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Viewing 1 to 30 of 202
2014-05-20
Technical Paper
2014-01-9021
Y. Gene Liao, Molly O'Malley, Allen Quail
Fuel consumption reduction on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The Crankshaft-Integrated-Starter-Generator (C-ISG) is one of the parallel hybrid propulsions to improve the fuel economy. The C-ISG configuration is attractive because one electric machine can be used to propel the vehicle, to start the engine, and to be function as a generator. The C-ISG has been implemented in one M1083A1 5-ton tactical cargo truck. This paper presents the experimental assessments of the C-ISG hybrid truck characteristics. The experimental assessments include all electric range for on- and off-road mission cycles and fuel consumption for the high voltage battery charging. Stationary tests related to the charging profile of the battery pack and the silent watch time duration is also conducted.
2014-04-15
Technical Paper
2014-01-9077
Amit Shrestha, Ziliang Zheng, Tamer Badawy, Naeim Henein, Peter Schihl
This paper presents a new approach for the development of six different JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel cycle simulation. The approach involves a step-wise formulation of 2-, 3-, and 4-component surrogates from a list of pure compounds which are selected based on several criteria. A MATLAB code is developed and is used in conjunction with the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) and HYSYS software in order to formulate optimal surrogates. The first part of the results shows a comparison between the calculated and the measured DCNs for six surrogates. The differences in the properties such as the density, volatility, lower heating value, H/C ratio, molecular weight, and threshold sooting index of the surrogates and the JP-8 are also highlighted. This is followed by the evaluation of the surrogates with respect to the target JP-8 fuel. The evaluation is made in terms of ignition delays and the rate of heat release at three different IQT test temperatures. Finally, the test results are examined to evaluate the validity of the development approach and the potential use of the IQT in the development and validation of the JP-8 surrogates for application in diesel engines.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1921
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is investigating powertrain optimizations as a part of their participation in the EcoCAR2 design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. EcoCAR2 is the current three-year Department of Energy (DoE) Advanced Vehicle Technical Competition (AVTC) for 15 select university student teams competing on designing, building, and then optimizing their Plug-In Hybrid conversions of GM donated vehicles. WSU's powertrain design provides for approximately 56-64 km (35-40 miles) of electric driving before the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) powertrain is needed. When the ICE is started, the ICE traditionally goes through a cold start with the engine, transmission, and final drive all at ambient temperature. The ICE powertrain components are most efficient when warmed up to their normal operating temperature, typically around 90-100 °C. There are now some conventional vehicles currently available that employ active warm-up to recover waste heat from hot engine coolant to more quickly heat up the transmission fluid for reduced parasitic losses to improve fuel economy by approximately 2%. [1] [2] The WSU student team is investigating the improvements to fuel consumption (FC) of the ICE powertrain operation in the team's plug-in hybrid through pre-heating the ICE powertrain components before the engine is started.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1914
Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team provided its members with Modeling and Simulation training course for the second summer of the competition. EcoCAR2 is a three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) sponsored by General Motors and the Department of Energy. The course lasted three months and included 45 hours of formal lectures and class hands-on work and an estimated one hundred and fifty hours in home assignments that directly contributed to the team's deliverables. The course described here is unique. The design and class examples were extracted from an in-house complete vehicle simulation and control code to ensure hands-on, interactive training based on real-world problems. The course investigated the physics behind every major powertrain component of a hybrid electric vehicle and the different ways to model the components into a full vehicle simulation. Different engineering approaches were discussed to improve performance and fuel consumption while addressing the different tradeoffs.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1922
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles. During the first and second years of EcoCAR 2, teams executed an Energy Storage System (ESS) design, integration and commissioning process.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1927
Mengjia Cao, Idan Kovent, Jerry Ku
