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Viewing 1 to 30 of 179
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Rikard Wellander, Joakim Rosell, Mattias Richter, Marcus Alden, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Jeudi Duong, Jari Hyvonen
In this work the pre- to main chamber ignition process is studied in a Wärtsilä 34SG spark-ignited lean burn four-stroke large bore optical engine (bore 340 mm) operating on natural gas. Unburnt and burnt gas regions in planar cross-sections of the combustion chamber are identified by means of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) from acetone seeded to the fuel. The emerging jets from the pre-chamber, the ignition process and early flame propagation are studied. Measurements reveal the presence of a significant temporal delay between the occurrence of a pressure difference across the pre-chamber holes and the appearance of hot burnt/burning gases at the nozzle exit. Variations in the delay affect the combustion timing and duration. The combustion rate in the pre-chamber does not influence the jet propagation speed, although it still has an effect on the overall combustion duration. PLIF images also show that there is mainly lean unburnt gas, originating from the main-chamber, that exit the pre-chamber in the initial phase of ignition, indicating incomplete mixing of the gases in the pre-chamber prior ignition.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Abstract This article deals with application of a pre-chamber type ignition device in a heavy duty engine operated with natural gas. A particular pre-chamber ignition strategy called Avalanche Activated Combustion (originally ‘Lavinia Aktyvatsia Gorenia’ in Russian), commonly referred to as LAG-ignition process, has been studied by performing a parametric study of various pre- and main chamber mixture strength combinations. This strategy was first proposed in 1966 and has been mostly applied in light duty automotive engines. A majority of published data are results from developmental studies but the fundamental mechanism of the LAG-ignition process is unclear to date. To the best of authors' knowledge, the study presented in this article is the first generalized study to gain deeper understanding of the LAG-ignition process in heavy duty engines operating with natural gas as fuel for both chambers. The experiments are performed on a single cylinder 2.1 L engine fitted with a custom made pre-chamber capable of spark ignition, fuel injection and pressure measurement.
Technical Paper
2014-04-01
Hadeel Solaka Aronsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Abstract Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures which consist of more than 200 different hydrocarbon species. In order to decrease the chemical and physical complexity, oxygenated surrogate components were used to enhance the fundamental understanding of partially premixed combustion (PPC). The ignition quality of a fuel is measured by octane number. There are two methods to measure the octane number: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). In this paper, RON and MON were measured for a matrix of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, and ethanol (TERF) blends spanning a wide range of octane number between 60.6 and 97. First, regression models were created to derive RON and MON for TERF blends. The models were validated using the standard octane test for 17 TERF blends. Second, three different TERF blends with an ignition delay (ID) of 8 degrees for a specific operating condition were determined using a regression model. This was done to examine the model accuracy for ID and study fuel composition effect on combustion events and emissions.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has the potential of simultaneously providing high engine efficiency and low emissions. Previous research has shown that with proper combination of Exhaust-Gas Recirculation (EGR) and Air-Fuel equivalence ratio, it is possible to reduce engine-out emissions while still keeping the engine efficiency high. In this paper, the effect of changes in intake pressure (boost) and EGR fraction on PPC engine performance (e.g. ignition delay, burn duration, maximum pressure rise rate) and emissions (carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), soot and NOX) was investigated in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. Swedish diesel fuel (MK1), RON 69 gasoline fuel and 99.5 vol% ethanol were tested. Fixed fueling rate and single injection strategy were employed. For diesel and gasoline PPC, in those conditions with a predominantly mixing-controlled combustion process, increasing EGR or reducing intake boost could increase ignition delay and shorten burn duration.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Hadeel Solaka, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is intended to improve fuel efficiency and minimize the engine-out emissions. PPC is known to have the potential to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot, but often at the expense of increased emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). PPC has demonstrated remarkable fuel flexibility and can be operated with a large variety of liquid fuels, ranging from low-octane, high-cetane diesel fuels to high-octane gasolines and alcohols. Several research groups have demonstrated that naphtha fuels provide a beneficial compromise between functional load range and low emissions. To increase the understanding of the influence of individual fuel components typically found in commercial fuels, such as alkenes, aromatics and alcohols, a systematic experimental study of 15 surrogate fuel mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol was performed in a light-duty PPC engine using a design of experiment methodology. The impacts of oxygen concentration, injection pressure, combustion phasing and premixed fraction were investigated for all fuel blends.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Kihyun Kim, Choongsik Bae, Bengt Johansson
