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Viewing 1 to 30 of 116
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2301
Xiaoye Han, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and partially premixed combustion (PPC) of neat n-butanol have shown significant benefits in NOx and smoke emissions. However, the rapid burn rate of n-butanol results in excessive maximum pressure rise rates and limits the engine load capability. The combustion process can be slowed down by applying exhaust gas recirculation and/or later injection timing, which usually deteriorates engine efficiency and combustion stability. In this study, the neat n-butanol combustion is optimized using a multi-event combustion strategy to organize the combustion process and control the fuel burn rates for practical engine operation at extended engine loads. As indicated by the experimental results, the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, enabled with port fuel injection (PFI), is generally earlier than that of n-butanol PPC, enabled with single-shot direct injection (DI), under the same engine operating conditions.
2016-10-17
Technical Paper
2016-01-2175
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Xiao Yu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng, Xiaoye Han, Jimi Tjong
Future clean combustion engines are tending to employ overall lean and diluted mixtures under low temperature combustion along with intensified cylinder charge motion. The diluted cylinder charge causes slower ignition flame propagation and thus an instable combustion phasing. Furthermore, the ignition robustness need to be improved to expand the dilution tolerance thereby allowing a wider engine operation range. In this paper, advanced high energy ignition strategies are investigated on both optical combustion vessels and a single cylinder engine. The implemented ignition strategies include multi-coil high energy ignition via a novel multipole igniter, pre-chamber flame jet spark plug ignition, and high frequency active resonant corona ignition.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0773
Shouvik Dev, Prasad Divekar, Tadanori Yanai, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Abstract Dual fuel applications of alcohol fuels such as ethanol or butanol through port injection with direct injection of diesel can be effective in reduction of NOx. However, these dual fuel applications are usually associated with an increase in the incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H2) emissions. An analysis of these products of incomplete combustion and the resulting combustion efficiency penalty was made in the diesel ignited alcohol combustion modes. The effect of EGR application was evaluated using ethanol and butanol as the port injected fuel, with varying alcohol fractions at the mid-load condition (10 -12 bar IMEP). The impact of varying the engine load (5 bar to 19 bar IMEP) in the diesel ignited ethanol mode on the incomplete combustion products was also studied. Emission measurements were taken and the net fuel energy loss as a result of the incomplete combustion was estimated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0749
Kelvin Xie, Tadanori Yanai, Zhenyi Yang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0766
Tongyang Gao, Marko Jeftic, Geraint Bryden, Graham Reader, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
Abstract The control of nitrogen oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engines has been one of the key researches in both the academia and industry. Nitrogen oxides can be effectively suppressed by the use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, the introduction of inert exhaust gas into the engine intake is often associated with high smoke emissions. To overcome these issues there have been a number of proposed strategies, one of the more promising being the use of low temperature combustion enabled with heavy EGR. This has the potential to achieve simultaneously low emissions of nitrogen oxide and smoke. However, a quantitative way to identify the transition zone between high temperature combustion and low temperature combustion has still not been fully explored. The combustion becomes even more complicated when ethanol fuel is used as a partial substitution for diesel fuel.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0655
Farid Bahiraei, Amir Fartaj, Gholm-Abbas Nazri
In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Abstract Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Abstract When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0499
Xu Zhang, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0229
Mohammed Ismail, Shahram Fotowat, Amir Fartaj
Abstract A numerical study is performed to investigate the transient heat transfer and flow characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles dispersed in 50:50 ethylene glycol/water (EG/W) base fluid in a multipass crossflow minichannel heat exchanger. The time dependent thermal responses of the system in a laminar regime are predicted by solving the conservation equations using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The transient regime is caused by a step change of nanofluid mass flow rate at the inlet of the minichannel heat exchanger. This step change can be analogous with a thermostat operation. In this study, three volume fractions up to 3 percent of Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed to the base fluid EG/W are modeled and analyzed. In the numerical simulation, Al2O3-EG/W nanofluid is considered as a homogenous single-phase fluid. An analysis of the transient response for the variation of nanofluids volume concentrations is conducted.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0724
Tadanori Yanai, Christopher Aversa, Shouvik Dev, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Abstract In this study, impacts of neat n-butanol fuel injection parameters on direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine performance were investigated to gain knowledge for understanding the fuel injection strategies for n-butanol. The engine tests were conducted on a four-stroke single-cylinder DI CI engine with a compression ratio of 18.2:1. The effects of fuel injection pressure (40, 60 and 90 MPa) and injection timing in a single injection strategy were investigated. The results showed that an increase in injection pressure significantly reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions which is the opposite trend seen in conventional diesel combustion. The parallel use of a higher injection pressure and retarded injection timing was a proposed method to reduce NOx and cylinder pressure rise rate simultaneously. NOx was further reduced by using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) while keeping near zero soot emissions.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0781
