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2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0467
Gary A. Davis
Abstract The critical speed method uses measurements of the radii of yawmarks left by vehicles, together with values for centripetal acceleration, to estimate the speeds of the vehicles when the yawmarks were made. Several field studies have indicated that equating the centripetal force with braking friction produced biased estimates, but that the biases tended to be small (e.g. within 10%-15% on average) and led to underestimates, suggesting that the method can be useful for forensic purposes. Other studies, however, have challenged this conclusion. The critical speed method has also seen use in safety-related research, where it is important to have a reliable assessment of the uncertainty associated with a speed estimate. This paper describes a variant of the critical speed method, where data from field tests lead to an informative prior probability distribution for the centripetal acceleration.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1597
Glenn Lucachick, Aaron Avenido, Winthrop Watts, David Kittelson, William Northrop
Abstract Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology has proven performance and reliability. However, the addition of a DPF adds significant cost and packaging constraints leading some manufacturers to design engines that reduce particulate matter in-cylinder. Such engines utilize high fuel injection pressure, moderate exhaust gas recirculation and modified injection timing to mitigate soot formation. This study examines such an engine designed to meet US EPA Interim Tier 4 standards for off-highway applications without a DPF. The engine was operated at four steady state modes and aerosol measurements were made using a two-stage, ejector dilution system with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) equipped with a catalytic stripper (CS) to differentiate semi-volatile versus solid components in the exhaust. Gaseous emissions were measured using an FTIR analyzer and particulate matter mass emissions were estimated using SMPS data and an assumed particle density function.
2013-10-14
Journal Article
2013-01-2668
Kai Xiao, Chenxing Pei, Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson, David Pui
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
2013-03-25
Technical Paper
2013-01-0075
Kihoon Han, Youngsun Yoon
Cruise control is one of the most critical issues that manufacturers concern about. But last many researches just focused on engine side control with general step transmission. Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) can cover a wide range of ratios continuously. This makes it possible to operate a combustion engine in more efficient working points than stepped transmission. With this merit, fuel optimal cruise control by CVT ratio control is possible with precise longitudinal dynamic model. Estimation of longitudinal load such as road slope and rolling resistance is essential for precise cruise control of automotive vehicle. In this paper, using model based road slope estimation method with gravity sensor, precise longitudinal dynamic model of automotive vehicle is presented. Real-time adaptive algorithm is also implemented for detecting external driving condition change and compensating bias of g-sensor.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0290
Gary A. Davis
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2814
Anil Singh Bika, Luke M. Franklin, David B. Kittelson
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2516
Gloria R. Leon, Victor S. Koscheyev, Birgit Fink, Paul Ciofani, Joe Warpeha, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The subjective aspects of comfort in three different cooling garments, the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and LCVG were evaluated. Six subjects (4 males and 2 females) were tested in separate sessions in each garment and in one of two environmental chamber conditions: 24°C and 35°C. Subjects followed a staged exercise/rest protocol with different levels of physical exertion at different stages. Thermal comfort and heat perception were assessed by ratings on visual analog scales. Ratings of physical comfort of the garment and also garment flexibility in positions simulating movements during planetary exploration were also obtained. The findings indicated that both overall thermal comfort and head thermal comfort were rated highest in the MACS-Delphi at 24°C. The Orlan was rated lowest on physical comfort and less flexible in different body positions.
