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Viewing 1 to 30 of 192
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2448
Mengqin Shen, Vilhelm Malmborg, Yann Gallo, Bjorn B. O. Waldheim, Patrik Nilsson, Axel Eriksson, Joakim Pagels, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
The conventional diesel combustion offers high thermal efficiencies along with elevated emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the possible ways that help to reduce NOx emissions but can generally result in higher engine-out soot emissions. To better understand the knowledge about particle formation and emission, an insight in the cylinder is necessary. In this work, characteristics of soot particles from in-cylinder gas in a heavy duty engine for low temperature combustion (LTC) compared with conventional combustion were investigated. By using a fast gas sampling valve, gas samples from the cylinder were taken as a function of crank angle and analyzed regarding the black carbon mass, soot particle size distribution and particle numbers. Black carbon mass was measured with an aethalometer and the particle size distribution and particle number were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Three levels of EGR were applied.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2455
Slavey Tanov, Zhenkan Wang, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels has the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation. To achieve a longer ignition delay, which increases the overall combustion stability, different fuel injection strategies were applied. In this work, the effect of multiple injections and variable flow swirl on the generation of in-cylinder turbulence were investigated. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is conducted to an optical Direct Injection (DI) engine to obtain the turbulence structure during fired conditions. PRF 70 (30% n-heptane and 70% iso-octane) was used as PPC fuel. The quartz piston retains a realistic bowl geometry in order to maintain the in-cylinder flow as similar as possible to the flow which would exist in a production engine.
2015-09-06
Technical Paper
2015-24-2454
Zhenkan Wang, Slavey Tanov, Hua Wang, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
It has been proven that Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the capability of high combustion efficiency with low soot and NOx emissions, which meet the requirements of extremely restricted emission regulations. In order to obtain more homogenous combustion and longer ignition delay in PPC, which leads more smooth combustion, different fuel injection strategies were employed which could affect the fuel air mixing and control the combustion. In this work, a light duty optical engine was used to conduct high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) for single, double and triple injections at different start of injection (SOI) timings. A quartz piston and a cylinder liner were installed in Bowditch configuration to enable optical access. The geometry of the quartz piston crown is based on the standard diesel combustion chamber design for this passenger car engine, including a re-entrant bowl shape.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0884
Lianhao Yin, Gabriel Ingesson, Sam Shamun, Per Tunestal, Rolf Johansson, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a promising advanced combustion mode for future engines. In order to investigate the sensitivity of PPC to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate, intake gas temperature, intake gas pressure, and injection timing, these parameters were swept individually at three different loads in a single cylinder diesel engine with gasoline-like fuel. A factor of sensitivity was defined to indicate the combustion's controllability and sensitivity to inlet gas parameters and injection timings. Through analysis of experimental results, a control window of inlet gas parameters and injection timings is obtained at different loads in PPC mode from 5 bar to 10 bar IMEPg load at 1200 rpm. To further study the PPC controllability with injection timing, main injection timing was adjusted to sustain steady combustion phasing subject to perturbation of inlet gas state.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0867
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract It has previously been shown by the authors that the pre-chamber ignition technique operating with fuel-rich pre-chamber combustion strategy is a very effective means of extending the lean limit of combustion with excess air in heavy duty natural gas engines in order to improve indicated efficiency and reduce emissions. This article presents a study of the influence of pre-chamber volume and nozzle diameter on the resultant ignition characteristics. The two parameters varied are the ratio of pre-chamber volume to engine's clearance volume and the ratio of total area of connecting nozzle to the pre-chamber volume. Each parameter is varied in 3 steps hence forming a 3 by 3 test matrix. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-1260
Nhut Lam, Martin Tuner, Per Tunestal, Arne Andersson, Staffan Lundgren, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Internal combustion engine (ICE) fuel efficiency is a balance between good indicated efficiency and mechanical efficiency. High indicated efficiency is reached with a very diluted air/fuel-mixture and high load resulting in high peak cylinder pressure (PCP). On the other hand, high mechanical efficiency is obtained with very low peak cylinder pressure as the piston rings and bearings can be made with less friction. This paper presents studies of a combustion engine which consists of a two stage compression and expansion cycle. By splitting the engine into two different cycles, high-pressure (HP) and low-pressure (LP) cycles respectively, it is possible to reach high levels of both indicated and mechanical efficiency simultaneously. The HP cycle is designed similar to today's turbo-charged diesel engine but with an even higher boost pressure, resulting in high PCP. To cope with high PCP, the engine needs to be rigid.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2680
