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Viewing 1 to 30 of 234
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0395
Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Gunti R. Srinivas, Sanketh Gowda, Goutham kurnool
An attractive strategy for joining non-ferrous or non-metallic substrates is through adhesive bonding. This technique of joining also offers the functionality for joining dissimilar materials. However, doubts are often expressed on the ability of such joints to perform on par with other mechanical fastening methodologies such as welding, riveting, etc. In the current study, adhesively-bonded single lap shear (SLS) and double lap shear (DLS) joints are studied initially under quasi-static (at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min) tensile and flexural loading using steel and aluminum substrates, and an epoxy-based adhesive of a renowned make. The study includes usage of similar substrates made of only steel or aluminum, or a combination of steel and aluminum substrates. Load-displacements curves for bonded joints are presented for varying overlap lengths.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1423
Richard Young, Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh
Many metrics have been used in an attempt to predict the effects of secondary tasks on driving behavior. Such metrics often give rise to seemingly paradoxical results, with one metric suggesting increased demand and another metric suggesting decreased demand for the same task. For example, for some tasks, drivers maintain their lane well yet detect events relatively poorly. For other tasks, drivers maintain their lane relatively poorly yet detect events relatively well. These seeming paradoxes are not time-accuracy trade-offs or experimental artifacts, because for other tasks, drivers do both well. The paradoxes are resolved if driver demand is modeled in two orthogonal dimensions rather than a single “driver workload” dimension. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the published data from four simulator, track, and open road studies of visual-manual secondary task effects on driving.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1427
Richard Young, Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman
The Dimensional Model of Driver Demand is extended to include auditory-vocal (i.e., pure “voice” tasks), and Mixed-Mode tasks (i.e., a combination of auditory-vocal mode with visual-only, or with Visual-Manual modes). The extended model was validated with data from 24 participants using the 2014 Toyota Corolla infotainment system in a video-based surrogate driving venue. Twenty-two driver performance metrics were collected, including total eyes-off-road time (TEORT), mean single glance duration (MSGD), and proportion of long single glances (LGP). Other key metrics included response time (RT) and miss rate to a Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT). The 22 metrics were simplified using Principal Component Analysis to two dimensions. The major dimension, explaining 60% of total variance, we interpret as the attentional effects of cognitive demand. The minor dimension, explaining 20% of total variance, we interpret as physical demand.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1247
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
The objective of the research into modeling and simulation was to provide an iterative improvement to the Wayne State EcoCAR 2 team's math-based design tools for use in evaluating different outcomes based on hybrid powertrain architecture tweaks, controls code development and testing. This paper includes the results of the team's work in the EcoCAR 2 competition for university student teams to create and test a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reducing petroleum oil consumption, pollutant emissions, and Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Plant model validations and advancements brought the vehicle plant model directionally closer to the actual vehicle's experimental data and achieved a significant error reduction in 10 of 11 metrics detailed in the research. The EcoCAR 2 competition events provided the opportunity for the team to get experimental data of the vehicle's behavior on the vehicle chassis dyno and the vehicle on road testing from General Motors proving ground test tracks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1524
Feng Zhu, Binhui Jiang, Clifford C. Chou
This paper represents the development of a new design methodology based on data mining theory for decision making in vehicle crashworthy products development. The new methodology allows exploring the big crash simulation dataset to discover the underlying complicated relationships between vehicle crash responses and design variables at multi-levels, and deriving design rules based on the whole vehicle safety requirements to make decisions towards the component and sub-component level design. The method to be developed will resolve the issue of existing design approaches for vehicle crashworthiness, i.e. limited information exploring capability from big datasets, which may hamper the decision making and lead to a poor design. A preliminary design case study is presented to demonstrate the performance of the new method. This method will have direct impacts on improving vehicle safety design and can readily be applied to other complex systems.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0655
Farid Bahiraei, Amir Fartaj, Gholm-Abbas Nazri
Li-ion batteries are leading candidates for hybrid and electric vehicles as environmentally friendly means of transport. The main barriers for widely deployment of these batteries in electric vehicles are safety, cost, and poor low temperature performance, which are all challenges related to battery thermal management system (BTMS). Therefore, an effective thermal management strategy is crucial for enhancing the system lifetime and increasing vehicle range. In this study, a coupled thermal-electrochemical model for prismatic cells is primarily developed to simulate the battery cell chemistry and heat generation. This model is also used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive cooling systems. The active cooling system under study utilizes cooling plates and water-glycol mixture as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM).
