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Viewing 1 to 30 of 112
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0229
Mohammed Ismail, Shahram Fotowat, Amir Fartaj
ABSTRACT: A numerical study is performed to investigate the transient heat transfer and flow characteristics of aluminum oxide/Ethylene glycol (Al2O3/EG) nanofluid in a multipass crossflow minichannel heat exchanger. The time dependent thermal and hydrodynamic responses of the system in a laminar regime are predicted by solving the Navier-Stokes and energy equations using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. Three-dimensional model is validated by obtaining good agreements with experimental data. The transient regime is caused by a rapid change of nanofluid mass flow rate at the inlet of the minichannel heat exchanger. In this study, three volume fractions up to 3 percent of Al2O3 nanoparticles added to the basefluid-EG are modeled and analyzed to ensure a Newtonian fluid behaviour. Al2O3/EG nanofluid is considered as a homogenous single-phase fluid. A comprehensive analysis of the transient response for the variation of nanofluids volume concentrations is conducted.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0773
Shouvik Dev, Prasad Divekar, Tadanori Yanai, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Dual fuel applications of alcohol fuels such as ethanol or butanol through port injection with direct injection of diesel can be effective in reduction of NOx. However, these dual fuel applications are usually associated with an increase in the incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen (H2) emissions. An analysis of these products of incomplete combustion and the resulting combustion efficiency penalty was made in the diesel ignited alcohol combustion modes. The effect of EGR application was evaluated using ethanol and butanol as the port injected fuel, with varying alcohol fractions at the mid-load condition (10 -12 bar IMEP). The impact of varying the engine load (5 bar to 19 bar IMEP) in the diesel ignited ethanol mode on the incomplete combustion products was also studied. Emission measurements were taken and the net fuel energy loss as a result of the incomplete combustion was estimated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0749
Kelvin Xie, Tadanori Yanai, Zhenyi Yang, Graham Reader, Ming Zheng
Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous compression charge ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0781
Usman Asad, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Premixed Pilot-Assisted Combustion (PPAC) employs a small quantity (near TDC injection) of a highly reactive fuel (typically diesel) to ignite the bulk, low-reactivity fuel (main contributor to power production), achieving ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. Recent research has focused on gasoline and renewable, oxygenated fuels (ethanol/butanol) for the low-reactivity fuels. Ethanol fuel has garnered particular interest because of its high volatility that allows it to be injected into the intake port to form a highly premixed cylinder charge and significant lowering of compression-end temperature and pressure (charge cooling effect due to its heat of vaporization). In this work, empirical investigations of the diesel-ethanol PPAC are carried out on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. However, this work envelope based work is limited as it does not contain relevant information regarding the relationships between the robot, or mechanisms within a system. This includes the general kinematic structures within the system, the location of the working part(s), tools, process parameters and other operation related parameters. Here an operation is defined as consisting of the travel path, manipulator/end-effector or working tool, tool and part location, and orientation, and any other related process related parameters.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (cobots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. Cobots, unlike traditional robots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although cobots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of ‘cobots’. The framework consists of the system level, workcell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hrs to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Current manufacturing systems typically fabricate several products or product variants, and are expected to meet high productivity and quality levels. This has led to the adoption of cellular manufacturing that contain 6 axis industrial robots, computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centers, and sophisticated material transportation systems. This factory automation design strategy allows for rebalancing of tasks and reduces the physical redesign of stations when changeovers due to new requirements are introduced. There are many challenges when developing a travel path for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robot based systems. The kinematic structure, and the behaviour of robot based on the configuration, need to be considered in order to determine whether a travel path is feasible as exceeding the travel or joint limit reach may be an issue.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0499
Xu Zhang, Jennifer Johrendt
Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0766
Tongyang Gao, Marko Jeftic, Geraint Bryden, Graham Reader, Jimi Tjong, Ming Zheng
The control of nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions in diesel engine exhaust has been one of the key researches in both academia and industry for the past few decades. Among the various proposed strategies, the partial or entire substitution of conventional diesel fuel with alcohol fuels, namely ethanol and normal butanol, has shown high potentials in their ultra-low in-cylinder emissions while maintaining diesel-like high efficiency. This high performance in emission and efficiency is achieved through the management of the overall in-cylinder charge with different fuels and different fuel delivery strategies, assisted with the conventional combustion control techniques, such as exhaust gas recirculation and intake boosting. In this work, the heat release rate of the combustion of butanol and ethanol in a high compression ratio diesel engine was analyzed.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1816
Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi S. Tjong, Tie Li
This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
2015-09-01
Technical Paper
2015-01-1889
Shui Yu, Kelvin Xie, Qingyuan Tan, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
In order to improve the fuel economy for future high-efficiency spark ignition engines, the use of advanced combustion strategies with an overall lean and/or exhaust gas recirculation diluted cylinder charge is deemed to be beneficial, provided a reliable ignition process available. In this paper, experimental results of igniting methane-air mixture by means of capacitive coupled ignition and multi-coil distributed spark ignition are presented. It is found that with a conventional spark plug electrode configuration, increase of spark energy does not proportionally enhance the ignition flame kernel development. The use of capacitive coupled ignition to enhance the initial transient power resulted in faster kernel growth compared to the conventional system. The distribution of the spark energy across a number of spark gaps shows considerable benefit.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0687
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie, Jimi Tjong
Abstract In order to reduce the weight of an automotive engine, an aluminum (Al) alloy engine block with cast iron liner has been successfully used to replace the gray cast iron engine. For newly emerging Al linerless engine in which the low surface hardness of the aluminum alloy has to be overcome, a few surface processing technologies are used to protect the surface of cylinders. Among them, plasma transferred wire arc (PTWA) thermal spraying coating is becoming popular. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating is also proposed for increasing the wear resistance of aluminum alloy and reducing the friction between the cylinder and piston. In this work, a PEO coating with a thickness of ∼20 μm was prepared, and a high speed pin-on-disc tribometer was used to study the tribological behavior of the coating at oil lubricant conditions. Different surface roughness of the coating and a large range of the sliding speeds were employed for the tests.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0592
Mehdi Hajian
Abstract Amid all nondestructive testing (NDT) methods Ultrasound is considered the most practically feasible modality for quality assessment and detection of defects in automobile industry. Pattern recognition of the ultrasonic signals gives us important information about the interrogated object. This information includes size, geometric shape and location of the defect zone. However, this would not be straightforward to extract this information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping signals and also the presence of noise. Here in this study, we suggest a new method for classification of different defects in inspection of adhesively bonded joint. At the first step of this method, the problem of parameter estimation of the reflected echoes is defined in a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. Then a space alternating generalized Expectation Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is implemented to solve the MLE problem.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1609
Roberto Monforte, Francesco Lovuolo, Matteo Rostagno, Riccardo Seccardini, Teron Matton
Abstract Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both enhancing the MAC System efficiency and reducing the thermal load to be managed, a prediction tool based on the AMEsim platform was developed at Advanced PD EMEA. This tool is dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (taking into account passengers' generated moisture and CO2). This model implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and RH acceptable ranges) considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the increase of both RH and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0497
Monika Filiposka, Ana M. Djuric, Waguih ElMaraghy
Abstract Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications requiring large workspace, with limited higher manipulability in one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position in the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produces a rectangular workspace. In this paper a full kinematic model for a 6DOF general CNC (gantry) machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1714
Usman Asad, Jimi Tjong
Abstract This study describes a zero-dimensional algorithm for tracking the intake dilution in real-time. The inputs to the model are the oxygen concentration from the exhaust oxygen sensor, the manifold air pressure and temperature (MAP/MAT), the mass air flow (MAF) and the estimated fuel injected per cycle from the engine control module. The intake manifold, the exhaust manifold and EGR system are discretized into 3 volumes and the detailed concentrations of the gas species comprising the exhaust, EGR and intake streams are tracked at each time step (on a cycle-by-cycle basis). The model does not need the EGR ratio to be known in advance and is also applicable to oxygenated fuels such as ethanol. The model response is tuned to a multi-cylinder engine and the model output is empirically validated against a wide range of engine operations including load and EGR transients.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0808
