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Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Matthew C. Robinson, Nigel Clark
Conventional crank-based engines are limited by mechanical, thermal, and combustion inefficiencies. The free piston of a linear engine generator reduces frictional losses by avoiding the rotational motion and crankshaft linkages. Instead, electrical power is generated by the oscillation of a translator through a linear stator. Because the free piston is not geometrically constrained, dead center positions are not specifically known. This results in a struggle against adverse events like misfire, stall, over-fueling, or rapid load changes. It is the belief that incorporating springs will have the dual benefit of increasing frequency and providing a restoring force to aid in greater cycle to cycle stability. For dual free piston linear engines the addition of springs has not been fully explored, despite growing interest and literature. This investigation reviews the current modeling literature and advances the fundamental understanding of the free piston linear engine with springs by developing an idealized, nondimensional model.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Peter Bonsack, Ross Ryskamp, Marc Besch, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, John Nuszkowski
Abstract Due to tightening emission legislations, both within the US and Europe, including concerns regarding greenhouse gases, next-generation combustion strategies for internal combustion diesel engines that simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions while improving thermal efficiency have drawn increasing attention during recent years. In-cylinder combustion temperature plays a critical role in the formation of pollutants as well as in thermal efficiency of the propulsion system. One way to minimize both soot and NOx emissions is to limit the in-cylinder temperature during the combustion process by means of high levels of dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) combined with flexible fuel injection strategies. However, fuel chemistry plays a significant role in the ignition delay; hence, influencing the overall combustion characteristics and the resulting emissions. Therefore, the Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) Working Group of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) specified and formulated a matrix of nine test fuels for advanced combustion engines based on the variation of three properties: cetane number, aromatic content, and 90 percent distillation temperature.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jay Wilhelm, Christopher Gioia, Wade Huebsch, Mridul Gautam
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a tube launched munition that transforms into a gliding UAV, and is currently being researched at West Virginia University. In order to properly transform, the moment of transformation needs to be controlled. A simple timer was first envisioned to control transformation point for maximum distance. The distance travelled or range of an HP can directly be modified by varying the launch angle. In addition, an internal timer would need to be reprogrammed for any distance less than maximum range due to the nominal time to deployment varying with launch angle. A method was sought for automatic wing deployment that would not require reprogramming the round. A body angle estimation system was used to estimate the pitch of the HP relative to the Earth to determine when the HP is properly oriented for the designed glide slope angle. It also filters out noise from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was used to estimate the pitch of the HP while an algorithm determines when to deploy the wings.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Vinay Jakkali, Wade Huebsch, Ashish Robert, Shanti Hamburg, Patrick H. Browning
There is an ever growing need in the aircraft industry to increase the performance of a flight vehicle. To enhance performance of the flight vehicle one active area of research effort has been focused on the control of the boundary layer by both active and passive means. An effective flow control mechanism can improve the performance of a flight vehicle by eliminating boundary layer separation at the leading edge (as long as the energy required to drive the mechanism is not greater than the savings). In this paper the effectiveness of a novel active flow control technique known as dynamic roughness (DR) to eliminate flow separation in a stalled NACA 0012 wing has been explored. As opposed to static roughness, dynamic roughness utilizes small time-dependent deforming elements or humps with amplitudes that are on the order of the local boundary layer height to energize the local boundary layer. DR is primarily characterized by the maximum amplitude and operating frequency. A flow visualization study was conducted on a NACA 0012 wing at an angle of attack of 13° and Reynolds numbers of 25,000 and 50,000 at fixed maximum DR amplitude and varying frequencies.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Patrick H. Browning, Mridul Gautam, Wade Huebsch
This paper documents the numerical and experimental investigation of a new type of wing section being developed at West Virginia University that shows good potential for use in wings in low Reynolds number flows. These wing sections have been designed with a minimum number of flat sides, or facets, which are arranged in such a way as to promote flow over the surface similar to traditional smooth airfoil shapes, but without the complexity of the typically highly contoured airfoil form. 2D numerical techniques have been employed to determine appropriate geometric limitations of the wing section facets, and finite span wings comprised of these faceted wing sections have been tested in wind tunnels in wing-only and wing-plus-body configurations to determine their basic aerodynamic performance. The latest results of these efforts, as well as some speculation as to the mechanisms at work are presented.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Jay Wilhelm, Joesph Close, Wade Huebsch, Mridul Gautam
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a round that transforms into a UAV after being launched. Some HP's are fired from a rifled barrel and must be de-spun and wings-level for lifting surfaces to be deployed. Control surfaces and controllers for de-spinning and wings-leveling were required for initial design of an HP 40 mm. Wings, used as lifting surfaces after transformation, need to be very close to level with the ground when deployed. First, the tail surface area needed to de-spin a 40 mm HP was examined analytically and simulated. Next, a controller was developed to maintain a steady de-spin rate and to roll-level the projectile in preparation of wing deployment. The controller was split into two pieces, one to control de-spin, and the other for roll-leveling the projectile. An adaptable transition point for switching controllers was identified analytically and then adjusted by using simulations. The initial roll position may never be the same due to the round being inserted into its launch tube at any roll angle, therefore an adaptable method was used to shorten the time required to become wings-level.