Abstract Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the most highly pursued technologies for improving energy efficiency while reducing harmful emissions. Thermal modeling and control play an ever increasing role with HEV design and development for achieving the objective of improving efficiency, and as a result of additional thermal loading from electric powertrain components such as electric motor, motor controller and battery pack. Furthermore, the inherent dual powertrains require the design and analysis of not only the optimal operating temperatures but also control and energy management strategies to optimize the dynamic interactions among various components. This paper presents a complete development process and simulation results for an efficient modeling approach with integrated control strategy for the thermal management of plug-in HEV in parallel-through-the road (PTTR) architecture using a flexible-fuel engine running E85 and a battery pack as the energy storage system (ESS). While the main motivation for the work is to deliver a design for the Department of Energy's EcoCAR2 Plugging in to the Future Competition, yet the framework and methodologies should be useful for any typical hybrid powertrain thermal and control development.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0751
Prabath Arachchige, Mohamed Abderrahmane, Ana M. Djuric
Path planning and re-planning for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robotic systems is challenging due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects the robot's tool frame position, orientation and singularity avoidance. These three characteristics represent the key elements for production planning and layout design of the automated manufacturing systems. The robot trajectory represents series of connected points in 3D space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot's base frames or predefined user frame. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). The trajectory planning requires first to check if robot can reach the selected part(s). This can be simply done by placing the part(s) inside the robot's work envelope. The robot's work envelope represents a set of all robots' reachable points without considering their orientation. To visualize the robot's work envelope many available tools can be used.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1434
Mark A. Shost, Ming-Chia Lai, Bizhan Befrui, Peter Spiekermann, Daniel L. Varble
Abstract Development of in-cylinder spray targeting, plume penetration and atomization of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi) multi-hole injector is a critical component of combustion developments, especially in the context of the engine downsizing and turbo-charging trend that has been adopted in order to achieve the European target CO2, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards the optimization of injector nozzle designs in order to improve spray characteristics. Development of accurate predictive models is desired to understand the impact of nozzle design parameters as well as the underlying physical fluid dynamic mechanisms resulting in the injector spray characteristics. This publication reports Large Eddy Simulation (LES) analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries. The objective is to extend previous works to include the effect of nozzle-hole length over diameter ratio (l/d) and fuel injection pressure on spray skew angle, spray plume cone angle and primary breakup length.
2014-02-17
Article
The four-year, $15 million development program with UW-Madison and Wayne State University aims to achieve diesel levels of efficiency and torque, with lower emissions and cost—in an advanced gasoline-fueled engine.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0010
Xin Yu, Kan Zha, Xi Luo, Dinu Taraza, Marcis Jansons
A means of validating numerical simulations has been developed which utilizes chemiluminescence measurements from an internal combustion engine. By incorporating OH*, CH2O* and CO2* chemiluminescence sub-mechanisms into a detailed n-heptane reaction mechanism, excited species concentration and chemiluminescence light emission were calculated. The modeled line-of-sight chemiluminescence emission allows a direct comparison of simulation results to experimentally measured chemiluminescence images obtained during combustion in an optically accessible compression ignition engine using neat n-heptane fuel. The spray model was calibrated using in-cylinder liquid penetration length Mie scattering measurements taken from the jets of the high-pressure piezo injector. The experimental, two dimensional images of CH2O* and OH* chemiluminescence during the low and high temperature heat release period were recorded with an intensified CCD camera in a wavelength range covering emission from these species.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0255
Bizhan Befrui, Andreas Aye, Peter Spiekermann, Daniel L. Varble, Mark A. Shost, Ming-Chia Lai, Jin Wang