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1529
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou, Malhar Kumar
Periprosthetic fractures refer to the fractures that occur in the vicinity of the implants of joint replacement arthroplasty. Most of the fractures during an automotive frontal collision involve the long bones of the lower limbs (femur and tibia). Since the prevalence of persons living with lower limb joint prostheses is increasing, periprosthetic fractures that occur during vehicular accidents are likely to become a considerable burden on health care systems. It is estimated that approximately 4.0 million adults in the U.S. currently live with a Total Knee Replacement (TKR). Therefore, it is essential to provide countermeasures in the automotive design that minimize the severity of the periprosthetic fractures. The aim of the present study is to develop an advanced finite element model that simulates the possible fracture patterns that are likely during vehicular accidents involving occupants who have joint prostheses in situ.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1487
Zhenhai Gao, Chuzhao Li, Hongyu Hu, Chaoyang Chen, Hui Zhao, Helen YU
At the collision moment, a driver’s lower extremity will be in different braking stage, which leads to different posture of lower extremity with various muscle activations. These will affect the driver’s injury during collision but it was not fully investigated. In this study, a simulated collision scene was constructed and the posture and muscle activation of lower extremity at the collision moment were studied. 20 participants (10 male and 10 female) were recruited for the simulated collision test and muscle activation of 8 major muscles in both right and left legs were measured. Muscle activation of lower extremity in different postures was analyzed. It was found that the driver’s right leg was possible to be on the brake, in the air or even on the accelerator at the collision moment. The left leg was on the floor all along. Significant differences of right leg’s muscle activation were found between different postures.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1256
Miriam Di Russo, Zhuoran Zhang, Hao Wu, Kathryn della Porta, Jerry C. Ku
This paper details the first year of modeling and simulation, and powertrain control development for the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platforms, plant models and electronic control units to support the supervisory control system development. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in the final stages of Year One competition, which, as the “non-vehicle year,” focuses on the preliminary design, simulation, and hybrid modes selection for the team’s selected vehicle architecture. The team chose a Pre- Transmission Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its performance capability, multiplicity of operational modes, and drivetrain configuration that retains the vehicle’s rear-wheel drive configuration.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0311
Umashankar Mohan Chandra Joshi, Manan Jyotin Trivedi, Ziliang Zheng, Peter Schihl, Naeim A. Henein
All previous correlations of the ID period in diesel engines show a positive activation energy, which means that shorter ID periods occur at higher charge temperatures, while the compressed air temperature at start of injection is in the range of ( 850-1000 K). This is not the case in the autoignition of most homogeneous hydrocarbons/air mixtures which experience the NTC regime in the same temperature range, where the ignition delay increases at higher temperatures. Accordingly the global activation energy, measured by the slope in the Arrhenius plot, should vary from positive to negative values.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1421
Sean Seaman, Li Hsieh, Richard Young
This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0- and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0789
Apoorv P. Talekar, Ming-Chia Lai, Ke Zeng, Bo Yang, Marcis Jansons
With increasing interest to reduce the dependency on gasoline and diesel, alternative energy sources like compressed natural gas (CNG) is a viable option for internal combustion engines. Spark-ignited (SI) CNG engine is the simplest way to utilize CNG in engines, but DI Diesel-CNG dual fuel engine is known to offer improvement in combustion efficiency and a reduction in exhaust gases. Dual fuel engine has characteristics similar to both SI engine and diesel engine, which makes the combustion process more complex. This paper reports the computational fluid dynamics simulation of both DI dual fuel CI and SI CNG engines. In diesel-CNG dual fuel engine simulations and experiments, attention was on ignition delay, transition from auto-ignition to flame propagation, and heat released from the combustion of diesel and gaseous fuel. The end-gas autoignition processes under certain test conditions were also demonstrated.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0224
Robin Y. Cash, Edward Lumsdaine, Apoorv Talekar, Bashar AbdulNour
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting in reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the theoretical equations that define the process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0335
Samuel M. Odeyinka, Ana M. Djuric
Path planning and re-planning for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) Fanuc robotics family is challenging due to complex kinematic structure and application conditions which affects the robot’s tool frame position, orientation and different possible configurations. These characteristics represent the key elements for production planning and layout design of the automated manufacturing systems. The robot trajectory represents a series of connected points in 3D space. Each point is defined with its position and orientation related to the robot’s base frames or predefined user frame. The robot will move from point to point using the desired motion type (linear, arc, or joint). This motion requires the inverse kinematic solution. This paper presents a detailed inverse kinematic solution for Fanuc 6R (Rotational) robot family using a well-known geometric method. Each joint angular position has been geometrically analyzed and all possible solutions are included in the decision equations.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0334
Lucas e Silva, Tennakoon Mudiyanselage Tennakoon, Mairon Marques, Ana M. Djuric