Technical Paper
2013-09-17
Richard Brian Cain, Patrick Browning, Wade Huebsch, Jay Wilhelm
Significant efforts have been made in the research of Pulsed Detonation Engines (PDEs) to increase the reliability and longevity of detonation based propulsion systems for use in manned aircraft. However, the efficiency, durability, and low mechanical complexity of PDEs opens up potential for use in disposable unmanned-vehicles. This paper details the steps taken for producing a miniaturized pulse detonation engine at West Virginia University (WVU) to investigate the numerically generated constraining dimensions for Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) cited in this paper. Initial dimensions for the WVU PDE Demonstrator were calculated using fuel specific DDT spatial properties featured in the work of Dr. Phillip Koshy Panicker, of The University of Texas at Arlington. The WVU demonstrator was powered using oxygen and acetylene mixed in stoichiometric proportions. A low-energy spark initiates deflagration and the formation of a pressure front that propagates towards the aft end of the PDE.
Technical Paper
2012-05-15
Derek Johnson, Louise Ayre, Nigel Clark, Thomas Balon, Paul Moynihan
Oxides of nitrogen (NO ) emissions, produced by engines that burn fuels with atmospheric air, are known to cause negative health and environmental effects. Increasingly stringent emissions regulations for marine engines have caused newer engines to be developed with inherent NO reduction technologies. Older marine engines typically have a useful life of over 20 years and produce a disproportionate amount of NO emissions when compared with their newer counterparts. Wet scrubbing as an aftertreatment method for emissions reduction was applied to ocean-going marine vessels for the reduction of sulfur oxides (SO ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The gaseous absorption process was explored in the laboratory as an option for reducing NO emissions from older diesel engines of harbor craft operating in ports of Houston and Galveston. A scrubber system was designed, constructed, and evaluated to provide the basis for a real-world design. The details of this research have been presented in previously reported work.
Technical Paper
2011-10-18
Jay Wilhelm, Patrick Browning, Mridul Gautam, Wade Huebsch
Tube Launched-Unmanned Air Vehicles (TL-UAV) are munitions that alter their trajectories during flight to enhance the capabilities by possibly extending range, increasing loiter time through gliding, and/or having guided targeting capabilities. Traditional munition systems, specifically the tube-launched mortar rounds, are not guided. Performance of these "dumb" munitions could be enhanced by updating to TL-UAV and still utilize existing launch platforms with standard propellant detonation firing methods. The ability to actively control the flight path and extend range of a TL-UAV requires multiple onboard systems which need to be identified, integrated, assembled, and tested to meet cooperative function requirements. The main systems, for a mortar-based TL-UAV being developed at West Virginia University (WVU), are considered to be a central hub to process information, aerodynamic control devices, flight sensors, a video camera system, power management, and a wireless transceiver. A camera is used to provide video for a "man-in-the-loop" operator to steer the munition.