Tadanori Yanai, Shouvik Dev, Xiaoye Han, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract This study investigated neat n-butanol combustion, emissions and thermal efficiency characteristics in a compression ignition (CI) engine by using two fuelling techniques - port fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (DI). Diesel fuel was used in this research for reference. The engine tests were conducted on a single-cylinder four-stroke DI diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.2 : 1. An n-Butanol PFI system was installed to study the combustion characteristics of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). A common-rail fuel injection system was used to conduct the DI tests with n-butanol and diesel. 90 MPa injection pressure was used for the DI tests. The engine was run at 1500 rpm. The intake boost pressure, engine load, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio, and DI timing were independently controlled to investigate the engine performance.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0601
Madhavan Manivannan, Vesselin Stoilov, Derek O. Northwood
Abstract Ferritic nitrocarburizing offers excellent wear, scuffing, corrosion and fatigue resistance by producing a thin compound layer and diffusion zone containing ε (Fe2-3(C, N)), γ′ (Fe4N), cementite (Fe3C) and various alloy carbides and nitrides on the material surface. It is a widely accepted surface treatment process that results in smaller distortion than carburizing and carbonitriding processes. However this smaller distortion has to be further reduced to prevent the performance issues, out of tolerance distortion and post grinding work hours/cost in an automotive component. A numerical model has been developed to calculate the nitrogen and carbon composition profiles of SAE 1010 torque converter pistons during nitrocarburizing treatment. The nitrogen composition profiles are modeled against the part thickness to predict distortion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0803
Marko Jeftić, Jimi Tjong, Graham Reader, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract Experimental testing was done with a modern compression ignition engine to study the effect of the engine load and the effect of different fuels on the post injection characteristics. Two different fuels were utilized; ultra-low sulphur diesel and n-butanol. The results showed that a post injection can be an effective method for increasing the operating range of the engine load. Engine operation at high load can be limited by the peak cylinder pressure but the test results showed that an early post injection can increase the engine load without increasing the peak in-cylinder pressure. Neat butanol combustion may have a very high peak in-cylinder pressure and a very high peak pressure rise rate even at low load conditions. The test results showed that a butanol post injection can contribute to engine power without significantly affecting the peak pressure rise rate and the peak in-cylinder pressure.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0851
Philip Zoldak, Andrzej Sobiesiak, David Wickman, Michael Bergin
Abstract The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the U.S. has renewed interest in the application to heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines in order to realize fuel cost savings and reduce pollutant emissions, while increasing fuel economy. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion employs two fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition properties to generate a spatial gradient of fuel-air mixtures and reactivity. Typically, a high octane fuel is premixed by means of port-injection, followed by direct injection of a high cetane fuel late in the compression stroke. Previous work by the authors has shown that NG and diesel RCCI offers improved fuel efficiency and lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions when compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. The work concluded that NG and diesel RCCI engines are load limited by high rates of pressure rise (RoPR) (>15 bar/deg) and high peak cylinder pressure (PCP) (>200 bar).
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0001
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This work investigates the benefits and challenges of enabling neat n-butanol HCCI combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Minor engine modifications are made to implement n-butanol port injection while other engine components are kept intact. The impacts of the fuel change, from diesel to n-butanol, are examined through steady-state engine tests with independent control of the intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation. As demonstrated by the test results, the HCCI combustion of a thoroughly premixed n-butanol/air lean mixture offers near-zero smoke and ultralow NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation and produces comparable engine efficiencies to those of conventional diesel high temperature combustion. The test results also manifest the control challenges of running a neat alcohol fuel in the HCCI combustion mode.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0003
Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
Abstract This study investigates neat n-butanol, as a cleaner power source, to directly replace conventional diesel fuels for enabling low temperature combustion on a modern common-rail diesel engine. Engine tests are performed at medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) with the single-shot injection strategy for both n-butanol and diesel fuels. As indicated by the experimental results, the combustion of neat n-butanol offers comparable engine efficiency to that of diesel while producing substantially lower NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation. The greater resistance to auto-ignition allows n-butanol to undergo a prolonged ignition delay for air-fuel mixing; the high volatility helps to enhance the cylinder charge homogeneity; the fuel-borne oxygen contributes to smoke reduction and, as a result, the smoke emissions of n-butanol combustion are generally at a near-zero level under the tested engine operating conditions.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1298
Tadanori Yanai, Xiaoye Han, Meiping Wang, Graham T. Reader, Ming Zheng, Jimi Tjong
Abstract The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1294