Improvement of spray atomization and penetration characteristics of the gasoline direct-injection (GDi ) multi-hole injector is a critical component of the GDi combustion developments, especially in the context of engine down-sizing and turbo-charging trend that is adopted in order to achieve the European target CO₂, US CAFE, and concomitant stringent emissions standards. Significant R&D efforts are directed towards optimization of the nozzle designs, in order to improve the GDi multi-hole spray characteristics. This publication reports VOF-LES analyses of GDi single-hole skew-angled nozzles, with β=30° skew (bend) angle and different nozzle geometries. The objective is to extend previous works to include the effect of nozzle-hole skew angle on the nozzle flow and spray primary breakup. VOF-LES simulations of a single nozzle-hole of a purpose-designed GDi multi-hole seat geometry, with three identical nozzle-holes per 120° seat segment, are performed. The simulations are complemented by comparison with the spray near-field breakup structure obtained through optical shadowgraphy and phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0898
Kan Zha, Xin Yu, Ming-Chia Lai, Marcis Jansons
Low cetane JP-8 fuels have been identified as being difficult to use under conventional diesel operation. However, recent focus on low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes has led to an interest in distillate hydrocarbon fuels having high volatility and low autoignition tendency. An experimental study is performed to evaluate low-temperature combustion processes in a small-bore optically-accessible diesel engine operated in a partially-premixed combustion mode using low-cetane Sasol JP-8 fuel. This particular fuel has a cetane number of 25. Both single and dual injection strategies are tested. Since long ignition delay is a consequence of strong autoignition resistance, under the conditions examined, low cetane Sasol JP-8 combustion can only take place with a double injection strategy: one pilot injection event in the vicinity of exhaust TDC and one main injection event near firing TDC. In this work, the effects of autoignition properties are examined by comparing the behavior of a high cetane number JP-8 fuel with that of a low CN Sasol JP-8.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1535
Dennis A. Corrigan, Xiao Liu
The central performance requirement for electrochemical energy storage systems for the full power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is pulse power capability, typically 25-40 kW pulse power capability for 10 seconds duration. Standard test procedures utilize constant current pulses. However, in the HEV application, the power transient for acceleration is a ramped power transient and the power transient for regenerative braking power is a descending power ramp. This paper compares the usable power capability of batteries and supercapacitors under constant current, constant power, and ramped power transients. Although the usable battery discharge power is relatively insensitive to the transient type applied, 10-40% higher regenerative braking charge capability is observed with ramped power transients. With supercapacitors, the discharge and charge capability is much more strongly dependent on the type of power transient. The discharge power capability in a ramped power transient is 2.4 times that in a constant current pulse.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1129
PO-I Lee, Nick Polcyn, Ming-Chia Lai
Gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engines have been adopted increasingly by the automotive industry in the recent years due to their performance, effects on the environment, and customers' demand on advanced technology. However, the knowledge of detailed combustion process in such engines is still not thoroughly analyzed and understood. With optically accessible engines (OAE) and advanced measuring techniques, such as high-speed digital imaging, the in-cylinder combustion process is made available directly to researchers. The present study primarily focuses on the effects of different parameters of engine control on the combustion process, such as fuel types, valve deactivation, ignition timing, spark energy, injection timing, air-fuel ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation. Three engine heads of a 2.0L GDI engine are used with modification to acquire different optical access. Pure (E0) and ethanol-blended (E85) gasoline are used, and the engine speed and coolant temperature are kept low to imitate start-up situations in the normal driving condition.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0326
Florin Mocanu, Dinu Taraza
The increased interest for using alternative fuels in modern diesel engines requires better combustion control to achieve safe and efficient operation with fuels characterized by different physical and chemical properties. Knowing the ignition delay and the cylinder peak pressure will allow adapting the injection strategy, mainly injection timing to maintain good engine efficiency when operating with different alternative fuels. The use of the measured instantaneous crankshaft speed to estimate peak cylinder pressure and ignition delay is very attractive because speed is already a parameter in the ECU of the engine. Based on models using powertrain dynamics, the paper presents the development of several techniques using the measured speed to estimate the main combustion parameters for single cylinder and four cylinder diesel engines.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0570
