and dynamic. Discuss the basic effects of packaging occupants with body armor with respect to SRP's and MSRP's.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0445
Flaura Winston, Catherine McDonald, Venk Kandadai, Zachary Winston, Thomas Seacrist
Abstract Driving simulators offer a safe alternative to on-road driving for the evaluation of performance. In addition, simulated drives allow for controlled manipulations of traffic situations producing a more consistent and objective assessment experience and outcome measure of crash risk. Yet, few simulator protocols have been validated for their ability to assess driving performance under conditions that result in actual collisions. This paper presents results from a new Simulated Driving Assessment (SDA), a 35- to-40-minute simulated assessment delivered on a Real-Time® simulator. The SDA was developed to represent typical scenarios in which teens crash, based on analyses from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). A new metric, failure to brake, was calculated for the 7 potential rear-end scenarios included in the SDA and examined according two constructs: experience and skill.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0463
Clive D'Souza
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1586
John Hoard, Nandagopalan Venkataramanan, Barbara Marshik, William Murphy
Abstract Ammonia, often present in exhaust gas samples, is a polar molecule gas that interacts with walls of the gas sampling and analysis equipment resulting in delayed instrument response. A set of experiments quantified various materials and process parameters of a heated sample line system for ammonia (NH3) response using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Response attenuation rates are due to mixing and diffusion during transport as well as NH3 wall storage. Mixing/diffusion effects cause attenuation with a time constant 1-10 seconds. Wall storage attenuation has a time constant 10-200 seconds. The effects of sample line diameter and length, line temperature, line material, hydrated versus dry gas, and flow rate were examined. All of these factors are statistically significant to variation of at least one of the time constants. The NH3 storage on the sample system walls was calculated as a function of the experimental test as well.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1801
Andrej Ivanco, Kan Zhou, Heath Hofmann, Zoran Filipi
Abstract The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0111
Narayanan Kidambi, R. L. Harne, Yuji Fujii, Gregory M. Pietron, K. W. Wang
Dynamic vehicle loads play critical roles for automotive controls including battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty predictions, and various active safety systems. Accurate real-time estimation of vehicle loads such as those due to vehicle mass and road grade can thus improve safety, efficiency, and performance. While several estimation methods have been proposed in literature, none have seen widespread adoption in current vehicle technologies despite their potential to significantly improve automotive controls. To understand and bridge the gap between research development and wider adoption of real-time load estimation, this paper assesses the accuracy and performance of four estimation methods that predict vehicle mass and/or road grade.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0444
Yinghao Huang, Wenduo Wang, Chen Fang, Yi Murphey, Dev S. Kochhar
A transportable instrumentation package to collect driver, vehicle and environmental data is described. This system is an improvement on an earlier system and is called TIP-II [13]. Two new modules were designed and added to the original system: a new and improved physiological signal module (PH-M) replaced the original physiological signals module in TIP, and a new hand pressure on steering wheel module (HP-M) was added. This paper reports on exploratory tests with TIP-II. Driving data were collected from ten driver participants. Correlations between On-Board-Diagnostics (OBD), video data, physiological data and specific driver behavior such as lane departure and car following were investigated. Initial analysis suggested that hand pressure, skin conductance level, and respiration rate were key indicators of lane departure lateral displacement and velocity, immediately preceding lane departure; heart rate and inter-beat interval were affected during lane changes.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0735
Zhimin Xi, Pan Hao, Yan Fu, Ren-Jye Yang
Available methodologies for model bias identification are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models and so on. Accuracy and efficiency of these methodologies may degrade for characterizing the model bias when more system inputs are considered in the prediction model due to the curse of dimensionality for regression-based approaches. This paper proposes a copula-based approach for model bias identification without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea is to build general statistical relationships between the model bias and the model prediction including all system inputs using copulas so that possible model bias distributions can be effectively identified at any new design configurations of the system. Two engineering case studies whose dimensionalities range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the copula-based approach.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1985
Michael Flannagan, Mitsuhiro Uchida, John Michael Sullivan, Mary Lynn Buonarosa
This study was designed to investigate how the spectral power distribution (SPD) of LED headlamps (including correlated color temperature, CCT) affects both objective driving performance and subjective responses of drivers. The results of this study are not intended to be the only considerations used in choosing SPD, but rather to be used along with results on how SPD affects other considerations, including visibility and glare. Twenty-five subjects each drove 5 different headlamps on each of 5 experimental vehicles. Subjects included both males and females, in older (64 to 85) and younger (20 to 32) groups. The 5 headlamps included current tungsten-halogen (TH) and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps, along with three experimental LED lamps, with CCTs of approximately 4500, 5500, and 6500 K. Driving was done at night on public roads, over a 21.5-km route that was selected to include a variety of road types.
