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2014-11-23
WIP Standard
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
2014-09-26
WIP Standard
AIR4766/2A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides information on aircraft cabin air quality, including: - Airborne contaminant gases, vapors, and aerosols. - Identified potential sources. - Comfort, health and safety issues. - Airborne chemical measurement. - Regulations and standards. - Operating conditions and equipment that may cause aircraft cabin contamination by airborne chemicals (including Failure Conditions and normal Commercial Practices). - Airborne chemical control systems. It does not deal with airflow requirements.
2014-07-01
Standard
AIR4362A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) protection considerations for environmental control system (ECS) design. It is intended to familiarize the ECS designer with the subject in order to know what information will be required to do an ECS design where NBC protection is a requirement. This is not intended to be a thorough discussion of NBC protection. Such a document would be large and would be classified. Topics of NBC protection that are more pertinent to the ECS designer are discussed in more detail. Those of peripheral interest, but of which the ECS designer should be aware are briefly discussed. Only radiological aspects of nuclear blast are discussed. The term CBR (Chemical, Biological, and Radiological) has been used to contrast with NBC to indicate that only the radiological aspects of a nuclear blast are being discussed.
2013-08-06
Standard
AS4073A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines the requirements for air cycle air conditioning systems used on military air vehicles for cooling, heating, ventilation, and moisture and contamination control. General recommendations for an air conditioning system, which may include an air cycle system as a cooling source, are included in MIL-E-18927E (AS) and JSSG-2009. Air cycle air conditioning systems include those components which condition high temperature and high pressure air for delivery to occupied and equipment compartments and to electrical and electronic equipment. This document is applicable to open and closed loop air cycle systems. Definitions are contained in Section 5 of this document.
2013-07-01
WIP Standard
AIR1168/3A
This section presents methods and examples of computing the steady-state heating and cooling loads of aircraft compartments. In a steady-state process the flows of heat throughout the system are stabilized and thus do not change with time. In an aircraft compartment, several elements compose the steady-state air conditioning load.
2013-02-14
Standard
AS8040B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters used in the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft de-icing
2012-10-15
Standard
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management.
2012-10-09
Standard
ARP85F
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) contains guidelines and recommendaitons for subsonic airpolane air conditioning systems and components, including requirements, design philosophy, testing and ambient conditions. The airplane air conditioning system comprises that arrangement of equipment, controls and indicators that supply and distribute air to the occupied compartments for ventilation, pressurization, and temperature and moisture control. The principal features of the system are: a. A supply of fresh air from at least two sources with independent control valves b. A means for heating c. A means for cooling (air or vapor cycle units and heat exchangers) d. A means for removign excess moisture from the air supply e. A ventilation subsystem f. A temperature control subsystem g.
2012-10-02
WIP Standard
AIR1168/10A
This AIR is arranged in the following two sections: 2E - thermodynamic characteristics of working fluids, which contains thermodynamic diagrams for a number of working fluids currently in use and supplied by various industrial firms; and 2F - properties of heat transfer fluids, which contains data, primarily in graphical form, on fluids that are frequently used in fluid heat transfer loops. Other properties of the environment, gases, liquids, and solids, can be found, as follows, in AIR 1168/9: 2A-Properties of the natural environment; 2B-Properties of gases; 2C-Properties of liquids and 2D- Properties of solids.
2012-08-15
WIP Standard
AS6263
This standard provides contaminant limits for aircraft engine and APU bleed air compounds that are surrogates for the range of compounds that may be present in bleed air. The surrogate compound limits will provide users of the standard a measure for determining suitability of bleed air purity for aircraft occupant safety, health and comfort. This document provides guidance for assessing multiple contaminants when present together in bleed air. The contaminant limits in this standard are applicable for engine qualification process on engine test beds and flying test bed aircraft, and for criteria to assess bleed air purity of operational aircraft.
2012-04-24
WIP Standard
ARP1796B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) discusses design philosophy, system and equipment requirements, installation environment and design considerations for military and commercial aircraft systems within the Air Transport Association (ATA) ATA 100 specification, Chapter 36, Pneumatic. This ATA system/chapter covers equipment used to deliver compressed air from a power source to connecting points for other systems such as air conditioning, pressurization, ice protection, cross-engine starting, air turbine motors, air driven hydraulic pumps, on board oxygen generating systems (OBOGS), on board inert gas generating systems (OBIGGS), and other pneumatic demands.
2011-10-17
Standard
AIR910C
The purpose of this report is to provide information on ozone, its effects, generally accepted ozone exposure limits (aviation and non-aviation), and methods of its control in high altitude aircraft. Sources of information are listed and referenced in the text.
2011-10-17
Standard
AIR860B
It is intended that the scope of this information report be limited to electrical heating of passenger, crew, and cargo compartments only. No attempt has been made to develop the complete electrical circuitry associated with the electrical heating components; however, the electrical circuitry required for heating component operation, safety, and monitoring will be included as available. Specific design information is given for various modern aircraft utilizing electrical heating. Each aircraft discussed will be identified by alphabetical letter designation and included in the appropriate appendix.
2011-10-17
Standard
AS6144A
This specification covers the general requirements for the installation of sound and thermal insulation in aircraft.
2011-08-19
Standard
AIR805C
The purpose of this information report is to present the factors that affect the design and development of aircraft jet blast windshield rain removal systems. Rain removal system design will generally be unique to specific aircraft. Design of these systems typically requires a preliminary design for the system based on available empirical data to be followed with a laboratory development program and a flight test validation program. Published windshield rain removal performance test data is available only for limited windshield configurations.
2011-08-10
Standard
AIR1102B
This information report presents data and recommendations pertaining to the design and development of transparent area washing systems for aircraft.
