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Technical Paper
2014-05-09
Byeong wook Jeon, Sang-Hwan Kim
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway). After each event, participants were asked to complete the rating of the four descriptive terms as well as a comprehensive rating on the gear-shifting event.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Yi L. Murphey, Dev Kochhar, Fang Chen, Yinghao Huang, Yong Wang
We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours. TIP is designed to take some 30 minutes to install in a vehicle, and is portable from vehicle to vehicle.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Varun Negandhi, Dohoy Jung, John Shutty
A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy. Benefits of using the dual mode coolant pump in reducing auxiliary power, reducing friction losses and increasing fuel economy of the vehicle was investigated in this study.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Pranab Sen Choudhury, Pankaj Mallick
With increasing use of biofuels in the automotive industry, it has become necessary to evaluate their effects on the properties of polymers used in the fuel delivery systems. In this study, we have considered the effect of biodiesel on the tensile properties of nylon-6, 30% E-glass fiber reinforced nylon-6 and impact-modified nylon-6. The tensile specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel for up to 7 days before determining their tensile properties. Another set of specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel under stressed condition and then their tensile properties were determined. The absorption of biodiesel and their effects on tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Shardul Bhambure, Pankaj K. Mallick
This study considers the thermal stresses in single lap adhesive joints between magnesium and steel. The source of thermal stresses is the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of magnesium and steel. Two different temperature differentials from the ambient conditions (23°C) were considered, namely -30°C and +50°C. Thermal stresses were determined using finite element analysis. In addition to Mg-steel substrate combination, Mg-Mg and steel-steel combinations were also studied. Combined effect of temperature variation and applied load was also explored. It was observed that temperature increase or decrease can cause significant thermal stresses in the adhesive layer and thermal stress distribution in the adhesive layer depends on the substrate combination and the applied load.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Anjan Vincent, Vivek D. Bhise, Pankaj Mallick
Seat comfort is a highly subjective attribute and depends on a wide range of factors, but the successful prediction of seat comfort from a group of relevant variables can hold the promise of eliminating the need for time-consuming subjective evaluations during the early stages of seat cushion selection and development. This research presents the subjective seat comfort data of a group of 30 participants using a controlled range of seat foam samples, and attempts to correlate this attribute with a) the anthropometric and demographic characteristics of the participants, b) the objective pressure distribution at the body-seat interface and c) properties of the various foam samples that were used for the test. It was found that: a) the “Indentation Load Deflection” characteristic (or ILD) of the foam was a very significant factor (within the scope of this experiment) contributing to subjective comfort, b) the age of the participants had an effect on comfort ratings as well as the seating pressure variables and it also interacted with seat ILD in influencing the seat comfort ratings, c) the anthropometric measures were not found to be significant factors during this experiment; however, subject weight, standing height and buttock-to-popliteal length contributed in predicting average and maximum pressures on the seat cushion as well as the seat back, d) the repetition of measurements did not have a significant effect on inducing variability in the data, e) the seat back pressure data showed a significant influence over both the seat back comfort and the overall seat comfort, f) several correlations supported the relationship between an evenly distributed pressure distribution (without significant and elevated peaks) and improved subjective comfort rating.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Mark Amaya, John Bonnen, Hua-Chu Shih, Shahuraj Mane, Todd Link
In the North American automotive industry, various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are used to lighten vehicle structures, improve safety performance and fuel economy, and reduce harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) in the current generation body-in-white structures. Additionally, fatigue failures are most likely to occur at joints subjected to a variety of different loadings. It is therefore critical that automotive engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints. The Sheet Steel Fatigue Committee of the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/S-P) completed a comprehensive fatigue study on GMAW joints of both AHSS and conventional sheet steels including: DP590 GA, SAE 1008, HSLA HR 420, DP 600 HR, Boron, DQSK, TRIP 780 GI, and DP780 GI steels. Dissimilar metal welds were made between DP590 GA and SAE 1008, DP 600 and SAE 1008, TRIP 780 and SAE 1008, DP 780 and SAE 1008, and Boron and HSLA.
Technical Paper
2010-10-19
Roger Shulze, P.K. Mallick
The automotive industry is expected to accelerate the transition to revolutionary products, rapid changes in technology and increasing technological sophistication. This will require engineers to advance their knowledge, connect and integrate different areas of knowledge and be skilled in synthesis. In addition, they must learn to work in cross-disciplinary teams and adopt a systems approach. The College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-Dearborn) responded by creating interdisciplinary MS and Ph.D. programs in automotive systems engineering (ASE) and augmenting them with hands-on research. Students at the undergraduate level can also engage in numerous ASE activities. UM-Dearborn's ASE programs offer interesting and possibly unique advantages. The first is that it offers a spectrum of ASE degree and credit programs, from the MS to the Ph.D. to continuing education. Second, UM-Dearborn's ASE classroom activities are augmented by both basic and practice-oriented research.