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract In this work, empirical investigations of the diesel-ethanol Premixed Pilot-Assisted Combustion (PPAC) are carried out on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) single-cylinder diesel engine. The tests focus on determining the minimum ethanol fraction for ultra-low NOx & soot emissions, effect of single-pilot vs. twin-pilot strategies on emissions and ignition controllability, reducing the EGR requirements, enabling clean combustion across the load range and achieving high efficiency full-load operation. The results show that both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of higher unburned hydrocarbons. Compared to a single-pilot injection, a twin-pilot strategy reduces the soot emissions significantly and also lowers the NOx emissions, thereby reducing the requirements for EGR. The near-TDC pilot provides excellent control over the combustion phasing, further reducing the need of a higher EGR quantity for phasing control.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1816
Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi S. Tjong, Tie Li
This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1889
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
In order to improve the fuel economy for future high-efficiency spark ignition engines, the use of advanced combustion strategies with an overall lean and/or exhaust gas recirculation diluted cylinder charge is deemed to be beneficial, provided a reliable ignition process available. In this paper, experimental results of igniting methane-air mixture by means of capacitive coupled ignition and multi-coil distributed spark ignition are presented. It is found that with a conventional spark plug electrode configuration, increase of spark energy does not proportionally enhance the ignition flame kernel development. The use of capacitive coupled ignition to enhance the initial transient power resulted in faster kernel growth compared to the conventional system. The distribution of the spark energy across a number of spark gaps shows considerable benefit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
Abstract Amid all nondestructive testing (NDT) methods Ultrasound is considered the most practically feasible modality for quality assessment and detection of defects in automobile industry. Pattern recognition of the ultrasonic signals gives us important information about the interrogated object. This information includes size, geometric shape and location of the defect zone. However, this would not be straightforward to extract this information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping signals and also the presence of noise. Here in this study, we suggest a new method for classification of different defects in inspection of adhesively bonded joint. At the first step of this method, the problem of parameter estimation of the reflected echoes is defined in a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. Then a space alternating generalized Expectation Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is implemented to solve the MLE problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1609
Roberto Monforte, Francesco Lovuolo, Matteo Rostagno, Riccardo Seccardini, Teron Matton
Abstract Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both enhancing the MAC System efficiency and reducing the thermal load to be managed, a prediction tool based on the AMEsim platform was developed at Advanced PD EMEA. This tool is dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (taking into account passengers' generated moisture and CO2). This model implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and RH acceptable ranges) considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the increase of both RH and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications requiring large workspace, with limited higher manipulability in one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position in the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produces a rectangular workspace. In this paper a full kinematic model for a 6DOF general CNC (gantry) machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0687
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract In order to reduce the weight of an automotive engine, an aluminum (Al) alloy engine block with cast iron liner has been successfully used to replace the gray cast iron engine. For newly emerging Al linerless engine in which the low surface hardness of the aluminum alloy has to be overcome, a few surface processing technologies are used to protect the surface of cylinders. Among them, plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) thermal spraying coating is becoming popular. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is also proposed for increasing the wear resistance of aluminum alloy and reducing the friction between the cylinder and piston. In this work, a PEO coating with a thickness of ∼20 μm was prepared, and a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to study the tribological behavior of the coating at oil lubricant conditions. Different surface roughness of the coating and a large range of the sliding speeds were employed for the tests.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Abstract Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0808
Tadanori Yanai, Shouvik Dev, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract This study investigated neat n-butanol combustion, emissions and thermal efficiency characteristics in a compression ignition (CI) engine by using two fuelling techniques - port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI). Diesel fuel was used in this research for reference. The engine tests were conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke DI diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.2 : 1. An n-Butanol PFI system was installed to study the combustion characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). A common-rail fuel injection system was used to conduct the DI tests with n-butanol and diesel. 90 MPa injection pressure was used for the DI tests. The engine was run at 1500 rpm. The intake boost pressure, engine load, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio, and DI timing were independently controlled to investigate the engine performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0851
Philip Zoldak, Andrzej Sobiesiak, David Wickman, Michael Bergin
Abstract The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the U.S. has renewed interest in the application to heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines in order to realize fuel cost savings and reduce pollutant emissions, while increasing fuel economy. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion employs two fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition properties to generate a spatial gradient of fuel-air mixtures and reactivity. Typically, a high octane fuel is premixed by means of port-injection, followed by direct injection of a high cetane fuel late in the compression stroke. Previous work by the authors has shown that NG and diesel RCCI offers improved fuel efficiency and lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions when compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. The work concluded that NG and diesel RCCI engines are load limited by high rates of pressure rise (RoPR) (>15 bar/deg) and high peak cylinder pressure (PCP) (>200 bar).