2013-12-26
Article
Algorithms rein in redundant motor-in-wheel drives to keep lightweight EVs safe and stable.
2013-12-19
Article
The goal of the program, which began in 2007, is to advance development of new sensor and control technologies with the aim of applying them to the active safety systems of future vehicles.
2013-09-24
Technical Paper
2013-01-2357
Zhigang Wei, Jason Hamilton, Fulun Yang, Limin Luo, Shengbin Lin, HongTae Kang, Pingsha Dong
Great efforts have been made to develop the ability to accurately and quickly predict the durability and reliability of vehicles in the early development stage, especially for welded joints, which are usually the weakest locations in a vehicle system. A reliable and validated life assessment method is needed to accurately predict how and where a welded part fails, while iterative testing is expensive and time consuming. Recently, structural stress methods based on nodal force/moment are becoming widely accepted in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. There are several variants of structural stress approaches available and two of the most popular methods being used in automotive industry are the Volvo method and the Verity method. Both methods are available in commercial software and some concepts and procedures related the nodal force/moment have already been included in several engineering codes.
2013-06-17
Article
The most exciting opportunities are those emerging around V2X technologies, such as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. For now, that does not include V2G, the vehicle-to-grid approach promoted by many plug-in advocates.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-1998
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Geng Zhang, Walter Brophy, Madhan Ramaswami
The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been developed for computing the structural vibration and the interior noise level of complex structural-acoustic systems by solving numerically governing differential equations with energy densities as primary variables. In this paper a complete simulation process for evaluating airborne noise in an automotive vehicle is presented and validated through extensive comparison to test data. The theoretical elements associated with the important paths of the noise transfer from the exterior of the vehicle to the interior acoustic space are discussed. The steps required for developing an EFEA model for a vehicle are presented. The model is developed based on the physical construction of the vehicle system and no test measurements are utilized for adjusting the numerical model.
2013-05-13
Technical Paper
2013-01-2006
Sung-Kwon Hong, Bogdan Epureanu, Matthew Castanier
The goal of this work is to develop an efficient numerical modeling method for the vibration of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery packs to support probabilistic forced response simulations and fatigue life predictions. There are two important sources of variations in HEV battery packs that affect their structural dynamic response. One source is the uncertain level of pre-stress due to bolts or welds used for joining cells within a pack. The other source is small structural variations among the cells of a battery pack. The structural dynamics of HEV battery packs are known to feature very high modal density in many frequency bands. That is because packs are composed of nominally identical cells. The high modal density combined with small, random structural variations among the cells can lead to drastic variations in the dynamic response compared with those of the ideal nominal system.
2013-05-13
Journal Article
2013-01-1995
Nickolas Vlahopoulos, Sungmin Lee, Paul Braunwart, Jeff Mendoza, Donald Butts
The Hybrid FEA method is based on combining conventional Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) for mid-frequency computations. The difficulty in using conventional FEA at higher frequencies originates from requiring a very large number of elements in order to capture the flexible wavelength of the panel members which are present in a structure. In the Hybrid FEA the conventional FEA model is modified by de-activating the bending behavior of the flexible panels in the FEA computations and introducing instead a large number of dynamic impedance elements for representing the omitted bending behavior. The excitation is considered to be applied on the conventional FEA model and the vibration analysis is conducted. The power flow through the dynamic impedance elements is computed and applied as excitation to the EFEA model of the flexible panels. The EFEA analysis computes the vibration of the flexible panels.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0259
Mohammad Fatouraie, Margaret Wooldridge, Steven Wooldridge
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0230
Matthew Younkins, Brad Boyer, Margaret Wooldridge
Internal combustion (IC) engines fueled by hydrogen are among the most efficient means of converting chemical energy to mechanical work. The exhaust has near-zero carbon-based emissions, and the engines can be operated in a manner in which pollutants are minimal. In addition, in automotive applications, hydrogen engines have the potential for efficiencies higher than fuel cells.[1] In addition, hydrogen engines are likely to have a small increase in engine costs compared to conventionally fueled engines. However, there are challenges to using hydrogen in IC engines. In particular, efficient combustion of hydrogen in engines produces nitrogen oxides (NOx) that generally cannot be treated with conventional three-way catalysts. This work presents the results of experiments which consider changes in direct injection hydrogen engine design to improve engine performance, consisting primarily of engine efficiency and NOx emissions.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0227