Technical Paper
2011-09-13
Gergis William, Mark S. Shoukry, Jacky C. Prucz
Gasoline-powered vehicles compose the vast majority of all light-duty vehicles in the United States. Improving fuel economy is currently a topic of great interest due to the rapid rise in gasoline costs as well as new fuel-economy and greenhouse-gas emissions standards. The Chevrolet Silverado is currently one of the top selling trucks in the U.S. and has been previously modeled using the commercial finite element code LS-DYNA by the National Crash Analysis Center (NCAC). This state-of the art model was employed to examine alternative weight saving configurations using material alternatives and replacement of traditional steel with composite panels. Detailed mass distribution analysis demonstrated the chassis assembly to be an ideal candidate for weight reduction and was redesigned using Aluminum 7075-T6 Alloy and Magnesium Alloy HM41A-F. Finite element analysis demonstrated that both the Aluminum and Magnesium configurations are feasible alternatives, allowing a weight reduction of 60% and 70% respectively of the original chassis design while reducing overall stress through the model and consequently providing a higher factor of safety.
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Daniele Littera, Marc Besch, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Adam Sayres, Hemanth Kappanna, Mridul Gautam, Adewale Oshinuga
In order to comply with stringent 2010 US-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on-road, Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions regulations, the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system has been judged by a multitude of engine manufacturers as the primary technology for mitigating emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As virtually stand-alone aftertreatment systems, SCR technology further represents a very flexible and efficient solution for retrofitting legacy diesel engines as the most straightforward means of cost-effective compliance attainment. However, the addition of a reducing agent injection system as well as the inherent operation limitations of the SCR system due to required catalyst bed temperatures introduce new, unique problems, most notably that of ammonia (NH₃) slip. Even the most refined systems, while performing flawlessly during standardized certification tests, may encounter excursions during real-world operation, thereby leading to possible formation of secondary emissions and emit unacceptable high NOx.
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Alessandro Cozzolini, Vincenzo Mulone, Prabash Abeyratne, Daniele Littera, Mridul Gautam
Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are recognized as the most efficient technology for particulate matter (PM) reduction, with filtration efficiencies in excess of 90%. Design guidelines for DPFs typically are: high removal efficiency, low pressure drop, high durability and capacity to resist high temperature excursions during regeneration events. The collected mass inside the trap needs to be periodically oxidized to regenerate the DPF. Thus, an in-depth understanding of filtration and regeneration mechanisms, together with the ability of predicting actual DPF conditions, could play a key role in optimizing the duration and number of regeneration events in case of active DPFs. Thus, the correct estimation of soot loading during operation is imperative for effectively controlling the whole engine-DPF assembly and simultaneously avoidingany system failure due to a malfunctioning DPF. A viable way to solve this problem is to use DPF models. This paper presents a DPF model jointly developed by West Virginia University and University of Rome Tor Vergata.
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Daniele Littera, Alessandro Cozzolini, Marc Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Mridul Gautam
This paper discusses the design and qualification of a High Temperature Sampling System (HTSS), capable of stripping the volatile fraction from a sample flow stream in order to provide for quantification of total, solid and volatile particulate matter (PM) on a near real-time basis. The sampling system, which incorporates a heated diesel oxidation catalyst, is designed for temperatures up to 450°C. The design accounts for molecular diffusion of volatile compounds, solid particles diffusion and reaction kinetics inside one channel of the oxidation catalyst. An overall solid particle loss study in the sampling was performed, and numerical results were compared with experimental data gathered at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) and West Virginia University's Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (THDVETL). Data indicated that "dry soot" aerosol streams, which were produced at a single engine operating mode on an engine test stand point using a dynamometer were largely unaffected by the sampling system.
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Vincenzo Mulone, Alessandro Cozzolini, Prabash Abeyratne, Marc Besch, Daniele Littera, Mridul Gautam
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are well assessed exhaust aftertreatment devices currently equipping almost every modern diesel engine to comply with the most stringent emission standards. However, an accurate estimation of soot content (loading) is critical to managing the regeneration of DPFs in order to attain optimal behavior of the whole engine-after-treatment assembly, and minimize fuel consumption. Real-time models can be used to address challenges posed by advanced control systems, such as the integration of the DPF with the engine or other critical aftertreatment components or to develop model-based OBD sensors. One of the major hurdles in such applications is the accurate estimation of engine Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as a function of time. Such data would be required as input data for any kind of accurate models. The most accurate way consists of employing soot sensors to gather the real transient soot emissions signal, which will serve as an input to the model. Objective of this study is model a DPF in real-time by means of the 1-D code ExhAUST (Exhaust Aftertreatment Unified Simulation Tool).
