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Viewing 1 to 30 of 83
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Thomas Wittka, Bastian Holderbaum, Teuvo Maunula, Michael Weissner
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity. The passive SCR significantly contributes to the total NOX conversion over a broad temperature range.
Book
2013-10-08
Ulrich W. Seiffert, Mark Gonter
Even though a number of developed countries enjoy a high level of vehicle safety, more than 1.2 million fatalities still occur each year on roadways worldwide. There remains a need to continue improving vehicle and road safety. New technologies in sensors and electronic control units, and the growing knowledge of car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure technologies have led to a fusion of the previously separated areas of accident avoidance (popularly known as active safety) and mitigation of injuries (popularly known as passive safety) into the newer concept of integrated vehicle safety. This new approach represents a further step toward lowering accident rates. This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety. Also covered are accident investigation and worldwide legislation as they apply to integrated vehicle safety.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Eugene de Villiers, Carsten Othmer
Meeting the stringent efficiency demands of next generation direct injection engines requires not only optimization of the injection system and combustion chamber, but also an optimal in-cylinder swirling charge flow. This charge motion is largely determined by the shape of the intake port arm geometry and the valve position. In this paper, we outline an extensible methodology implemented in OPENFOAM® for multi-objective geometry optimization based on the continuous adjoint. The adjoint method has a large advantage over traditional optimization approaches in that its cost is not dependent upon the number of parameters being optimized. This characteristic can be used to treat every cell in the computational domain as a tunable parameter - effectively switching cells "on" or "off" depending on whether this action will help improve the objectives. Unlike CAD-based parameter optimization, the adjoint approach starts from a supplied design space and then systematically removes all elements counter-productive to the design objectives.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Rashad Mustafa, Mirko Schulze, Peter Eilts, Ferit Küçükay, Tobias Jaeckel, Christoph Lund
A vehicle thermal management system is required to increase the operating efficiency of components, to transfer the heat efficiently and to reduce the energy required for the vehicle. Vehicle thermal management technologies, such as engine compartment encapsulation together with grille shutter control, enable energy efficiency improvements through utilizing waste heat in the engine compartment for heating powertrain components as well as cabin heating and reducing the aerodynamic drag . In this work, a significant effort is put on recovering waste heat from the engine compartment to provide additional efficiency to the components using a motor compartment insulation technique and grille shutter. The tests are accelerated and the cost is reduced using a co-simulation tool based on high resolution, complex thermal and kinematics models. The results are validated with experimental values measured in a thermal wind tunnel, which provided satisfactory accuracy. A control strategy is implemented to actuate the grille shutter according to the specific conditions and a sensitivity study is introduced using the most important parameters affecting energy management performance.
Technical Paper
2010-05-05
Wolfram Gottschalk, Olaf Magnor, Matthias Schultalbers, Jan Jakobs, Juergen Willand
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes. One of the main topics is the extension of the GCI® map area to both higher and lower brake mean effective pressures to spread the advantage in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Gökhan Tabanoglu
A novel scheduling concept, called switched scheduling, for efficient bandwidth usage in a FlexRay cluster is introduced. It assumes a synchronized FlexRay cluster divided into several branches using an intelligent active star. The concept allows the simultaneous usage of the same timeslot by different nodes as well as the realization of slot multiplexing without changing the FlexRay protocol version 2.1. Furthermore it enables the usage of heterogeneous cycle configurations for each branch while synchronization is still provided for the whole cluster. In addition to the scheduling concept a design approach based on AUTOSAR is presented to enable the model-driven development of the resulting schedule which is called multidimensional schedule.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Wolfgang Sinz, Robert Greimel, Heinz Hoschopf, Karsten Raguse, Henrik Färnstrand