Martin Tuner, Thomas Johansson, Hans Aulin, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
This work investigates the performance potential of an engine running with partially premixed combustion (PPC) using commercial diesel engine hardware. The engine was a 2.01 SAAB (GM) VGT turbocharged diesel engine and three different fuels were run - RON 70 gasoline, RON 95 Gasoline and MK1 diesel. With the standard hardware an operating range for PPC from idle at 1000 rpm up to a peak load of 1000 kPa IMEPnet at 3000 rpm while maintaining a peak pressure rise rate (PPRR) below 7 bar/CAD was possible with either RON 70 gasoline and MK1 diesel. Relaxing the PPRR requirements, a peak load of 1800 kPa was possible, limited by the standard boosting system. With RON 95 gasoline it was not possible to operate the engine below 400 kPa. Low pressure EGR routing was beneficial for efficiency and combined with a split injection strategy using the maximum possible injection pressure of 1450 bar a peak gross indicated efficiency of above 51% was recorded.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2667
Ida Truedsson, William Cannella, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner
Abstract This study examines fuel auto-ignitability and shows a method for determining fuel performance for HCCI combustion by doing engine experiments. Previous methods proposed for characterizing HCCI fuel performance were assessed in this study and found not able to predict required compression ratio for HCCI auto-ignition (CRAI) at a set combustion phasing. The previous indices that were studied were the Octane Index (OI), developed by Kalghatgi, and the HCCI Index, developed by Shibata and Urushihara. Fuels with the same OI or HCCI Index were seen to correspond to a wide range of compression ratios in these experiments, so a new way to describe HCCI fuel performance was sought. The Lund-Chevron HCCI Number was developed, using fuel testing in a CFR engine just as for the indices for spark ignition (research octane number and motor octane number, RON and MON) and compression ignition (cetane number, CN).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2679
Hadeel Solaka Aronsson, Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Abstract The current research focus on fuel effects on low temperature reactions (LTR) in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC). LTR result in a first stage of heat release with decreasing reaction rate at increasing temperature. This makes LTR important for the onset of the main combustion. However, auto-ignition is also affected by other parameters and all fuel does not exhibit LTR. Moreover, the LTR does not only depend on fuel type but also on engine conditions. This research aims to understand how fuel composition affects LTR in each type of combustion mode and to determine the relative importance of chemical and physical fuel properties for PPC. For HCCI the chemical properties are expected to dominate over physical properties, since vaporization and mixing are completed far before start of combustion.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2666
Ida Truedsson, William Cannella, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner
Abstract Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising concept that can be used to reduce NOx and soot emissions in combustion engines, keeping efficiency as high as for diesel engines. To be able to accurately control the combustion behavior, more information is needed about the auto-ignition of fuels. Many fuels, especially those containing n-paraffins, exhibit pre-reactions before the main heat release event, originating from reactions that are terminated when the temperature in the cylinder reaches a certain temperature level. These pre-reactions are called low temperature heat release (LTHR), and are known to be affected by engine speed. This paper goes through engine speed effects on auto-ignition temperatures and LTHR for primary reference fuels. Earlier studies show effects on both quantity and timing of the low temperature heat release when engine speed is varied.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2677
Slavey Tanov, Robert Collin, Bengt Johansson, Martin Tuner
Abstract Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is used to meet the increasing demands of emission legislation and to improve fuel efficiency. PPC with gasoline fuels have the advantage of a longer premixed duration of fuel/air mixture which prevents soot formation at higher loads. The objective of this paper is to investigate the degree of stratification for low load (towards idle) engine conditions using different injection strategies and negative valve overlap (NVO). The question is, how homogenous or stratified is the partially premixed combustion (PPC) for a given setting of NVO and fuel injection strategy. In this work PRF 55 has been used as PPC fuel. The experimental engine is a light duty (LD) diesel engine that has been modified to single cylinder operation to provide optical access into the combustion chamber, equipped with a fully variable valve train system. Hot residual gases were trapped by using NVO to dilute the cylinder mixture.