A new trend in automation is integration of collaborative robots. A collaborative robot or cobot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial tasks. Engineering Technology at Wayne State University offer several robotic courses, trainings and research in the advanced robotic lab. Recently we purchased a Baxter ® collaborative robot made by Rethink RoboticsTM. This Cobot is dual arm robot manipulator with vision based control. The goal of our research is to develop Matlab based toolbox for Baxter ®, which includes several modules: Kinematic, Jacobian matrix and singularity conditions, Dynamics of links, Dynamics of actuators and model based platform for control purposes. This Cobot has two arms and the calculation should be done for both arms. Doing the calculation for both arms individually, is very long and tedious process.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1520
Gunti R. Srinivas, Anindya Deb, Clifford C. Chou
The present work is concerned with the objective of design optimization of an automotive front end structure meeting both occupant and pedestrian safety requirements. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the mass of the front end structure of a passenger car meeting the safety requirements without sacrificing the performance targets. The front end structure should be sufficiently stiff to protect the occupant by absorbing the impact energy generated during a high speed frontal collision and at the same time it should not induce unduly high impact loads during a low speed pedestrian collision. These two requirements are potentially in conflict with each other; however, the goal of design would be to find an optimum solution that meets both the requirements.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0337
Ana M. Djuric, R.J. Urbanic, J.L. Rickli
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (cobots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. Cobots, unlike traditional robots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although cobots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of ‘cobots’. The framework consists of the system level, workcell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hrs to program (and reprogram) them.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0336
R.J. Urbanic, R. Hedrick, Ana M. Djuric
Current manufacturing systems typically fabricate several products or product variants, and are expected to meet high productivity and quality levels. This has led to the adoption of cellular manufacturing that contain 6 axis industrial robots, computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centers, and sophisticated material transportation systems. This factory automation design strategy allows for rebalancing of tasks and reduces the physical redesign of stations when changeovers due to new requirements are introduced. There are many challenges when developing a travel path for serial 6 degree of freedom (DOF) robot based systems. The kinematic structure, and the behaviour of robot based on the configuration, need to be considered in order to determine whether a travel path is feasible as exceeding the travel or joint limit reach may be an issue.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0338
R.J. Urbanic, Ana M. Djuric
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. However, this work envelope based work is limited as it does not contain relevant information regarding the relationships between the robot, or mechanisms within a system. This includes the general kinematic structures within the system, the location of the working part(s), tools, process parameters and other operation related parameters. Here an operation is defined as consisting of the travel path, manipulator/end-effector or working tool, tool and part location, and orientation, and any other related process related parameters.
2015-09-29
Technical Paper
2015-01-2844
Majeed Nader, John Liu
Abstract The EU emergency call (eCall) system is used as a vehicle emergency telematic system to reduce the fatalities and save more lives in vehicular incidents. We have designed and implemented the CRC module for the in-vehicle system (IVS) of the EU eCall on an FPGA device. As the CRC is a crucial part of the system to detect bit errors during the transmission, this paper presents the hardware design procedures of the CRC module. The system reads the 1120 serial input bits of the Minimum Set of Data (MSD), calculates the 28-bits of the CRC parity bits, and generates the MSD appended with CRC as the output signal that is consisting of 1148 serial bits. The system is designed in Verilog HDL, compiled, synthesized, and simulated for different MSDs. The results are shown and analyzed for varied applied MSDs. The flowchart of the implemented algorithm is illustrated and discussed.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2418
Zheming Li, Xin Yu, Guillaume Lequien, Ted Lind, Marcis Jansons, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter
Abstract The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature reaction region usually has been used to determine the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. Both OH Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence diagnostics have been widely used in optical engines for measuring the LOL. OH* chemiluminescence is radiation from OH being formed in the exited states (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information across the imaged volume. In contrast, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the energy ground state. The OH-LIF images only show OH distribution in the thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. When both these techniques have been applied in earlier work, it has often been reported that the chemiluminescence measurements result in shorter lift-off lengths than the LIF approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0496
Anindya Deb, Ranga Srinivas Gunti, Clifford Chou, Utpal Dutta
The present work is concerned with the objective of multi disciplinary design optimization (MDO) of an automotive front end structure using truncated finite element model. A truncated finite element model of a real world vehicle is developed and its efficacy for use in design optimization is demonstrated. The main goal adopted here is minimizing the weight of the front end structure meeting NVH, durability and crash safety targets. Using the Response Surface Method (RSM) and the Design Of Experiments (DOE) technique, second order polynomial response surfaces are generated for prediction of the structural performance parameters such as lowest modal frequency, fatigue life, and peak deceleration value.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1385