2009-07-12
Technical Paper
2009-01-2517
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joe Warpeha, Gloria R. Leon, Jung-Hyun Kim, Birgit Fink, Michael L. Gernhardt, Nicholas G. Skytland
The most recent goal of our research program was to identify the optimal features of each of three garments to maintain core temperature and comfort under intensive physical exertion. Four males and 2 females between the ages of 22 and 46 participated in this study. The garments evaluated were the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and NASA LCVG. Subjects were tested on different days in 2 different environmental chamber temperature/humidity conditions (24°C/H∼28%; 35°C/H∼20%). Each session consisted of stages of treadmill walking/running (250W to 700W at different stages) and rest. In general, the findings showed few consistent differences among the garments. The MACS-Delphi was better able to maintain subjects within a skin and core temperature comfort zone than was evident in the other garments as indicated by a lesser fluctuation in temperatures across physical exertion levels.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1843
James Apple, David Gladis, Winthrop Watts, David Kittelson
Diesel engine ash emissions are composed of the non-combustible portions of diesel particulate matter derived mainly from lube oil, and over time can degrade diesel particulate filter performance. This paper presents results from a high temperature oxidation method (HTOM) used to estimate ash emissions, and engine oil consumption in real-time. Atomized lubrication oil and diesel engine exhaust were used to evaluate the HTOM performance. Atomized fresh and used lube oil experiments showed that the HTOM reached stable particle size distributions and concentrations at temperatures above 700°C. The HTOM produced very similar number and volume weighted particle size distributions for both types of lube oils. The particle number size distribution was unimodal, with a geometric mean diameter of about 23 nm. The volume size distribution had a geometric volume mean diameter of about 65 nm.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1400
A. C. Ragatz, J. J. Swanson, D. B. Kittelson, W. F. Watts
The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1517
Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson
EPA's 2007 Diesel particulate matter (DPM) standard requires a large reduction in total mass emissions. In practice, this amounts to a fractional reduction in elemental carbon emissions. The reduction is balanced by a fractional increase in the semi-volatile component, which is difficult to sample and quantify accurately at low concentrations using filter-based methods. In this work, we show how five imprecisely defined filter-sampling parameters influence the mass collected on a filter. These parameters are: dilution air quality, dilution conditions (dilution ratio and dilution air temperature), particle size classification, filter media and artifacts, and face velocity. Each factor has the potential to change the mass collected by a minimum of 5% of the standard, suggesting there is room for improvement.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-1516
Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson, David Dikken
The 2007 Diesel particulate matter (DPM) standard of 0.01 g/bhp-hr represents a 90% reduction of the previous standard and corresponds to roughly 100 micrograms (μg) gained on the filter sample used to determine compliance. The factors that influence the accuracy and precision by which this filter can be weighed are analyzed and quantified. The total uncertainty, representing best and typical cases, is between 1 and 5 μg. These uncertainties are used to compute the total uncertainty of the brake specific emission calculation. This uncertainty also depends on flowrate uncertainty, face velocity, and secondary dilution ratio. For a typical case, the total fractional uncertainty is in the range of ∼5 – 70% at 10% of the standard and ∼1 – 10% at 90% of the standard.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2712
Will Cooper, James Lenz, Anant Mishra
The history of off-road equipment manufacturing has been based on proven designs and long times between model updates. In sharp contrast with this strategy is the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) industry. The EMS industry is driven by the larger consumer product industry's continuing pressure for lower costs. Because of this, EMS tools, processes, and practices have evolved to support rapid technology and component changes. However the increasing consumer demand for features like better user-interfaces, more efficient fuel consumption, and the desire for increased operational controls in equipment have forced the off-road industry to increase the frequency of product updates to meet customers' needs. Equipment manufacturers make running changes leading to a “Learning-by-doing” development and manufacturing process. But rapid changes sometimes have an unpredictable impact on the reliability of the final product.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1993
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joo-Young Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Gloria R. Leon, Sung Kwon, Michael L. Gernhardt
A series of demonstration studies were conducted with the aim of better understanding how to regulate body heat and thus enhance thermal comfort of astronauts during EVA requiring intensive physical exertion. The first study evaluated body zone heat transfer under different cooling temperatures in a liquid cooling garment (LCG), confirming the effectiveness of areas with high density tissue. The second study evaluated different configurations of hoods and neck scarves to maximize heat extraction from these key areas for heat release. The third study explored the possibility of regulating body heat by control of the water temperature circulating through selected body zones in the LCG, or blocking heat dissipation from particular body areas. The potential of heat insertion/removal from the head, hands, and feet to stabilize body comfort was evaluated in terms of the ability to advance this heat current “highway” from the core.