Idan David Regev, Jerry Ku
Wayne State University EcoCAR2 team is designing and modifying a GM-donated Chevrolet Malibu 2013 to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. A Freescale-donated Center Stack Unit (CSU) touchscreen display is used for Human Machine Interface (HMI). Surveys were conducted to better understand CSU functionality expectations. One required function was increasing driving efficiency. Other hybrid and electric vehicles HMI systems present driving and environmental settings efficiencies such as average fuel economy, lifetime fuel economy, electric charge used, fuel used, distances driven on each power source, instantaneous power gauge and instantaneous driver efficiency gauge. These offer drivers a large sum of information but with no provision to analyze and improve one's driving habits unless one has the required knowledge to understand the causes behind the values presented. While all these will still be available, the team seeks to incorporate the latter by adopting a debrief method widely used in military, sports and gaming applications.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0549
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team is participating in a design competition for the conversion of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in hybrid. The team created a repeatable on-road test drive route using local public roads near the university that would be of similar velocity ranges contained in the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule - a weighted combination of four different EPA-based drive cycles (US06 split into city and highway portions, all of the HWFET, first 505 seconds portion of UDDS). The primary purpose of the team's local on-road route was to be suitable for testing the team's added hybrid components and control strategy for minimizing petroleum consumption and tail pipe emissions. Comparison analysis of velocities was performed between seven local routes and the EcoCAR2 4-Cycle Drive Schedule. Three of the seven local routes had acceptable equivalence for velocity (R₂ ≻ 0.80) and the team selected one of them to be the on-road test drive route. The secondary purpose was to explore various approaches for evaluating route equivalence.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1682
Valentin Soloiu, Henry Ochieng, Jabeous Weaver, Marvin Duggan, Spencer Harp, Brian Vlcek, Craig Jenkins, Marcis Jansons
"The Single Fuel Forward Policy" legislation enacted in the United States mandates that deployed U.S. military ground vehicles must be operable with aviation fuel (JP-8). This substitution of JP-8 for diesel raises concerns about the compatibility of this fuel with existing reciprocating piston engine systems. This study investigates the combustion, emissions, and performance characteristics of blends of JP-8 and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuels with similar cetane numbers (CN), 48 (JP-8) and 47(ULSD), respectively, in a direct injection (DI) compression ignition engine over the load range of 3-8 bar imep at 1400 rpm. The results showed that JP-8 blends and ULSD had ignition delays ranging from approximately 1.0-1.4 ms and an average combustion duration time in the range of 47-65 CAD. Cylinder maximum heat flux values were found to be between 2.0 and 4.4 MW/m₂, with radiation flux increasing much faster than convection flux while increasing the imep. Combustion maximum bulk temperature was in the range of 1700 K to 2500K, and also increased with load.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0541
Kevin L. Snyder, Love Lor, Jerry Ku
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts. Finally, a battery pack and an on-board charger are added to complete the plug-in hybrid vehicle powertrain.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1772
Idan David Regev, Kevin Snyder, Jerry Ku, Rahul Harish, Love Lor, Xiao Liu
The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 2 Team designed the conversion of a GM donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) Plug-In Hybrid vehicle within a 9 month timeframe. This fast prototyping project used the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (EVDP). Various tradeoffs were made to meet all competition requirements and to make the vehicle as competitive as possible within budget, time and experience limitations. The chosen PTTR architecture, nicknamed by the team as “E2D2” (Ethanol-Electric Dual-Drivetrain), provides up to 35.7 electric only miles and a fuel economy of 60 miles per gallons gasoline equivalent (mpgge) or 3.96 liters gasoline equivalent (lge) per one hundred km. This is accomplished using an E85 engine-driven front traction system and a battery-electric-motors-driven rear traction system. The team developed the control system and designed the packaging and integration of all required components including the Energy Storage System (ESS).