Matthew Younkins, Margaret Wooldridge, Brad Boyer
Injecting liquid water into a fuel/air charge is a means to reduce NOx emissions. Such strategies are particularly important to hydrogen internal combustion engines, as engine performance (e.g., maximum load) can be limited by regulatory limits on NOx. Experiments were conducted in this study to quantify the effects of direct injection of water into the combustion chamber of a port-fueled, hydrogen IC engine. The effects of DI water injection on NOx emissions, load, and engine efficiency were determined for a broad range of water injection timing. The amount of water injected was varied, and the results were compared with baseline data where no water injection was used. Water injection was a very effective means to reduce NOx emissions. Direct injection of water into the cylinder reduced NOx emissions by 95% with an 8% fuel consumption penalty, and NOx emissions were reduced by 85% without any fuel consumption penalty.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1733
Kevin Zaseck, Aristotelis Babajimopoulos, Matthew Brusstar, Zoran Filipi, Dennis N. Assanis
This paper introduces a Hydraulic Linear Engine (HLE) concept and describes a model to simulate instantaneous engine behavior. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed an HLE prototype as an evolution of their previous six-cylinder, four-stroke, free-piston engine (FPE) hardware. The HLE design extracts work hydraulically, in a fashion identical to the initial FPE, and is intended for use in a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Unlike the FPE, however, the HLE utilizes a crank for improved timing control and increased robustness. Preliminary experimental results show significant speed fluctuations and cylinder imbalance that require careful controls design. This paper also introduces a model of the HLE that exhibits similar behavior, making it an indispensible tool for controls design. Further, the model's behavior is evaluated over a range of operating conditions currently unobtainable by the experimental setup.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1244
Chantal Parenteau, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out. Overall, visceral fat increased with age.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1062
Michael Andrew Smith, Christopher Depcik, John Hoard, Stani Bohac, Dennis N. Assanis
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts used in Lean NOx Trap (LNT) - SCR exhaust aftertreatment systems typically encounter alternating oxidizing and reducing environments. Reducing conditions occur when diesel fuel is injected upstream of a reformer catalyst, generating high concentrations of hydrogen (H₂), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons to deNOx the LNT. In this study, the functionality of an iron (Fe) zeolite SCR catalyst is explored with a bench top reactor during steady-state and cyclic transient SCR operation. Experiments to characterize the effect of an LNT deNOx event on SCR operation show that adding H₂ or CO only slightly changes SCR behavior with the primary contribution being an enhancement of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) decomposition into nitric oxide (NO). Exposure of the catalyst to C₃H₆ (a surrogate for an actual exhaust HC mixture) leads to a significant decrease in NOx reduction capabilities of the catalyst.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0644
Kyoo Sil Choi, Dongsheng Li, Xin Sun, Mei Li, John Allison
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0651
Sibo Hu, Zheng-Dong Ma, Chang Qi, Yi Ding
The front rail, as one main energy absorption component of vehicle front structures, should present steady progressive collapse along its axis and avoid bending collapse during the front oblique impact, but when the angle of loading direction is larger than some critical angle, it will appear bending collapse causing reduced capability of crash energy absorption. This paper is concerned with crashworthiness design of the front rail on a vehicle chassis frame structure considering uncertain crash directions. The objective is to improve the crash direction adaptability of the front rail, without deteriorating the vehicle's crashworthiness performance. Magic Cube (MQ) approach, a systematic design approach, is conducted to analyze the design problem. By applying Space Decomposition of MQ, an equivalent model of the vehicle chassis frame is generated, which simplifies the design problem.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0847
Claire Maxey, Vickey Kalaskar, Dongil Kang, Andre Boehman
In this study, the performance and emissions of a 4 cylinder 2.5L light-duty diesel engine with methane fumigation in the intake air manifold is studied to simulate a dual fuel conversion kit. Because the engine control unit is optimized to work with only the diesel injection into the cylinder, the addition of methane to the intake disrupts this optimization. The energy from the diesel fuel is replaced with that from the methane by holding the engine load and speed constant as methane is added to the intake air. The pilot injection is fixed and the main injection is varied in increments over 12 crank angle degrees at these conditions to determine the timing that reduces each of the emissions while maintaining combustion performance as measured by the brake thermal efficiency. It is shown that with higher substitution the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions can increase by up to twenty times. The NOx emissions decrease for all engine conditions, up to 53%.
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