Spray and combustion of gasoline and diesel were visualized under different ambient conditions in terms of pressure, temperature and density in a constant volume chamber. Three different ambient conditions were selected to simulate the three combustion regimes of homogeneous charge compression ignition, premixed charge compression ignition and conventional combustion. Ambient density was varied from 3.74 to 23.39 kg/m3. Ambient temperature at the spray injection were controlled to the range from 474 to 925 K. Intake oxygen concentration was also modulated from 15 % to 21 % in order to investigate the effects of intake oxygen concentrations on combustion characteristics. The injection pressure of gasoline and diesel were modulated from 50 to 150 MPa to analyze the effect of injection pressure on the spray development and combustion characteristics. Liquid penetration length and vapor penetration length were measured based on the methods of Mie-scattering and Schileren, respectively. Direct combustion visualization was also carried out to figure out the lift-off length and flame structure.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Kenan Muric, Ola Stenlaas, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
The emission control in heavy-duty vehicles today is based on predefined injection strategies and after-treatment systems such as SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and DPF (diesel particulate filter). State-of-the-art engine control is presently based on cycle-to-cycle resolution. The introduction of the crank angle resolved pressure measurement, from a piezo-based pressure sensor, enables the possibility to control the fuel injection based on combustion feedback while the combustion is occurring. In this paper a study is presented on the possibility to control NOx (nitrogen oxides) formation with a crank angle resolved NOx estimator as feedback. The estimator and the injection control are implemented on an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) to manage the inherent time constraints. The FPGA is integrated with the rest of the engine control system for injection control and measurement. Studies of injection strategies show that one of the feasible approaches, using a solenoid injector to control NOx, is a split-main injection based strategy.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Prakash Narayanan Arunachalam, Martin Tuner, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Thern
In the quest for efficiency improvement in heavy duty truck engines, waste heat recovery could play a valuable role. The evaporative cycle is a waste heat recovery technology aimed at improving efficiency and decreasing emissions. A humid air motor (HAM) uses the waste heat from the exhaust of the engine to humidify the inlet air; this humid air, with higher specific heat, reduces NOx emission to a greater extent [1] [2]. Despite this benefit of emission reduction, the increase or decrease in efficiency of the humid air motor compared to the conventional engine is not discussed in the literature [3] [4] [5]. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the efficiency of the HAM using system model simulations of a 13-liter heavy duty Volvo engine with a humidifier. The commercial software GT-SUITE is used to build the system model and to perform the simulations. The efficiency improvement of the HAM comes from the expansion of the vapor mass flow produced as a result of humidification. An effort is also made to understand the relationship between the humidified engine and its efficiency.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Marcus Lundgren, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Simon Bjerkborn, Karin Frojd, Arne Andersson, Fabian Mauss, Bincheng Jiang
The relatively new combustion concept known as partially premixed combustion (PPC) has high efficiency and low emissions. However, there are still challenges when it comes to fully understanding and implementing PPC. Thus a predictive combustion tool was used to gain further insight into the combustion process in late cycle mixing. The modeling tool is a stochastic reactor model (SRM) based on probability density functions (PDF). The model requires less computational time than a similar study using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A novel approach with a two-zone SRM was used to capture the behavior of the partially premixed or stratified zones prior to ignition. This study focuses on PPC mixing conditions and the use of an efficient analysis approach. It was done in three steps: a validation of the two-zone SRM against CFD and experimental data, a parametric study using a design of experiment (DOE) approach to late cycle mixing conditions, and analyses of fuel mass distribution with time-resolved probability density functions (TPDF).