Prasad Divekar, Xiaoye Han, Shui Yu, Xiang Chen, Ming Zheng
Abstract Conventionally, the diesel fuel ignites spontaneously following the injection event. The combustion and injection often overlap with a very short ignition delay. Diesel engines therefore offer superior combustion stability characterized by the low cycle-to-cycle variations. However, the enforcement of the stringent emission regulations necessitates the implementation of innovative diesel combustion concepts such as the low temperature combustion (LTC) to achieve ultra-low engine-out pollutants. In stark contrast to the conventional diesel combustion, the enabling of LTC requires enhanced air fuel mixing and hence a longer ignition delay is desired. Such a decoupling of the combustion events from the fuel injection can potentially cause ignition discrepancy and ultimately lead to combustion cyclic variations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0569
Ishika Zonina Towfic, Jennifer Johrendt
Abstract The development of a collision severity model can serve as an important tool in understanding the requirements for devising countermeasures to improve occupant safety and traffic safety. Collision type, weather conditions, and driver intoxication are some of the factors that may influence motor vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify the major determinants or contributors to fatal collisions based on various driver, vehicle, and environment characteristics obtained from collision data from Transport Canada. The developed model will have the capability to predict similar collision outcomes based on the variables analyzed in this study. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network model with feed-forward back-propagation architecture is used to develop a generalized model for predicting collision severity.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0734
Luv Aggarwal, Ruth Urbanic, Kush Aggarwal
Abstract Industrial robotic arms and manipulators are systems that offer technological advances in automation, production, and logistical processes. Therefore, it is vital to understand and analyze the reachability and dexterity of such manipulators. This paper presents a reconfigurable algorithm for evaluation and 3D visual representation of the total workspace and singularity space of two and three degrees of freedom open-ended kinematic chains. A manipulator's performance is greatly depreciated at or near singular regions which may occur as subset(s) in its complete workspace. It is therefore crucial to understand the functional workspace of a manipulator for an enhanced performance in an industrial setting. The implementation of this algorithm requires two inputs namely; the joint type(s), rotational (R) or translational (T), and the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters of the manipulator.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0957
Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie
Abstract Aluminum engines have been successfully used to replace heavy gray cast engines to lighten the car's weight and reduce the fuel consumption. To overcome the aluminum alloys' poor wear resistance, cast iron liners and thermal spraying coatings were used as cylinder bore materials for wear protection. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) technique had also been proposed to produce an oxide coating on aluminum cylinder bore. The oxide coating can have a low coefficient of friction (COF) and minimum wear shown in the lab tests. To conserve more fuel, the stopping and restarting system was introduced when the vehicle was forced to stop immediately for a short time. When the engine was forced to stop and restart, the reciprocating speed of the piston was very slow, and the friction between the piston and the cylinder was high. In this research, a pin-on-disc tribometer was used to investigate tribological behavior of the oxide coating on an aluminum alloy.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1321
Philip Zoldak, Andrzej Sobiesiak, Michael Bergin, David D. Wickman
Abstract Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion employs two fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition properties that are injected at different times to generate a spatial gradient of fuel-air mixtures and reactivity. Researchers have shown that RCCI offers improved fuel efficiency and lower NOx and Soot exhaust emissions when compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. The majority of previous research work has been focused on premixed gasoline or ethanol for the low reactivity fuel and diesel for the high reactivity fuel. The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the U.S. has renewed interest in the application of compressed natural gas (CNG) to heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines in order to realize fuel cost savings and reduce pollutant emissions, while increasing fuel economy. Thus, RCCI using CNG and diesel fuel warrants consideration.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0737
Kush Aggarwal, Ruth Urbanic, Luv Aggarwal
Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1092
Usman Asad, Jimi Tjong
Abstract Modern diesel engines employ a multitude of strategies for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission abatement, with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) being one of the most effective technique. The need for a precise control on the intake charge dilution (as a result of EGR) is paramount since small fluctuations in the intake charge dilution at high EGR rates may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency, especially at low to mid-engine loads. The control problem becomes more pronounced during transient engine operation; currently the trend is to momentarily close the EGR valve during tip-in or tip-out events. Therefore, there is a need to understand the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development especially under unstable combustion regimes such as low temperature combustion.
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