The use of a newly developed approach results in a highly accurate three dimensional analysis of the occupant movement. The central point of the new method is the calculation of precise body-trajectories by fitting standard sensor-measurements to video analysis data. With the new method the accuracy of the calculated trajectories is better than 5 to 10 millimeters. These body trajectories then form the basis for a new multi-body based numerical method, which allows the three dimensional reconstruction of the dummy kinematics. In addition, forces and moments acting on every single body are determined. In principle, the body movement is reconstructed by prescribing external forces and moments to every single body requiring that it follows the measured trajectory. The newly developed approach provides additional accurate information for the development engineers. For example the motion of dummy body parts not tracked by video analysis can be determined. Furthermore the knowledge of the external forces and moments helps in the interpretation of the performance of the restraining systems.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Dorothea Liebig, Richard Clark, Juliane Muth, Ingo Drescher
Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed. In terms of regeneration behavior there was broad similarity between the two fuels, indicating that no adaptation of DPF management is required for vehicles operated on GTL fuel.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Tobias Carsten Müller, Olaf Krieger, Andreas Breuer, Klaus Lange, Thomas Form
As the complexity of current automobiles increases, new and innovative diagnostic methods for car maintenance and diagnostic inspection are greatly needed. This paper introduces a new diagnostic approach, which learns from previous repair cases with the help of neural networks in order to assist future diagnostic inspections. Practical experiments have shown that this approach is able to provide promising results even with the data that is already available today.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Leire Vadillo, Iñaki Pérez, Iñaki Eguía, Mª Ángeles Gutiérrez, Beatriz González, Uwe Paar, Martin Glatzer, Glenn S. Daehn, Rafael Iturbe
Looking for car weight reduction related to the use of High Strength Steels (HSS) for manufacturing body-in-white components, an innovative application of the high velocity forming techniques has been developed: the Electro Magnetic (EM) calibration and elimination of the spring-back effect (sidewall curl) of High Strength Steel U-channels. Within this paper the initial tests on L and U-shaped parts will be presented. Being the mechanical stiffness the main parameter for improving the coil endurance, the prediction of the coil strains under EM forces is a basic issue, which has been addressed within this study.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Kai Schoenebeck, Joachim Melbert, Florian Weiser
A new measurement system for dummy movement and chassis deformation in crash tests overcomes the restriction of blind areas in the existing photo camera observation. An inertial platform technique with micromechanical acceleration and rotation speed sensors is applied. Reconstruction of the original movement with tolerances of a few millimeters can be achieved. Various tests in automotive applications have demonstrated the performance and robustness of the system.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
M. Islam, F. Decker, E. de Villiers, A. Jackson, J. Gines, T. Grahs, A. Gitt-Gehrke, J. Comas i Font
This paper presents a complete methodology for performing finite-volume-based detached-eddy simulation for the prediction of aerodynamic forces and detailed flow structures of passenger vehicles developed using the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM®. The main components of the methodology consist of an automatic mesh generator, a setup and initialisation utility, a DES flow solver and analysis and post-processing routines. Validation of the predictions is done on the basis of detailed comparisons to experimental wind-tunnel data. Results for lift and drag are found to compare favourably to the experiments, with some moderate discrepancies in predicted rear lift. Point surface-pressure measurements, oil-streak images and maps of total pressure in the flow field demonstrate the approach's capabilities to predict the fine detail of complex flow regimes found in automotive aerodynamics. Standard DES methods can cost an order of magnitude more than traditional methods, but optimisation and automation of mesh generation, setup and solution algorithms ensure quick turn-around times.
Technical Paper
2008-10-06
Dorothea Liebig, Winfried Krane, Pauline Ziman, Thomas Garbe, Martin Hoenig
An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper
2008-06-23
Martin Tunér, Michał Pasternak, Fabian Mauss, Henry Bensler
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given. Hence parameter fitting for a number of kinetic processes, that depend also on the in cylinder flow conditions is replaced by a single parameter fitting for the turbulent mixing time.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Oldřich Vítek, Jan Macek, Miloš Polášek, Stefan Schmerbeck, Thomas Kammerdiener
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper
2008-03-30
Leonardo Miranda, Pedro L. Ferrador, Flavio Friesen
The acoustics insulation on the car body is ones of the more important target in the NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) vehicle development process. The method of SEA is a validated statistical approach to solve airborne noise transmission problems. In the vehicle analysis above 300 Hz where material trim and leakage paths makes a important contribution in the vehicle interior acoustics shows the methodology its advantages over deterministic methods.