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, Philip Keller, Michael Becker
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has demonstrated substantially higher efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and gasoline engines (SI). By combining experiments and modeling the presented work investigates the underlying reasons for the improved efficiency, and quantifies the loss terms. The results indicate that it is possible to operate a HD-PPC engine with a production two-stage boost system over the European Stationary Cycle while likely meeting Euro VI and US10 emissions with a peak brake efficiency above 48%. A majority of the ESC can be operated with brake efficiency above 44%. The loss analysis reveals that low in-cylinder heat transfer losses are the most important reason for the high efficiencies of PPC. In-cylinder heat losses are basically halved in PPC compared to CDC, as a consequence of substantially reduced combustion temperature gradients, especially close to the combustion chamber walls. Pumping losses are on the other hand three times higher than for CDC due to the increased mass flow rate over the valves from the charge dilution and the high amounts of EGR.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
HCCI combustion can be enabled by many types of liquid and gaseous fuels. When considering what fuels will be most suitable, the emissions also have to be taken into account. This study focuses on the emissions formation originating from different fuel components. A systematic study of over 40 different gasoline surrogate fuels was made. All fuels were studied in a CFR engine running in HCCI operation. Many of the fuels were blended to achieve similar RON's and MON's as gasoline fuels, and the components (n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol) were chosen to represent the most important in gasoline; nparaffins, iso-paraffins, aromatics and oxygenates. The inlet air temperature was varied from 50°C to 150°C to study the effects on the emissions. The compression ratio was adjusted for each operating point to achieve combustion 3 degrees after TDC. The engine was run at an engine speed of 600 rpm, with ambient intake air pressure and with an equivalence ratio of 0.33. NOx emissions were low for all operating points, and ethanol and toluene addition was found to decrease NOx emissions for higher octane fuels.
Technical Paper
2013-10-14
Jessica Dahlstrom, Alessandro Schönborn, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Using diluted methane/air mixtures in internal combustion engines has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, the ignition systems used today show difficulties igniting lean mixtures. For this purpose a new high frequency (HF) ignition system using pulse generators and a resonance circuit to achieve a controlled number of sparks during a controlled period of time has been developed. A first prototype of this high frequency system has been tested in a flow-reactor and compared to a conventional ignition system. Results show that the high frequency system improves the flame development under lean conditions compared to the conventional system. Higher frequencies have higher capability of igniting lean mixtures than lower frequencies. Lower spark frequencies were found to travel faster across the electrodes than high frequencies and also compared to the conventional system. High pressure and high flow rates affected the lean limit of all ignition strategies, but especially high spark frequencies had difficulties igniting the charge under high pressures, due to the resonant frequency changing with pressure.
Technical Paper
2013-09-08
Jos Reijnders, Michael Boot, Philip de Goey, Bengt Johansson
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form. In future work, real streams, which are rich of these compounds, but contain various other chemicals as well, will be used.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Hadeel Solaka, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Fuel effects on ignition delay and low temperature reactions (LTR) during partially premixed combustion (PPC) were analyzed using Design of Experiments (DoE). The test matrix included seventeen mixtures of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene and ethanol covering a broad range of ignition quality and fuel chemistry. Experiments were performed on a light-duty diesel engine at 8 bar IMEP g , 1500 rpm with a variation in combustion phasing, inlet oxygen concentration and injection pressure. A single injection strategy was used and the start of injection and injection duration were adjusted to achieve the desired load and combustion phasing. The experimental data show that fuels with higher Research Octane Number (RON) values generally produced longer ignition delays. In addition, the alcohol content had significantly stronger effect on ignition delay than the aromatic content. Fuels with more ethanol gave longer ignition delays and a combination of high level of ethanol and toluene produced the longest ignition delay.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Lundgren, John A. Gaynor
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx with high efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance the premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion and controlling the combustion temperature to optimum levels through use of suitable lambda and EGR levels, have been recognized as key factors to achieve such combustion. Fuels with high ignitability resistance have been proven to be a good mean to extend the ignition delay. In this work pure ethanol has been used as a PPC fuel. The objective of this research was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with ethanol. Extensive experimental investigations were performed on a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. The number of injections for each cycle, timing of the injections and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied one at a time and the combustion behavior was investigated at medium and low loads. The engine performance was evaluated in terms of controllability, stability, combustion noise, emissions and different efficiencies.