2014-10-13
Journal Article
2014-01-2817
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
In the last couple of decades, countries have enacted new laws concerning environmental pollution caused by heavy-duty commercial and passenger vehicles. This is done mainly in an effort to reduce smog and health impacts caused by the different pollutions. One of the legislated pollutions, among a wide range of regulated pollutions, is nitrogen oxides (commonly abbreviated as NOx). The SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) was introduced in the automotive industry to reduce NOx emissions leaving the vehicle. The basic idea is to inject a urea solution (AdBlue™) in the exhaust gas before the gas enters the catalyst. The optimal working temperature for the catalyst is somewhere in the range of 300 to 400 °C. For the reactions to occur without a catalyst, the gas temperature has to be at least 800 °C. These temperatures only occur in the engine cylinder itself, during and after the combustion.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1303
Hadeel Solaka Aronsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1327
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract This article deals with application of a pre-chamber type ignition device in a heavy duty engine operated with natural gas. A particular pre-chamber ignition strategy called Avalanche Activated Combustion (originally ‘Lavinia Aktyvatsia Gorenia’ in Russian), commonly referred to as LAG-ignition process, has been studied by performing a parametric study of various pre- and main chamber mixture strength combinations. This strategy was first proposed in 1966 and has been mostly applied in light duty automotive engines. A majority of published data are results from developmental studies but the fundamental mechanism of the LAG-ignition process is unclear to date. To the best of authors' knowledge, the study presented in this article is the first generalized study to gain deeper understanding of the LAG-ignition process in heavy duty engines operating with natural gas as fuel for both chambers.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1330
Rikard Wellander, Joakim Rosell, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Jeudi Duong, Jari Hyvonen
In this work the pre- to main chamber ignition process is studied in a Wärtsilä 34SG spark-ignited lean burn four-stroke large bore optical engine (bore 340 mm) operating on natural gas. Unburnt and burnt gas regions in planar cross-sections of the combustion chamber are identified by means of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) from acetone seeded to the fuel. The emerging jets from the pre-chamber, the ignition process and early flame propagation are studied. Measurements reveal the presence of a significant temporal delay between the occurrence of a pressure difference across the pre-chamber holes and the appearance of hot burnt/burning gases at the nozzle exit. Variations in the delay affect the combustion timing and duration. The combustion rate in the pre-chamber does not influence the jet propagation speed, although it still has an effect on the overall combustion duration.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2646
Prakash Narayanan Arunachalam, Martin Tuner, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Thern
In the quest for efficiency improvement in heavy duty truck engines, waste heat recovery could play a valuable role. The evaporative cycle is a waste heat recovery technology aimed at improving efficiency and decreasing emissions. A humid air motor (HAM) uses the waste heat from the exhaust of the engine to humidify the inlet air; this humid air, with higher specific heat, reduces NOx emission to a greater extent [1] [2]. Despite this benefit of emission reduction, the increase or decrease in efficiency of the humid air motor compared to the conventional engine is not discussed in the literature [3] [4] [5]. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the efficiency of the HAM using system model simulations of a 13-liter heavy duty Volvo engine with a humidifier. The commercial software GT-SUITE is used to build the system model and to perform the simulations. The efficiency improvement of the HAM comes from the expansion of the vapor mass flow produced as a result of humidification.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2540
Hadeel Solaka, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is intended to improve fuel efficiency and minimize the engine-out emissions. PPC is known to have the potential to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot, but often at the expense of increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). PPC has demonstrated remarkable fuel flexibility and can be operated with a large variety of liquid fuels, ranging from low-octane, high-cetane diesel fuels to high-octane gasolines and alcohols. Several research groups have demonstrated that naphtha fuels provide a beneficial compromise between functional load range and low emissions. To increase the understanding of the influence of individual fuel components typically found in commercial fuels, such as alkenes, aromatics and alcohols, a systematic experimental study of 15 surrogate fuel mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol was performed in a light-duty PPC engine using a design of experiment methodology.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2626
Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
HCCI combustion can be enabled by many types of liquid and gaseous fuels. When considering what fuels will be most suitable, the emissions also have to be taken into account. This study focuses on the emissions formation originating from different fuel components. A systematic study of over 40 different gasoline surrogate fuels was made. All fuels were studied in a CFR engine running in HCCI operation. Many of the fuels were blended to achieve similar RON's and MON's as gasoline fuels, and the components (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol) were chosen to represent the most important in gasoline; nparaffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and oxygenates. The inlet air temperature was varied from 50°C to 150°C to study the effects on the emissions. The compression ratio was adjusted for each operating point to achieve combustion 3 degrees after TDC. The engine was run at an engine speed of 600 rpm, with ambient intake air pressure and with an equivalence ratio of 0.33.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2700
Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Philip Keller, Michael Becker