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0302
Macam S. Dattathreya, Harpreet Singh
Mobility assessment for combat vehicles is often a great challenge for the military due to various subjective attributes. The attributes' characteristics vary significantly depending on the vehicle type and its operating environments such as terrain, weather, and human factors. A clear definition and relationship between multiple attributes including human factors is necessary to assess mobility. To the best of authors' knowledge, many existing mobility assessment techniques use complex analytical methods and focus on individual attributes. In this paper, for the first time, the authors propose a novel approach to define vehicle mobility and its influencing attributes using qualitative linguistic fuzzy variables, which are defined as having values between 0 and 1. The authors also propose a fuzzy logic mobility (FLM) model and a simulation approach to assess a combat vehicle's mobility.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1199
Valentin Soloiu, April Covington, Jeff Lewis, Marvin Duggan, James LoBue, Marcis Jansons
Recent legislation entitled “The Single Fuel Forward Policy” mandates that all vehicles deployed by the US military be operable with aviation fuel (JP-8). Therefore, the authors are conducting an investigation into the influence of JP-8 on a diesel engine's performance. The injection, combustion, and performance of JP-8, 20-50% by weight in ULSD (diesel no.2) mixtures (J20-J50) produced at room temperature, were investigated in a small indirect injection, high compression ratio (24.5), 77mm separate combustion chamber diesel engine. The effectiveness of JP8 for application in an auxiliary power unit (APU) at continuous operation (100% load) of 4.78bar bmep/2400rpm was investigated. The blends had an ignition delay of approximately 1.02ms that increased slightly in relation to the amount of JP-8 introduced. J50 and diesel no.2 exhibited similar characteristics of heat release, the premixed phase being combined with the diffusion combustion. The maximum combustion pressure remained relatively constant for all blends, 71.7bar for diesel and increased slightly by 0.68bar for J50, with the peak pressure position being delayed by 0.3CAD for the J50.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1317
Chandrasekharan Jayakumar, Ziliang Zheng, Umashankar Joshi, Walter Bryzik, Naeim Henein, Eric Sattler
This paper investigates the effect of boost pressure and intake temperature on the auto-ignition of fuels with a wide range of properties. The fuels used in this investigation are ULSD (CN 45), FT-SPK (CN 61) and two blends of JP-8 (with CN 25 and 49). Detailed analysis of in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release traces are made to correlate the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the events immediately following start of injection leading to combustion. A CFD model is applied to track the effect of intake pressure and injection strategy on the formation of different chemical species and study their role and contribution in the auto-ignition reactions. Results from a previous investigation on the effect of intake temperature on auto-ignition of these fuels are compared with the results of this investigation.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1311
Kan Zha, Xin Yu, Radu Florea, Marcis Jansons
Biodiesel is a desirable alternative fuel for the diesel engine due to its low engine-out soot emission tendency. When blended with petroleum-based diesel fuels, soot emissions generally decrease in proportion to the volume fraction of biodiesel in the mixture. This paper presents an experimental investigation of biodiesel impact on in-cylinder soot temperature and concentrations in a single-cylinder, small-bore, optical access, compression ignition engine. While in-cylinder soot measurements have been widely performed with two-color thermometry implemented on digital cameras, their finite dynamic range limits the observation of soot due to its dramatically different radiation intensities. To expand the dynamic range of two-color measurements, this investigation utilizes three cameras. A high-speed CMOS color camera with a wide-band Bayer filter is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of soot temperature and KL factor for high intensity soot clouds within one cycle. Additionally, two intensified CCD cameras with one narrow band pass filter on each lens are simultaneously used to measure low intensity soot clouds.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0089
Massuod Alatrash, Ayman Mansour, Mohammad obeidat
In this paper, we proposed a distributed Engineering Computer Aided Learning System. Instead of attending engineering teaching sessions, engineering students are able to interact with the software to gain the same amount of teaching materials. Besides, they will interact with other engineering students from other Engineering schools. The proposed software has the ability to examine the student step by step to reach certain goals. The training and the examination will be different based on the student level and his learning process. Using this system the role of excellent professor can be achieved. The software will have two sessions, i.e. test session and learning session. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between multi schools and different educational systems that can provide the students with a large set of training materials. The system was built using JAVA programming language. A GUI has been developed to provide the students with simple and easy way to interact with the system.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0685
Radu Florea, Kan Zha, Xin Yu, Marcis Jansons, Dinu Taraza, Naeim Henein