2011-08-10
Standard
AIR746C
This document supplements ARP85, to extend its use in the design of ECS for supersonic transports. The ECS provides an environment controlled within specified operational limits of comfort and safety, for humans, animals and equipment. These limits include pressure, temperature, humidity, conditioned air velocity, ventilation rate, thermal radiation, wall temperature, audible noise, vibration, and composition (ozone, contaminants, etc.) of the environment. The ECS is comprised of equipment, controls, and indicators that supply and distribute conditioned air to the occupied compartments. This system is defined within the ATA 100 specification, Chapter 21. It interfaces with the pneumatic system (Chapter 36 of ATA 100), at the inlet of the air conditioning system shutoff valves.
2011-08-10
Standard
ARP86C
These recommnedations are written to cover the subject of engine exhaust gas to air type heat exchangers under the following clasifications: Cabin Heating: (All occupied regions and windshields heating). Wing and empennage heating. Engine and Accesory Heating: (When heater is installed as part of the aircraft). These recommendations are not intended to cover the design of secondary exchangers which may be required when engine exhaust gas to air type heat exchangers are used in supplying ventilating air.
2011-08-10
Standard
ARP735A
This Aerospace Recommended Practice outlines the design, installation, testing and field maintenance criteria for aerospace vehicle cryogenic duct systems. These recommendations are considered currently applicable guides and are subject to revision due to the continuing development within industry.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: 1. Establishment of design requirements; 2. Evaluation of properties of materials; and 3 development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/11A
The prediction of vehicle temperatures during ascent through the earth's atmosphere requires an accurate knowledge of the aerodynamic heating rates occurring at the vehicle surface. Flight parameters required in heating calculations include the local airstream velocity, pressure, and temperature at the boundary layer edge for the vehicle location in question. In addition, thermodynamic and transport air properties are required at these conditions. Both laminar and turbulent boundary layers occur during the boost trajectory. Experience has shown that laminar and turbulent heating are of equivalent importance. Laminar heating predominates in importance in the stagnation areas, but the large afterbody surfaces are most strongly affected by turbulent heating. Once the local flow conditions and corresponding air properties have been obtained, the convective heating rate may be calculated for a particular wall temperature.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/12A
In the design of spacecraft, heat transfer becomes a criterion of operation to maintain structural and equipment integrity over long periods of time. The spacecraft thermal balance between cold space and solar, planetary, and equipment heat sources is the means by which the desired range of equipment and structural temperatures are obtained. With the total spacecraft balance set, subsystem and component temperatures can be analyzed for their corresponding thermal requirements. This section provides the means by which first-cut approximations of spacecraft surface, structure, and equipment temperatures may be made, using the curves of planetary and solar heat flux in conjunction with the desired coating radiative properties. Once the coating properties have been determined, the material to provide these requirements may be selected from the extensive thermal radiative properties tables and curves.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/5A
Like the technologies to which it contributes, the science of instrumentation seems to be expanding to unlimited proportions. In considering instrumentation techniques, primary emphasis was given in this section to the fundamentals of pressure, temperature, and flow measurement. Accent was placed on common measurement methods, such as manometers, thermocouples, and head meters, rather than on difficult and specialized techniques. Icing, humidity, velocity, and other special measurements were touched on briefly. Many of the references cited were survey articles or texts containing excellent bibliographies to assist a more detailed study where required.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convectoin, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involvs the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneoulsy.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/9A
This AIR is arranged in the following four sections: 2A - properties of the natural environment; 2B - properties of gases; 2C - properties of liquids; and 2D - properties of solids.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/8A
The purpose of this section is to provide methods and a set of convenient working charts to estimate penalty values in terms of take-off fuel weight for any given airplane mission. The curves are for a range of specific fuel consumption (SFC) and lift/drag ratio (L/D) compatible with the jet engines and supersonic aircraft currently being developed. A typical example showing use of the charts for an air conditioning system is given. Evaluation of the penalty imposed on aircraft performance characteristics by the installation of an air conditioning system is important for two reasons: 1) it provides a common denominator for comparing systems in the preliminary design stage, thus aiding in the choice of system to be used; and 2) it aids in pinpointing portions of existing systems where design improvements can be most readily achieved.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/7A
The requirements for cabin pressure for all types of aircraft have been established for the Armed Services in military specifications, by the Federal Aviation Authority and by the SAE in recommendations. These requirements limit the cabin altitude to 8000 ft in transport and long range military aircraft. In the fighter aircraft, when the pilot uses oxygen and the mission duration is relatively brief, cabin altitudes up to 25,000 ft are allowed. Supersonic transports, which operate at high speed and high altitude, have short flight durations and high rates of descent. To avoid an uncomfortable rate of change of cabin pressure when descending from high altitudes, a maximum cabin altitude of 6000 ft is recommended.
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/6A
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
2011-05-25
Standard
AIR1823B
The Engineering Analysis System (EASY) computer program is summarized in this report. It provides techniques for analysis of steady-state and dynamic (transient) environmental control system (ECS) performance, control system stability, and for synthesis of optimal ECS. General uses of a transient analysis computer program for ECS design and development, and general features of EASY relative to these uses, are presented. This report summarizes the nine analysis options of EASY, EASY program organization for analyzing ECS, data input to the program and resulting data output, and a discussion of EASY limitations. A generalized computer program for determining transient thermodynamic performance of aircraft ECS, and methods for dynamic analysis of aircraft ECS are discussed in this report.
2011-04-26
Standard
AS5379A
This specification covers the general requirements for cabin air safety valves for use in pressurized cabins of aircraft to prevent excess positive and negative pressures in the cabin and to provide a means of cabin pressure release in case of emergency.
Viewing 1 to 30 of 177