Technical Paper
2010-10-19
Steven E. Underwood, Bruce Maxim, John J. Cristiano
This paper describes the design and application of a business simulation to help train employees about the new business model and culture that for an automotive supplier company that designs connected vehicle and other advanced electronic products for the automotive industry. The simulation, called SIM-i-TRI, is a three to four day collaborative learning activity that simulates the executive, administrative, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing functions in three divisions of a manufacturer that supplies parts and systems to customers in industries similar to the automotive industry. It was originally designed to support the new employee orientation at the Tier 1 supplier and to provide the participants a safe environment to practice the lessons from the orientation. The simulation has been used several times a month in the US, England, and Germany for over four years. It is now being used by Ann Arbor SPARK, a non-profit organization, is the driving force in establishing the Ann Arbor region as a destination for business expansion, retention, and location by identifying and meeting the needs of business at every stage, from startups to large organizations.
Article
2010-10-14
Engineering students or professionals looking to further their education beyond the bachelor’s level have many decisions to make.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Keshav S. Varde, Nanda Kumar Manoharan
Gasoline-ethanol blends are being used or have been considered as a fuel for spark ignition engines. The motivation for using the blends varies in indifferent parts of the world and even in regions within a country. The increasing cost of gasoline, combined with regional tax incentives, is one of the reasons for increased interests in gasoline-ethanol blends in recent years in the U.S. Many vehicular engines are not designed to use a specific gasoline-ethanol blend. Rather, the engines have multi-blend capability, ranging from E0 to about E85. It is plausible that engine-out emissions will vary depending on the blend being used which may be further impacted by the level of EGR used with the blends. The present work was carried out to investigate engine out emissions when a vehicular spark-ignition engine was operated on E0 and E85 and different levels of EGR. A 4-cylinder, 2.5 liter, PFI engine was used in the experimental investigation. The engine was operated at 1500 and 2100 rpm and brake mean effective pressure of 1.5 bar or 3.5 bar.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Kimberly Lazarz, Robert C. McCune, Wenchao Wang, P. K. Mallick
This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Vivek D. Bhise, Pankaj K. Mallick, Vishnuvardhan H. Sarma
This paper presents results of a three-phase research project aimed at understanding how future automotive interior materials should be selected or designed to satisfy the needs of the customers. The first project phase involved development of 22 five-point semantic differential scales to measure visual, visual-tactile, and evaluative characteristics of the materials. Some examples of the adjective pairs used to create the semantic differential scales to measure the perceptual characteristics of the material are: a) Visual: Light vs. Dark, Flat vs. Shiny, etc., b) Visual-Tactile: Smooth vs. Rough, Slippery vs. Sticky, Compressive vs. Non-Compressive, Textured vs. Non-Textured, etc., c) Evaluative (overall perception): Dislike vs. Like, Fake vs. Genuine, Cheap vs. Expensive, etc. In the second phase, 12 younger and 12 older drivers were asked to evaluate a number of different automotive interior materials by using the 22 semantic differential scales. The subjects were also asked to provide: a) preference ratings on each of the material characteristic scales to indicate their “ideal preferred levels” (i.e. what level of each material characteristic they would ideally prefer for armrests and seats), and b) importance ratings to each of the material characteristics scales.
Technical Paper
2008-06-23
Yu. S. Usinin, M. A. Grigorjev, K. M. Vinogradov, A. N. Gorozhankin, S. P. Gladyshev
The urban trams with a low floor are more convenient for the passengers, and with a high floor - more cheaply and more technologically during manufacturing and operation. The combined advantages those and others in themselves are trams with average height of a floor, but for this purpose it is necessary to lower height of tram carriages, that is reached by application of electric motors with a small stator external diameter. It is offered in this the perspective electric drive on the base of the synchronous motor with independent excitation. The salient rotor poles of the motor do not contain windings. The motors stator is carried out on the base of the stator body of regular AC electric motor. The multiphase winding is located in the stator. A winding section, which conductors settle down above the between rotor poles, carry out a role of the excitation winding, and others, which conductors lay above poles, - a role of the armature winding. Together they create the electro-magnetic torque.