Technical Paper
2007-10-07
Martin Dreyer, Rolf Radespiel, Matthias Körner, Friedhelm Decker
In this paper, the experimental and numerical simulation of the flow field in the simplified front wheel arch of a scaled-down VW Phaeton half-model (scale 1:2,5) is presented. For wind tunnel experiments a realistic, rotating wheel model with plexiglass treads (PMMA) was designed. The construction allowed for detailed measurements of the flow field directly at the brake disk by means of the stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The formation of the flow structures and the resulting three-dimensional boundary layers on the brake disk are analyzed. Furthermore, the oncoming air flow towards the brake disk and the flow field near the wheel rim openings were investigated. The experimental data is compared with results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann based solver Powerflow. The validation shows the potential and the limitations of the numerical approach and indicates areas of further improvement.
Technical Paper
2007-05-15
Klaus Wolff, Hans-Peter Lahey, Christof Nussmann, Jakob Nehl, Roger Wimmel, Hubertus Siebald, Heinrich Fehren, Matteo Redaelli, Anja Naake
Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
Technical Paper
2007-04-16
Markus C. Weikl, Frank Beyrau, Alfred Leipertz, Adam Loch, Christian Jelitto, Jürgen Willand
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper
2007-01-23
Rudolf R. Maly, Volker Schaefer, Heinz Hass, G. F. (Barry) Cahill, Pierre Rouveirolles, Anders Röj, Rainer Wegener, Xavier Montagne, Alessandra Di Pancrazio, Julian Kashdan
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles. The paper presents details of the approaches taken to co-optimize fuels and engines which were verified by practical engine tests by 5 independent European auto manufacturers.
Technical Paper
2006-10-16
Alexander Schenck zu Schweinsberg, Martin Klenk, Alf Degen
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper
2006-04-03
Thorsten Gerke, Carsten Petsch
Due to the introduction of new safety and comfort systems in modern automobiles, stability of the vehicle electrical system is increasingly important. The increasing number of electrical components demands that additional electrical energy be provided from robust, reliable supply sources in vehicles. When designing such systems, simulation is the development tool that is used to quickly obtain information regarding electrical system stability, battery charge level, and the distribution of power to the consumer systems. This paper describes how the Saber simulation environment from Synopsys Corporation helps develop increasingly demanding and complex vehicle power systems. A Volkswagen vehicle power net serves as an illustration.
Technical Paper
2005-10-09
Ralf Meyer
The prevention of any brake noise or brake-induced body vibrations is a key development target firmly integrated in the car development process. Emphasis is placed here on disc brake judder that is attributable to thickness variations in the disc. These deviations from the ideal plane surface can be caused either by wear and corrosion or by thermal stresses (changes within the microstructure of the disc material). They are termed “cold judder” and “thermal judder” respectively. During braking, possible vibration excitation passes through a wide frequency band due to the coupling between the judder frequency and the wheel rotational speed, and thus, resonant frequencies of many vehicle components can be excited. This includes wheel suspension components and the steering column. In this paper, it is reported on extensive investigations into the topic of “cold judder”. Both, complex vehicle measurements on a roller dynamometer and optimised simulation calculations have been carried out with the goal of describing excitation and the transmission mechanism within the car.