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2564
Jessica Dahlstrom, Alessandro Schönborn, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Using diluted methane/air mixtures in internal combustion engines has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, the ignition systems used today show difficulties igniting lean mixtures. For this purpose a new high frequency (HF) ignition system using pulse generators and a resonance circuit to achieve a controlled number of sparks during a controlled period of time has been developed. A first prototype of this high frequency system has been tested in a flow-reactor and compared to a conventional ignition system. Results show that the high frequency system improves the flame development under lean conditions compared to the conventional system. Higher frequencies have higher capability of igniting lean mixtures than lower frequencies. Lower spark frequencies were found to travel faster across the electrodes than high frequencies and also compared to the conventional system.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2621
Marcus Lundgren, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Simon Bjerkborn, Karin Frojd, Arne Andersson, Fabian Mauss, Bincheng Jiang
The relatively new combustion concept known as partially premixed combustion (PPC) has high efficiency and low emissions. However, there are still challenges when it comes to fully understanding and implementing PPC. Thus a predictive combustion tool was used to gain further insight into the combustion process in late cycle mixing. The modeling tool is a stochastic reactor model (SRM) based on probability density functions (PDF). The model requires less computational time than a similar study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel approach with a two-zone SRM was used to capture the behavior of the partially premixed or stratified zones prior to ignition. This study focuses on PPC mixing conditions and the use of an efficient analysis approach.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2603
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2547
Kihyun Kim, Choongsik Bae, Bengt Johansson
Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2702
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0108
Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot, Philip de Goey, Bengt Johansson
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0903
Hadeel Solaka, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEPg, 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0277
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, with 50% Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) at lean combustion conditions λ =1.5, has shown good efficiency and low emissions in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine. To meet emission requirements in all loads and transient operation, aftertreatment devices are likely needed. Reducing λ to unity, when a three-way catalyst can be applied, extremely low emissions possibility exists for stoichiometric PPC. In this study, the possibility to operate clean PPC from lean condition to stoichiometric equivalence ratio with reasonable efficiency and non-excessive soot emission was investigated. Two EGR rates, 48% and 38% with two fuel rates were determined for 99.5 vol% ethanol in comparison with one gasoline fuel and Swedish diesel fuel (MK1). Engine was operated at 1250 rpm and 1600 bar injection pressure with single injection. Results revealed that efficiency was reduced and soot emission increased from lean PPC to stoichiometric PPC operation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0862
Jessica Dahlstrom, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Running an internal combustion engine with diluted methane/air mixtures has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, diluted mixtures need high ignition energy in a sufficiently large volume, which is difficult to accomplish. Increasing the spark duration has shown to be a promising way of delivering more energy into the diluted charge, but this requires a more sophisticated ignition system. This work focuses on evaluating the effects regarding enhancing early flame development, reducing cyclic variations and extending the lean limit using a new capacitive ignition system as compared to a conventional inductive ignition system. The new system offers the opportunity to customise the spark by altering the electric pulse train characteristics choosing the number of pulses, the length of the individual pulses as well as the time delay between them.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1669
Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
An index to relate fuel properties to HCCI auto-ignition would be valuable to predict the performance of fuels in HCCI engines from their properties and composition. The indices for SI engines, the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are known to be insufficient to explain the behavior of oxygenated fuels in an HCCI engine. One way to characterize a fuel is to use the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT can be extracted from the pressure trace. Another potentially interesting parameter is the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) that is closely connected to the ignition properties of the fuel. A systematic study of fuels consisting of gasoline surrogate components of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol was made. 21 fuels were prepared with RON values ranging from 67 to 97.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0269
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Lundgren, John A. Gaynor
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx with high thermal efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance the premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion and controlling the combustion temperature at an optimum level through use of suitable lambda and EGR levels have been recognized as key factors to achieve such a combustion. Fuels with high ignitability resistance have been proven to be a useful to extend the ignition delay. In this work pure ethanol has been used as a PPC fuel. The objective of this research was initially to investigate the required operating conditions for PPC with ethanol. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to understand how the required parameters for ethanol PPC such as lambda, EGR rate, injection pressure and inlet temperature influence the combustion in terms of controllability, stability, emissions (i.e.
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