Technical Paper
2008-06-23
Keshav S. Varde, Pavan Potluri
Fuel cell based powertrains are considered as potential candidates for future vehicles. Modeling of vehicle powertrains, using a combination of components and energy storage media, are widely used to predict vehicle performances under different duty cycles. This paper deals with performance analysis of a light-duty vehicle comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack, in combination with different energy storage systems using Powertrain Simulation Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The performance of the stack was characterized by experimental data on a smaller PEM stack and was used in the simulation. The stack data was collected at controlled loading and thermal parameters. Three energy storage systems are considered in the analysis: nickel metal hydride battery storage, lithium-ion battery storage and ultra capacitor energy storage. The simulation results were analyzed for comparative evaluations and to optimize the performance of the fuel cell powertrain configurations. The study shows that a combined energy storage system, involving batteries and ultra-capacitors, provide vehicle performance equivalent to the combustion engine powered vehicle.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Shang-Yeu Chang, Lin Yang, Jinhua Guo
Security is a huge concern in VANETs (Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks) since the information being conveyed may affect life-or-death decisions. One of the security concerns is the Sybil Attack. This attack attempts to create multiple identities to disrupt or control the network. A malicious node utilizing the Sybil Attack in VANETs can disrupt the network in various ways. It can create a large number of Sybil nodes to intervene in message forwarding, potentially causing a massive pileup and great loss of life. A malicious node can also use the Sybil Attack to create illusions of traffic congestions, getting other drivers to take alternate routes and leaving a clear path for the malicious node to its destination. In this paper, we discuss several defense strategies for the Sybil Attack in VANETs.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Vivek D. Bhise, Sachin Bhardwaj
This paper presents results of a study conducted to compare driving behavior and performance of drivers in two different fixed-base driving simulators (namely, FAAC and STI) while performing a same set of distracting tasks under geometrically similar freeway and traffic conditions. The FAAC simulator had a wider three-screen road view with steering feedback as compared to the STI simulator which had a single screen and narrower road view and had no steering feedback. Twenty four subjects (12 younger and 12 mature) drove each simulator and were asked to perform a set of nine different tasks involving different distracting elements such as, using a cell phone, operating the car radio, retrieving and selecting a map from map pocket in the driver's door, collecting coins to pay toll, etc. The results showed that the driver behavioral measures, such as number of glances made in performing a task, total task completing time, and the NASA TLX workload ratings obtained differed due to the differences in the tasks.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Lavish Agarwal, P. K. Mallick, H. T. Kang
Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Sergey F. Golovashchenko, Andrey M. Ilinich
Current die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower edges. For common automotive exterior sheet, this translates to a gap less than 0.06mm. Unfortunately, the tolerances required by such standards often exceed the capabilities of many trim dies. The objective of the research described in this paper is to study the mechanisms of burrs generation and their impact on AHSS formability in stretch flanging. Experimental results on influence of trimming conditions on the shape of the sheared surface will be combined with the results of stretching strips after trimming.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Vivek D. Bhise, Susheel Sethumadhavan
This paper presents quantitative effects of windshield veiling glare on the visibility of targets based on a two part research project. The first part involved measurement and modeling of luminance of veiling glare caused by the reflection of different instrument panel materials under range of conditions defined by combination of windshield angle, instrument panel angle, and sun angle. In the second part, the veiling glare model was incorporated in a visibility prediction model based on visual contrast threshold data. A critical visibility condition of a driver approaching a tunnel with the sunlight falling on his windshield and attempting to detect a target inside the tunnel was studied by conducting sensitivity analyses. The sensitivity analysis showed that a 2 ft diameter 10% reflectance target illuminated by 5000 lux of lighting inside a tunnel visibility distances can be seen from 0 to 3,000 feet depending upon driver's age, vehicle design parameters and sun illumination levels.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
G. Reyes, A. Rasheed, A. Al-Mutar, E. Farha, N. Lotfi
This paper presents the design and manufacture a sandwich structure bumper beam that could withstand at least the same load required to have plastic deformation in a 2002 Jeep Wrangler bumper beam at a lower weight. The dimensions from a bumper beam were scaled down in order to match the limiting length of the sandwich structure specimens. Theoretical optimization calculations were conducted in order to find the optimal dimensions and face thicknesses for the hybrid structures. Sandwich panels were based on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene (Twintex) and an Aluminum foam core (Alporas). Three point bending tests were performed on the sandwich structures. The resulting failure modes were revealed and found to be in agreement with those offered by the analytical predictions.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Sonal Onkar, Marc Hayes, Jim Dalpizzol, James Dowd, Vivek D. Bhise
This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors. The model computes two parallel estimates of perceived values-one from the material supplier's viewpoint and the other from the customer and OEM's viewpoint.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Allen Hale, Derek Pelowski, Vivek Bhise
This paper presents results of two surveys, namely, a photographic measurements survey and a rider survey, conducted to determine how the type and origin of a motorcycle related to motorcycle dimensions, rider characteristics, seating posture, and motorcycle controls and displays. In the photographic survey, 12 most popular motorcycles covering three types (cruiser, sport, and touring) and three origins (Europe, Asia and North America) were measured from photographs taken in a standardized procedure with and without a rider. The data showed that the Asian and North American cruisers were very similar in all dimensions. These include seat height, seat to handlebar location, seat to foot rest location, foot rest size, and handgrip stance. This resulted in similar rider posture. North American sport motorcycles were more like cruisers than the Asian and European sport motorcycles. The North American sport motorcycle had a lower seat and higher handgrips resulting in a more vertical rider back angle.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Vivek D. Bhise, Sonal Onkar, Marc Hayes, Jim Dalpizzol, James Dowd
This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair. In the third phase, pressures in the armrest contact area were measured in three armrest usage postures, namely: i) lower arm supported on the armrest (not holding the steering wheel), ii) elbow resting on the armrest while grasping the steering wheel, and iii) the subject attempting to reposition in the seat while pushing his/her elbow against the armrest (maximum possible pressure).