Article
2010-01-20
January marks an annual tradition at SAE International that has been taking place since its beginning in 1905—the end of one president’s tenure and the beginning of another’s.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
David L. McKain, Nigel N. Clark, Richard J. Atkinson, Zac J. Luzader, Bradley Rutledge
Yard hostlers are tractors (switchers) used to move containers at ports and storage facilities. While many speed-time driving cycles for assessing emissions and performance from heavy-duty vehicles exist, a driving cycle representative of yard hostler activity at Port of Long Beach, CA was not available. Activity data were collected from in-use yard hostlers as they performed ship loading/unloading, rail loading/unloading and other yard routines, primarily moving containers on trailers or carts. The activity data were then used to develop four speed-time driving cycles with durations of 1200 seconds, representing light and heavy ship activities and light and heavy load rail activities. These cycles were constructed using actual speed-time data collected during activity logging and the cycles created were statistically comparable to each subset of activity data.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Yuebin Wu, Nigel Clark, Daniel Carder, Benjamin Shade
Dual primary full-flow dilution tunnels represent an integral part of a heavy-duty transportable emissions measurement laboratory designed and constructed to comply with US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 40 Part 1065 requirements. Few data exist to characterize the evolution of particulate matter (PM) in full scale dilution tunnels, particularly at very low PM mass levels. Size distributions of ultra-fine particles in diesel exhaust from a naturally aspirated, 2.4 liter, 40 kW ISUZU C240 diesel engine equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were studied in one set of standard primary and secondary dilution tunnels with varied dilution ratios. Particle size distribution data, during steady-state engine operation, were collected using a Cambustion DMS500 Fast Particulate Spectrometer. Measurements were made at four positions that spanned the tunnel cross section after the mixing orifice plate for the primary dilution tunnel and at the outlet of the secondary dilution tunnel. Gaseous emissions measurements were utilized as surrogate confirmation of adequate mixing at the various measurement locations.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Michelangelo Ardanese, Raffaello Ardanese, Marc C. Besch, Theodore R. Adams, Venkata Sathi, Benjamin C. Shade, Mridul Gautam, Adewale Oshinuga, Matt Miyasato
For engine operations involving low load conditions for an extended amount of time, the exhaust temperature may be lower than that necessary to initiate the urea hydrolyzation. This would necessitate that the controller interrupt the urea supply to prevent catalyst fouling by products of ammonia decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary for the engine controller to have multiple calibrations available in regions of engine operation where the aftertreatment does not perform well, so that optimal exhaust conditions are guaranteed during the wide variety of engine operations. In this study the test engine was equipped with a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), and programmed with two different engine calibrations, namely the low-NOx and the low fuel consumption (low-FC). The low-NOx calibration, to be used in case of insufficient heat in the exhaust stream, was developed to meet the 2010 emission standards for heavy-duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
John Nuszkowski, Gregory J. Thompson, Michael Ursic
Pollutants are a major issue of diesel engines, with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and airborne total particulate matter (TPM) of primary concern. Current emission standards rely on laboratory testing using an engine dynamometer with a standard test procedure. Results are reported as an integrated value for emissions from a transient set of engine speed and load conditions over a length of time or a set of prescribed speed-load points. To be considered a valid test by the US EPA, the measured engine speed and load are compared to the prescribed engine speed and load and must be within prescribed regression limits. To explore differences in NOx, TPM, carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and fuel consumption based on the control algorithm used to set the engine speed and load, five diesel engines (1991 DDC S60, 1992 DDC S60, 1999 Cummins ISM, and 2004 Cummins ISM) were operated on the heavy-duty transient FTP cycle with two different engine control settings and a second 1992 DDC S60 incorporated three different engine control settings.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
John Nuszkowski, Gregory J. Thompson
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles. The 95% confidence interval for a set of three FTP tests was used to determine significant differences in the calculated and acquired combustion parameters between cylinders, repeat tests (days and months later), fuels, engines, and a repeat section of the FTP.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Raffaello Ardanese, Michelangelo Ardanese, Marc C. Besch, Theodore R. Adams, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Benjamin C. Shade, Mridul Gautam, Adewale Oshinuga, Matt Miyasato
The temporary deactivation of the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) device due to malfunction requires the engine control to engage multiple engine-out calibrations. Further, it is expected that emitted particles will be different in composition, size and morphology when an engine, which meets the 2010 particulate matter (PM) gravimetric limits, is programmed with multiple maps. This study investigated the correlation between SCR-out/engine-out PM emissions from an 11-liter Volvo engine. Measurement of PM concentrations and size distributions were conducted under steady state and transient cycles. Ion Chromatograph analysis on gravimetric filters at the SCR-out has revealed the presence of sulfates. Two different PM size-distributions were generated over a single engine test mode in the accumulation mode region with the aid of a design of experiment (DOE) tool. The SCR-out PM size distributions were found to correlate with the two engine-out distributions.