2008-06-29
Technical Paper
2008-01-1994
Janet Ferl, Linda Hewes, Lindsay Aitchison, Victor Koscheyev, Gloria Leon, Ed Hodgson, Frank Sneeringer
A trade study was conducted with a goal to develop relatively high TRL design concepts for an Exploration Cooling Garment (ExCG) that can accommodate larger metabolic loads and maintain physiological limits of the crewmembers health and work efficiency during all phases of exploration missions without hindering mobility. Effective personal cooling through use of an ExCG is critical in achieving safe and efficient missions. Crew thermoregulation not only impacts comfort during suited operations but also directly affects human performance. Since the ExCG is intimately worn and interfaces with comfort items, it is also critical to overall crewmember physical comfort. Both thermal and physical comfort are essential for the long term, continuous wear expected of the ExCG.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0648
Anil Singh Bika, Luke M. Franklin, David B. Kittelson
A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0637
Xin He, Russell P. Durrett, Zongxuan Sun
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
2007-07-09
Technical Paper
2007-01-3209
Victor S. Koscheyev, Joo-Young Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Anna C. Berowski, Gloria R. Leon, Robert C. Treviño
During EVA and other extreme environments, mutual human support is sometimes the last way to survive when there is a failure of the life support equipment. The possibility to transfer a warming fluid from one individual to another to increase heat and support the thermal balance of the individual with system failure was assessed. The following analog scenarios were considered: 1. one subject has a cooling system that is not working well and already has a body heat deficit equal to 100-120 kcal and a finger temperature decline to 26-27ºC, the other subject is at comfort level; 2. one subject is overcooled due to system failure and the other is mildly overheated. Preliminary findings showed promise in using such thermal sharing tactics to extend the time duration of survival in extreme situations when there is an increased metabolic rate in the donor.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0334
Iam Pou Ng, Hongbin Ma, David Kittelson, Art Miller
Combustion aerosols consist mainly of elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). Since EC strongly absorbs light and thus affects atmospheric visibility and radiation balance, there is great interest in its measurement. To this end, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) published a standard method to determine the mass of EC and OC on filter samples. Another common method of measuring carbon in aerosols is the aethalometer, which uses light extinction to measure “black carbon” or BC, which is considered to approximate EC. A third method sometimes used for estimating carbon in submicron combustion aerosols, is to measure particle size distributions using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and calculate mass using the assumptions that the particles are spherical, carbonaceous and of known density.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0319
Z. Gerald Liu, Victoria N. Vasys, Thaddeus A. Swor, David B. Kittelson
The effects of fuel sulfur content and dilution conditions on diesel engine PM number emissions have been researched extensively through steady state testing. Most results show that the concentration of nuclei-mode particles emitted increases with fuel sulfur content. A few studies further observed that fuel sulfur content has little effect on the emissions of heavily-used engines. It has also been found that primary dilution conditions can have a large impact on the size and number distribution of the nuclei-mode particles. These effects, however, have not yet been fully understood through transient testing, the method used by governments worldwide to certify engines and regulate emissions, and a means of experimentation which generates realistic conditions of on-road vehicles by varying the load and speed of the engine.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1111
Jacob Swanson, David Kittelson, Andrew J. Dallas
Many engine exhaust emissions measurements require exhaust dilution. With low-emission engines, there is the possibility for contaminants in the dilution air to contribute artifacts to the emissions measurement. The objectives of this work are to discuss common methods used to clean the dilution air, to present the detailed analysis of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system and to compare the performance of the PSA with 2 other systems commonly used to provide dilution air for engine exhaust nanoparticle measurements. The results of the comparison are discussed in context with some emissions measurements that require exhaust dilution.
2006-12-05
Technical Paper
2006-01-3654
Mark Claywell, Donald Horkheimer
A typical means of limiting the peak power output of race car engines is to restrict the maximum mass flow of air to the engine. The Formula SAE sanctioning body requires the use of an intake restrictor to limit performance, keep costs low, and maintain a safe racing experience. The intake restrictor poses a challenge to improving engine performance. Methods to better understand the ramifications of the restrictor on the engine lead to performance improvements that allow an edge over the competition. A one-dimensional gas exchange simulation code coupled with three-dimensional CFD is used to simulate various concepts in the improvement of restrictor performance. Ricardo's WAVE and VECTIS are the respective simulation codes. Along with this, the interaction of intake manifold and restrictor are considered. The effects of different diffuser geometries and plenum dimensions were first explored using WAVE, and then a series of different diffuser angles were simulated using WAVE-VECTIS.
2006-07-17
Technical Paper
2006-01-2237
Victor S. Koscheyev, Gloria R. Leon, Aitor Coca, Jung-Hyun Kim, Robert Treviño
Introduction Human thermoregulation during EVA remains a challenge. The establishment of a high correlation between the thermal status of the fingers and the heat surplus/deficit in the body provides an index with potential to more effectively monitor and control the astronaut’s thermal status. This series of studies evaluated the changes in finger temperature (Tfing) trajectories in conditions relevant to EVA. Methods In different experiments, subjects were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that covered the full body surface except for the face and hands; they wore either a physiologically designed warming glove or the Phase VI glove. The experimental protocols were as follows: imposition of temperature differences in the left and right gloves; different thermal insulation levels of the gloves; sequential grasping of a highly cold rail in different glove conditions; placement of the finger thermistor on different sites of the finger.