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1714
Usman Asad, Jimi Tjong
Abstract This study describes a zero-dimensional algorithm for tracking the intake dilution in real-time. The inputs to the model are the oxygen concentration from the exhaust oxygen sensor, the manifold air pressure and temperature (MAP/MAT), the mass air flow (MAF) and the estimated fuel injected per cycle from the engine control module. The intake manifold, the exhaust manifold and EGR system are discretized into 3 volumes and the detailed concentrations of the gas species comprising the exhaust, EGR and intake streams are tracked at each time step (on a cycle-by-cycle basis). The model does not need the EGR ratio to be known in advance and is also applicable to oxygenated fuels such as ethanol. The model response is tuned to a multi-cylinder engine and the model output is empirically validated against a wide range of engine operations including load and EGR transients.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0001
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This work investigates the benefits and challenges of enabling neat n-butanol HCCI combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Minor engine modifications are made to implement n-butanol port injection while other engine components are kept intact. The impacts of the fuel change, from diesel to n-butanol, are examined through steady-state engine tests with independent control of the intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation. As demonstrated by the test results, the HCCI combustion of a thoroughly premixed n-butanol/air lean mixture offers near-zero smoke and ultralow NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation and produces comparable engine efficiencies to those of conventional diesel high temperature combustion. The test results also manifest the control challenges of running a neat alcohol fuel in the HCCI combustion mode.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0003
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This study investigates neat n-butanol, as a cleaner power source, to directly replace conventional diesel fuels for enabling low temperature combustion on a modern common-rail diesel engine. Engine tests are performed at medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) with the single-shot injection strategy for both n-butanol and diesel fuels. As indicated by the experimental results, the combustion of neat n-butanol offers comparable engine efficiency to that of diesel while producing substantially lower NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation. The greater resistance to auto-ignition allows n-butanol to undergo a prolonged ignition delay for air-fuel mixing; the high volatility helps to enhance the cylinder charge homogeneity; the fuel-borne oxygen contributes to smoke reduction and, as a result, the smoke emissions of n-butanol combustion are generally at a near-zero level under the tested engine operating conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1298
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1294
Prasad Divekar, Xiaoye Han, Shui Yu, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Abstract Conventionally, the diesel fuel ignites spontaneously following the injection event. The combustion and injection often overlap with a very short ignition delay. Diesel engines therefore offer superior combustion stability characterized by the low cycle-to-cycle variations. However, the enforcement of the stringent emission regulations necessitates the implementation of innovative diesel combustion concepts such as the low temperature combustion (LTC) to achieve ultra-low engine-out pollutants. In stark contrast to the conventional diesel combustion, the enabling of LTC requires enhanced air fuel mixing and hence a longer ignition delay is desired. Such a decoupling of the combustion events from the fuel injection can potentially cause ignition discrepancy and ultimately lead to combustion cyclic variations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0734
Luv Aggarwal, Ruth Urbanic, Kush Aggarwal
Abstract Industrial robotic arms and manipulators are systems that offer technological advances in automation, production, and logistical processes. Therefore, it is vital to understand and analyze the reachability and dexterity of such manipulators. This paper presents a reconfigurable algorithm for evaluation and 3D visual representation of the total workspace and singularity space of two and three degrees of freedom open-ended kinematic chains. A manipulator's performance is greatly depreciated at or near singular regions which may occur as subset(s) in its complete workspace. It is therefore crucial to understand the functional workspace of a manipulator for an enhanced performance in an industrial setting. The implementation of this algorithm requires two inputs namely; the joint type(s), rotational (R) or translational (T), and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters of the manipulator.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0957
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie
Abstract Aluminum engines have been successfully used to replace heavy gray cast engines to lighten the car's weight and reduce the fuel consumption. To overcome the aluminum alloys' poor wear resistance, cast iron liners and thermal spraying coatings were used as cylinder bore materials for wear protection. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique had also been proposed to produce an oxide coating on aluminum cylinder bore. The oxide coating can have a low coefficient of friction (COF) and minimum wear shown in the lab tests. To conserve more fuel, the stopping and restarting system was introduced when the vehicle was forced to stop immediately for a short time. When the engine was forced to stop and restart, the reciprocating speed of the piston was very slow, and the friction between the piston and the cylinder was high. In this research, a pin-on-disc tribometer was used to investigate tribological behavior of the oxide coating on an aluminum alloy.
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