Article
2008-12-09
The drive for ever-increasing efficiency is leading researchers to look into long-haul trailers as an area where improvements can be made. With 73% of the weight of 14.6-m (48-ft) trailers being in the chassis, floor, and structural materials, these were the targets of research presented at the SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress.
Technical Paper
2008-10-07
Jacky C. Prucz, Samir N. Shoukry, Gergis W. William, Thomas H. Evans
The objective of this paper is to devise innovative lightweight design concepts for heavy vehicle structures. A 1 to 4 prototype of a trailer was built to assess the feasibility of use of polymer composites and to have first hand experience with possible bonding methods to join the design parts. In the current trailer configurations, floor assembly constitutes 70% of the overall weight. The results indicated that sandwich technology with a lightweight core that adds flexural stiffness to the overall design provides a solution to decrease the weight of heavy vehicle systems.
Technical Paper
2008-10-06
Pardis Khayyer, Parviz Famouri
Fuel economy is an important issue in urban driving cycle where vehicles are required to operate most of the time at lower power than the average demand. High power fuel cells operate economically at higher loads. Hence, conventional combination of a high power fuel cell and an additional storage device such as ultracapacitor or battery units does not necessarily provide an economic configuration. This paper offers a new configuration that consists of two fuel cells combined with a battery unit to provide a fuel efficient source of power for hybrid electric fuel cell vehicles in urban driving applications. The control algorithm and power management strategy for a combination of two downsized fuel cells and a storage device is provided and its performance of operation is compared with traditional topologies.
Technical Paper
2008-06-23
Nigel N. Clark, Clinton R. Bedick, Lijuan Wang, Gregory Thompson, David McKain, Bradley Ralston
Most transient heavy duty diesel emissions data in the USA have been acquired using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), a heavy-duty diesel engine transient test schedule described in the US Code of Federal Regulations. The FTP includes both urban and freeway operation and does not provide data separated by driving mode (such as rural, urban, freeway). Recently, a four-mode engine test schedule was created for use in the Advanced Collaborative Emission Study (ACES), and was demonstrated on a 2004 engine equipped with cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). In the present work, the authors examined emissions using these ACES modes (Creep, Cruise, Transient and High-speed Cruise) and the FTP from a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 1992 12.7 liter pre-EGR engine. The engine emissions were measured using full exhaust dilution, continuous measurement of gaseous species, and filter-based Particulate Matter (PM) measurement. Run-averaged brake-specific emissions varied between modes, partly because the average power varied between modes.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
John Nuszkowski, Gregory J. Thompson, Ray Tincher, Nigel N. Clark
Biodiesel fuels benefit both from being a renewable energy source and from decreasing in carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM) emissions relative to petroleum diesel. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from biodiesel blended fuels reported in the literature vary relative to baseline diesel NOx, with no NOx change or a NOx decrease found by some to an increase in NOx found by others. To explore differences in NOx, two Cummins ISM engines (1999 and 2004) were operated on 20% biodiesel blends during the heavy-duty transient FTP cycle and the steady state Supplemental Emissions Test. For the 2004 Cummins ISM engine, in-cylinder pressure data were collected during the steady state and transient tests. Three types of biodiesel fuels were used in the blends: soy, tallow (animal fat), and cottonseed. The FTP integrated emissions of the B20 blends produced a 20-35% reduction in PM and no change or up to a 4.3% increase in NOx over the neat diesel. The neat diesel was a type-2 diesel with a cetane number of 49.9 and sulfur content of 320ppm.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Benjamin C. Shade, Daniel K. Carder, Gregory J. Thompson, Mridul Gautam