2006-02-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-1963
Damrongrit Piyabongkarn, John Grogg, Qinghui Yuan, Jae Lew, Rajesh Rajamani
This paper focuses on modeling of torque-biasing devices of a four-wheel-drive system used for improving vehicle stability and handling performance. The proposed driveline system is based on nominal front-wheel-drive operation with on-demand transfer of torque to the rear. The torque biasing components of the system are an electronically controlled center coupler and a rear electronically controlled limited slip differential. Kinematic modeling of the torque biasing devices is introduced including stage transitions during the locking stage and the unlocking/slipping stage. Analytical proofs of how torque biasing could be used to influence vehicle yaw dynamics are also included in the paper. A yaw control methodology utilizing the biasing devices is proposed. Finally, co-simulation results with Matlab®/Simulink® and CarSim® show the effectiveness of the torque biasing system in achieving yaw stability control.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2977
Victor S. Koscheyev, Aitor Coca, Gloria R. Leon, Robert Treviño
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
2004-10-25
Technical Paper
2004-01-3032
Darrick D. Zarling, Kenneth L. Bickel, Robert W. Waytulonis, Joseph R. Sweeney
A biodiesel / petroleum fuel blend and practical low-cost methods of emission control were sought to obtain reductions in emissions from diesel generators. Little direct testing of biodiesel in diesel-powered electric generators has been done. Laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to determine the influence of using biodiesel on diesel exhaust emissions. B20 (20% biodiesel / 80% petroleum diesel) was chosen because of previously successful studies with this blend level, and there is evidence that the NOx emissions increase that result from using B20 can be controlled using existing technology. B85 was selected because it is a “high blend,” which promised to give a large decrease in PM at the expense of a larger increase in NOx than B20, but still within the range of control with existing technology. Charge-air cooling and a fuel additive were tested as NOx controls. For PM, CO, and HC reduction, a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was evaluated.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2347
Victor S. Koscheyev, Gloria R. Leon, Aitor Coca, Jinny Ferl, David Graziosi
The shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG) developed by the University of Minnesota group was compared with the standard NASA liquid cooling/ventilating garment (LCVG) garment during physical exertion in comfort (24°C) and hot (35°C) chamber environments. In both environmental conditions, the SLCWG was just as effective as the LCVG in maintaining rectal temperature (Tre) in a thermal comfort range; sweat production on the face was less; and subjective perception of overall and local body comfort was higher. The findings indicate that the SLCWG produces the same or greater comfort level as that achieved with the LCVG's total coverage of the body surface.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-01-3179
Heejung Jung, David B. Kittelson, Michael R. Zachariah
Earlier work [1] shows that kinetics of Diesel soot oxidation is different from that of ethylene diffusion flame soot oxidation [2], possibly due to metals from lube oil. This study investigates the influence of metals on soot oxidation and the exhaust particle emissions using lube oil dosed fuel (2 % by volume). This method does not simulate normal lube oil consumption, but is used as a means of adding metals to particles for oxidation studies. This study also provides insight into the effect of systems that mix lube oil with fuel to minimize oil change service. The HTO-TDMA (High Temperature Oxidation-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer) technique [1] was used to measure the surface specific oxidation rate of Diesel particles over the temperature range 500-750 °C. Diesel particles sampled from the exhaust stream of a Diesel engine were size segregated by differential mobility and oxidized in situ in air in a heated flow tube of known residence time and temperature profile.
2002-10-21
Technical Paper
2002-01-2727
Paul W Schaberg, Darrick D. Zarling, Robert W. Waytulonis, David B. Kittelson
Diesel exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions, as well as gaseous and particulate mass emissions, were measured during steady-state tests on a US heavy-duty engine and a European passenger car engine. Two fuels were compared, namely a Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel manufactured from natural gas, and a US D2 on-highway diesel fuel. With both engines, the Fischer-Tropsch fuel showed a considerable reduction in the number of particles formed by nucleation, when compared with the D2 fuel. At most test modes, particle number emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles. Consequently, there were generally large reductions (up to 93%) in the total particle number emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. It is thought that the most probable cause for the reduction in nucleation mode particles is the negligible sulphur content of the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. In general, there were also reductions in all the regulated emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
2002-07-15
Technical Paper
2002-01-2413
Victor S. Koscheyev, Gloria R. Leon, Robert C. Treviño
The focus of this research is on the development of a more energy efficient shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) based on physiological principles comparing the efficacy of heat transfer of different body zones; the capability of blood to deliver heat; individual muscle and fat body composition as a basis for individual thermal profiles to customize the zonal involvement of the garment; and the development of shunts to minimize or redirect the cooling/warming loop for different environmental conditions, physical activity levels, and emergency situations. The total length of tubing in the LCWG is approximately 35% less, and the weight decreased by 45% compared to the LCVG currently used in space.
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