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Q. Le, H. Kang, A. Khosrovaneh, C. Y. Sa, B. Yan
The component being formed experiences some type of prestrain that may have an effect on its fatigue strength. This study investigated the forming effects on material fatigue strength of dual phase sheet steel (DP600) subjected to various uniaxial prestrains. In the as-received condition, DP600 specimens were tested for tensile properties to determine the prestraining level based on the uniform elongation corresponding to the maximum strength of DP600 on the stress-strain curve. Three different levels of prestrain at 90%, 70% and 50% of the uniform elongation were applied to uniaxial prestrain specimens for tensile tests and fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted with strain controlled to obtain fatigue properties and compare them with the as-received DP600. The fatigue test results were presented with strain amplitude and Neuber's factor.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Vivek D. Bhise
With recent advances in microprocessors and data storage technologies, vehicle users can now bring or access large amounts of data in vehicles for purposes such as communication (e.g. e-mail, phone books), entertainment (e.g. music and video files), browsing and searching for information (e.g. on-board computers and internet). The challenge for the vehicle designer is how to design data displays and retrieval methods to allow data search and manipulation tasks by managing driver workload at safe acceptable levels. This paper presents a data retrieval menu system developed to assess levels of screens (depth of menu) that may be needed to select required information when a vehicle is equipped with the capability to access audio files, cell phone, PDA, e-mail and “On-star” type functions. Implementing the basic principle of “7 plus or minus 2 magic number” to account for human information processing limitations -- to retrieve information in tasks such as selection of a data source, selection of a function within the source, and further selection of required tasks -- can easily lead to a 5-6 levels or steps of menus.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
G. Reyes-Villanueva, H. Kang, R. Singh, S. Gupta
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
G. Reyes-Villanueva, S. Gupta
This paper investigates the interfacial fracture properties of composite-metal laminates by using the single-cantilever beam testing technique. The hybrid systems consisted of a layer of aluminum alloy (6061 or 2024-T3) bonded to polypropylene based composites. In this study, two non-chromate surface treatments were applied to the aluminum substrates: SafeGard CC-300 Chrome free seal (from Sanchem Inc.) and TCP-HF (from Metalast International Inc.). These are environmentally friendly surface treatments that enhance the adhesion and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. Flat hybrid panels were manufactured using a one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Single cantilever bend specimens were cut from the panels and tested at 1mm/min. Results have shown that the CC-300 treated Al 2024-T3 alloy and Twintex exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy values. It was also observed that increasing the number of layers of the coupling agent resulted in an increase of the interfacial fracture energy.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
D. Sivaraj, P. K. Mallick, P. Mohanty, R. C. McCune
This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Jamie Gertsch, Taehyun Shim
Yaw and roll stability limits are derived for three quasi-static roll plane models: rigid vehicle, suspended vehicle, and compliant tire vehicle. A generalized stability equation is identified that fits the stability limits for each model. This generalized stability equation leads to the definition of two new parameters referred to as the generalized superelevation and generalized center of gravity height. These parameters are shown to be physically meaningful. The use of linearizing assumptions is minimized and road superelevation is included, resulting in a more complete equation for each stability limit. Each derived stability limit is then compared and contrasted to the typical representations found in the literature.
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