A work-based window method has been developed to calculate in-use brake-specific oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for all engine speeds and engine loads. During an in-use test, engine speed and engine torque are read from the engine's electronic control unit, and along with time, are used to determine instantaneous engine power. Instantaneous work is calculated using this power and the time differential in the data collection. Work is then summed until the target amount of work is accumulated. The emissions levels are then calculated for that window of work. It was determined that a work window equal to the theoretical Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle work best provides a means of comparison to the FTP certification standard. Also, a failure criterion has been established based on the average amount of power generated in the work window and the amount of time required to achieve the target work window to determine if a particular work window is valid. Data collected during Phase IV of West Virginia University's in-use testing program were used to show that the work window method produces in-use brake-specific NOx values similar to the 30 second Not-To-Exceed (NTE) window method, which was applicable at the time of testing, and the continuous NTE window method over different highway and urban test routes for a variety of engine configurations.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Thomas L. Darlington, Dennis Kahlbaum, Gregory Thompson
In-service 1994-2003 heavy-duty trucks were acquired by West Virginia University (WVU), equipped with the WVU Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS) to measure on-road NOx, and driven on road routes near Sabraton, West Virginia, and extending up to Washington, PA to obtain real-world oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions data on highways and local roads. The MEMS measured 5Hz NOx, and load was obtained from the electronic control unit. Trucks were loaded to about 95% of their gross vehicle weights. Emissions in g/mi and g/bhp-hr were computed over the various road routes. In addition, some of the trucks were tested 1 to 2 years later to determine emission changes that may have occurred for these trucks. Emission results varied significantly over the different road routes due to different speeds, driving patterns, and road grades. Careful analysis of the available data indicates that both the brake-specific and distance-specific NOx emissions on later model year trucks were lower than the earlier model year trucks, and these average NOx reductions were approximately proportional to the reductions in the brake-specific emission standards.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Gregory J. Thompson, Daniel K. Carder, Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam
As part of the 1998 Consent Decrees concerning alternative ignition strategies between the six settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States government, the engine manufacturers agreed to perform in-use emissions measurements of their engines. As part of the Consent Decrees, pre- (Phase III, pre-2000 engines) and post- (Phase IV, 2001 to 2003 engines) Consent Decree engines used in over-the-road vehicles were tested to examine the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). A summary of the emissions of NOx and CO2 and fuel consumption from the Phase III and Phase IV engines are presented for 30 second “Not-to-Exceed” (NTE) window brake-specific values. There were approximately 700 Phase III tests and 850 Phase IV tests evaluated in this study, incorporating over 170 different heavy duty diesel engines spanning 1994 to 2003 model years. Test vehicles were operated over city, suburban, and highway routes. The results show that the post Consent Decree engines' 30 second NTE brake-specific NOx values were below the NOx NTE allowance limit.
Technical Paper
2008-04-14
Deepak Gupta, Bhaskaran Gopalakrishnan, Hima Bindu Godavarthy
The goal of this research work is to explore the energy savings that may result from productivity improvement recommendations. The productivity improvement recommendations on setup time reduction and finished goods inventory reduction were taken from Industrial Assessment Center (IAC-WVU) and Industries of the Future (IOF-WVU) databases at West Virginia University (WVU) and analyzed to evaluate the corresponding energy savings. A simulation analysis was performed to compare the peak energy demands (kW) in the present and proposed scenarios for the setup time reduction recommendation. It was found that productivity improvement recommendations can result in significant energy savings (2% to 4%).
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