Technical Paper
2005-05-16
Georg Eisele, Klaus Wolff, Norbert Alt, Michel Hüser
The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain. The VINS procedure allows for explicit separation (and listening) of the sound field into airborne and structure-borne shares and each share can be further decomposed into its constituent paths and directions.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Gareth Thomas, Robert Zobel, Thomas Schwarz
Compatibility has been a passive safety research issue for many years. Great advancements in secondary (passive) safety have been achieved in the last decades through focussing on the self-protection level provided by passenger cars. The next step is to consider the other vehicle involved in the collision as well. Compatibility relates to the simultaneous improvement of both self- and partner- protection. Several tests procedures have been proposed around the world to assess the compatibility of passenger cars. None are considered ready to be implemented. This paper shows that controlling vehicle front-end geometry is the most feasible step to improve both self- and partner-protection. Through this, an increase in the structural interaction potential offered by passenger cars would result. To improve structural interaction, a convergence of front-end structures, to within certain vertical limits, is necessary. The required vertical width of a structural interaction zone is investigated in this paper, based on results to car-to-car, head-on crash-test simulations.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
Thorsten Gerke, Carsten Schanze
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important. Internal vehicle networks can be simulated on many different abstraction levels using various model levels and modeling technologies.
Technical Paper
2005-04-11
G. Gertsberg, N. Nagar, M. Lautzker, B. Bronfin, N. Moscovitch, S. Schumann
The growing demand for the use of magnesium alloys in the production of automotive powertrain components led to the development of creep resistant diecasting alloys MRI153M and MRI230D. The present paper addresses the main high-pressure die casting parameters, which significantly affect the performance of components, produced of these new alloys. A systematic study was carried out in order to correlate die-casting parameters to the performance of new alloys. The results obtained clearly indicated that optimization of molten metal and die temperatures, injection profile parameters and lubrication mixtures allowed to improve the die castability and service properties of the new alloys and produce high performance components with intricate geometry. This was manifested by production of several practical demonstrators such as gearboxes, oil pans, oil pumps and crankcases.
Technical Paper
2004-06-08
G. Suck, J. Jakobs, S. Nicklitzsch, T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, M. Hofmann, F. Zimmermann, C. Schulz
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98). Recent high-pressure spectroscopic studies of NO, O2 and CO2 are utilized to select an appropriate detection scheme for quantitative NO measurements under realistic conditions.
Technical Paper
2004-06-08
B. Heller, G. Lach, J.D. Baronick, W. Fabinski, M. Moede
For the measurement of NO and NO2 the CLD-analyzer (chemiluminescense detector) has been used for more than twenty-five years. The disadvantage of the CLD is that NO can be measured only. To obtain total NOX (NO+NO2) the exhaust gas sample has to flow through a catalytic converter, which reduces NO2 to NO. The converter has a efficiency between 90 and 100%. For precise NO and NO2 values it is an advantage to analyze NO and NO2 directly. This paper describes a new UV NOX-analyzer for the simultaneous measurement of NO and NO2. Two different configurations, for high and low concentrations, eg. CVS-bag analysis are presented. The performance of the analyzers is documented in comparison to the UV-RAS analyzer with converter for NOX [1] and the conventional CLD-analyzer. The benefits of the new analyzer compared to analyzers equipped with a converter are given in detailed test results.
Technical Paper
2004-03-08
B. Bronfin, A. Aghion, N. Fantetti, F. Von Buch, S. Schumann, H. Friedrich
The need to reduce weight of large and heavy components used by the automotive and aerospace industries such as engine block, cylinder head cover and helicopter gearbox housing has led to the development of new Mg gravity casting alloys that provide adequate properties and cost effective solution. The new Mg gravity casting alloys are designed for high stressed components that operate at a temperature up to 300°C. These new alloys exhibit excellent mechanical properties and creep resistance in T-6 conditions. The present paper aims at introducing three new Mg gravity casting alloys designated MRI 201S, MRI 202S and MRI 203S, which were recently developed by the Magnesium Research Institute of DSM and VW. Apart from the excellent high temperature performance of these alloys, they provide adequate castability and dimension stability along with good weldability and corrosion resistance. In addition, the paper will also introduce practical applications that demonstrate the capabilities of the newly developed alloys.
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