As a result of recent focus on the control of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) modes, dual-fuel combustion strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) have been developed. Reactivity stratification of the auto-igniting mixture is thought to be responsible for the increase in allowable engine load compared to other LTC combustion modes such as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The current study investigates the effect of ethanol intake fuel injection on in-cylinder formaldehyde formation and stratification within an optically accessible engine operated with n-heptane direct injection using optical measurements and zero-dimensional chemical kinetic models. Images obtained by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde using the third harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser indicate an increase in formaldehyde heterogeneity as measured by the fluorescence signal standard deviation. The experimental observations are complemented by a discussion regarding definitions of “reactivity”.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-1315
Xin Yu, Kan Zha, Radu Florea, Marcis Jansons
Due to the single fuel concept implemented by the US military, the soot production of diesel engines fueled with JP-8 has important implications for military vehicle visual signature and survivability. This work compares in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation of JP-8 and ULSD in a small-bore, optical diesel engine. Experimental engine-out soot emission measurements are compared to crank-angle resolved two-color measurements of soot temperature and optical thickness, KL. A 3-D chemical kinetic-coupled CFD model with line of sight integration is employed in order to investigate the soot distribution in a 2-D projection associated with the imaging plane, as well as to aid in interpreting the third dimension along the optical depth which is not available within the experimental work. The study also examines the effect of volatility on soot emission characteristics by CFD simulation. With the same injection pressure and timing for both fuels considered, heat release analysis shows JP-8 has more energy release than ULSD, however two color measurements indicate JP-8 produces less in-cylinder soot throughout the cycle as well as lower engine out measurements compared to ULSD.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0162
Hai Wu, Jyh-Shin Chen, Meng-Feng Li, Russell P. Durrett, Wen Chen, Kevin L. Moore
An iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been developed for a test cell electro-hydraulic, fully flexible valve actuation system to track valve lift profile under steady-state and transient operation. A dynamic model of the plant was obtained from experimental data to design and verify the ILC algorithm. The ILC is implemented in a prototype controller. The learned control input for two different lift profiles can be used for engine transient tests. Simulation and bench test are conducted to verify the effectiveness and robustness of this approach. The simple structure of the ILC in implementation and low cost in computation are other crucial factors to recommend the ILC. It does not totally depend on the system model during the design procedure. Therefore, it has relatively higher robustness to perturbation and modeling errors than other control methods for repetitive tasks.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0098
Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Utpal Dutta, Srinivas Gunti
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is of great significance in the lean design of vehicles. The present work is concerned with the objective of cross-functional optimization (i.e. MDO) of automotive body. For simplicity, the main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the body meeting NVH and crash safety targets. The stated goal can be achieved following either of two different ways: classic response surface method (RSM) and practical MDO methodology espoused recently. Even though RSM seems to be able to find a design point which satisfies the constraints, the problem is with the time associated with running such CAE algorithms that can provide a single optimal solution for multi-disciplinary areas such as NVH and crash safety. The present work compares the results of both the methods for a real-world vehicle and concludes that the current practical MDO methodology is substantially more efficient when compared to RSM-based optimization and predicts nearly the same solution as the latter.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0967
Richard Young
There is little agreement in the field of driving safety as to how to define cognitive distraction, much less how to measure it. Without a definition and metric, it is impossible to make scientific and engineering progress on determining the extent to which cognitive distraction causes crashes, and ways to mitigate it if it does. We show here that different studies are inconsistent in their definitions of cognitive distraction. For example, some definitions do not include cellular conversation, while others do. Some definitions confound cognitive distraction with visual distraction, or cognitive distraction with cognitive workload. Other studies define cognitive distraction in terms of a state of the driver, and others in terms of tasks that may distract the driver. It is little wonder that some studies find that cognitive distraction is a negligible factor in causing crashes, while others assert that cognitive distraction causes more crashes than drunk driving. Perhaps the largest problem however is that the definitions typically refer to distraction as a reduction of attention, but never define attention.
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