Li Hsieh, Sean Seaman, Richard Young
Abstract As advanced electronic technology continues to be integrated into in-vehicle and portable devices, it is important to understand how drivers handle multitasking in order to maintain safe driving while reducing driver distraction. NHTSA has made driver distraction mitigation a major initiative. Currently, several types of Detection Response Tasks (DRTs) for assessing selective attention by detecting and responding to visual or tactile events while driving have been under development by an ISO WG8 DRT group. Among these DRTs, the tactile version (TDRT) is considered as a sensitive surrogate measure for driver attention without visual-manual interference in driving, according to the ISO DRT Draft Standard. In our previous study of cognitive demand, our results showed that the TDRT is the only surrogate DRT task with an acute sensitivity to a cognitive demand increase in an auditory-vocal task (i.e., n-Back verbal working memory task).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1396
Xiangjie Meng, Xin Tao, Wenjun Wang, Chaofei Zhang, Bo Cheng, Bo Wang, Chengpeng Zhou, Xiaoping Jin, Chao Zeng, John Cavanaugh, Chaoyang Chen
Abstract Low back pain has a higher prevalence among drivers who have long term history of vehicle operations. Vehicle vibration has been considered to contribute to the onset of low back pain. However, the fundamental mechanism that relates vibration to low back pain is still not clear. Little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to determine the vibration frequency that causes the increase of muscle activity that can lead to muscle fatigue and low back pain. This study investigated the effects of various vibration frequencies on the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscle responses among 11 seated volunteers exposed to sinusoidal whole body vibration varying from 4Hz to 30Hz at 0.4 g of acceleration. The accelerations of the seat and the pelvis were recorded during various frequency of vibrations. Muscle activity was measured using electromyography (EMG).
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1324
Guangtian Gavin Song, Chin-An Tan
Abstract Nowadays, as an irreplaceable means alongside CAD and testing, CAE is more and more widely applied with advanced material modeling and simulation methods continuously being explored, so as to get more accurate result as testing. In vehicle product development process, door slam durability evaluation is an important measurement for body closure structure. So far numerous effort has been taken to develop more mature methods to well define door slam simulation in stress and fatigue life analysis. Overall all methods ever being applied can be summarized as two categories, linear stress based method and nonlinear stress based method. The methodologies, such as inertia relief method, direct transient response solution, or local strain approach, can be included in linear stress based method with linear material properties as symbol in CAE model. In local strain approach, contact surface could be defined in the necessary area with consideration for more realistic load transfer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1235
Kevin L. Snyder, Jerry Ku
Abstract The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1482
Bisheshwar Haorongbam, Anindya Deb, Clifford Chou
Abstract Hat-sections, single and double, made of steel are frequently encountered in automotive body structural components. These components play a significant role in terms of impact energy absorption during vehicle crashes thereby protecting occupants of vehicles from severe injury. However, with the need for higher fuel economy and for compliance to stringent emission norms, auto manufacturers are looking for means to continually reduce vehicle body weight either by employing lighter materials like aluminum and fiber-reinforced plastics, or by using higher strength steel with reduced gages, or by combinations of these approaches. Unlike steel hat-sections which have been extensively reported in published literature, the axial crushing behavior of hat-sections made of fiber-reinforced composites may not have been adequately probed.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1384
Richard Young, Jing Zhang
Abstract In this age of the Internet of Things, people expect in-vehicle interfaces to work just like a smartphone. Our understanding of the reality of in-vehicle interfaces is quite contrary to that. We review the fundamental principles and metrics for automotive visual-manual driver distraction guidelines. We note the rise in portable device usage in vehicles, and debunk the myth of increased crash risk when conversing on a wireless device. We advocate that portable electronic device makers such as Apple and Google should adopt driver distraction guidelines for application developers (whether for tethered or untethered device use in the vehicle). We present two design implications relevant to safe driving. First, the Rule of Platform Appropriateness: design with basic principles of ergonomics, and with driver's limited visual, manual and cognitive capacity, in mind. Second, the Rule of Simplicity: thoughtful reduction in the complexity of in-vehicle interfaces.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1230
Ahmed Imtiaz Uddin, Jerry Ku
Abstract It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1483
Anindya Deb, N Shivakumar, Clifford Chou
Abstract Rigid polyurethane (PU) foam finds wide applications as a lightweight material in impact safety design such as improving occupant safety in vehicle crashes. The two principal reacting compounds for formulating such foam are variants of polyol and isocyanate. In the present study, an alternative mechanical engineering-based approach for determining, with confidence, the desirable ratio of reacting compounds for formulation of a rigid/crushable PU foam for mechanical applications is demonstrated. According to the present approach, PU foam samples are prepared by varying the mixing ratio over a wide range. The desirable mixing ratio is shown to be the one that optimizes key mechanical properties under compression such as total absorbed energy, specific absorbed energy and energy absorption efficiency.
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