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Mengqin Shen, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, with 50% Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) at lean combustion conditions λ =1.5, has shown good efficiency and low emissions in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine. To meet emission requirements in all loads and transient operation, aftertreatment devices are likely needed. Reducing λ to unity, when a three-way catalyst can be applied, extremely low emissions possibility exists for stoichiometric PPC. In this study, the possibility to operate clean PPC from lean condition to stoichiometric equivalence ratio with reasonable efficiency and non-excessive soot emission was investigated. Two EGR rates, 48% and 38% with two fuel rates were determined for 99.5 vol% ethanol in comparison with one gasoline fuel and Swedish diesel fuel (MK1). Engine was operated at 1250 rpm and 1600 bar injection pressure with single injection. Results revealed that efficiency was reduced and soot emission increased from lean PPC to stoichiometric PPC operation. Significant increase in soot emission and pronounced efficiency reduction makes stoichiometric diesel PPC impossible.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Mehrzad Kaiadi, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Lundgren, John A. Gaynor
Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to provide combustion with low smoke and NOx with high thermal efficiency. Extending the ignition delay to enhance the premixing, avoiding spray-driven combustion and controlling the combustion temperature at an optimum level through use of suitable lambda and EGR levels have been recognized as key factors to achieve such a combustion. Fuels with high ignitability resistance have been proven to be a useful to extend the ignition delay. In this work pure ethanol has been used as a PPC fuel. The objective of this research was initially to investigate the required operating conditions for PPC with ethanol. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to understand how the required parameters for ethanol PPC such as lambda, EGR rate, injection pressure and inlet temperature influence the combustion in terms of controllability, stability, emissions (i.e. HC, CO, NOx and Soot) and combustion and thermodynamic efficiency.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Patrick Borgqvist, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. In a previous study it was shown that it is possible to use NVO to improve combustion stability and combustion efficiency at operating conditions where available boosted air is assumed to be limited. NVO has the disadvantage of low net indicated efficiency due to heat losses from recompressions of the hot residual gases. An alternative to NVO is the rebreathing valve strategy where the exhaust valves are reopened during the intake stroke. The net indicated efficiency is expected to be higher with the rebreathing strategy but the question is if similar improvements in combustion stability can be achieved with rebreathing as with NVO. The results show that the rebreathing valve strategy has similar improvements on combustion stability as NVO when the same fuel injection strategy is used.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Jessica Dahlstrom, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Running an internal combustion engine with diluted methane/air mixtures has a potential of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. However, diluted mixtures need high ignition energy in a sufficiently large volume, which is difficult to accomplish. Increasing the spark duration has shown to be a promising way of delivering more energy into the diluted charge, but this requires a more sophisticated ignition system. This work focuses on evaluating the effects regarding enhancing early flame development, reducing cyclic variations and extending the lean limit using a new capacitive ignition system as compared to a conventional inductive ignition system. The new system offers the opportunity to customise the spark by altering the electric pulse train characteristics choosing the number of pulses, the length of the individual pulses as well as the time delay between them. Several different spark configurations were evaluated for the new capacitive system, including varying spark duration between approximately 0.5-1.2 ms and maximum current levels of 0.2-0.4 A.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Guillaume Lequien, Edouard Berrocal, Yann Gallo, Augusto Themudo e Mello, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
The liquid phase penetration of diesel sprays under reacting conditions is measured in an optical heavy-duty Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine. Hot gas reservoirs along the diffusion flames have previously been shown to affect the liftoff length on multi hole nozzles. The aim of this study is to see if they also affect the liquid length. The inter-jet spacing is varied together with the Top Dead Center density and the inlet temperature. To avoid unwanted interferences from the natural flame luminosity the illumination wavelength is blue shifted from the black body radiation spectrum and set to 448 nm. Filtered Mie scattered light from the fuel droplets is recorded with a high speed camera. The liquid fuel penetration is evaluated from the start of injection to the quasi steady phase of the jets. Knowledge of jet-jet interaction effects is of interest for transferring fundamental understanding from combustion vessels to practical engine applications. It is found that the hot gas reservoirs do not significantly affect the liquid length.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
An index to relate fuel properties to HCCI auto-ignition would be valuable to predict the performance of fuels in HCCI engines from their properties and composition. The indices for SI engines, the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are known to be insufficient to explain the behavior of oxygenated fuels in an HCCI engine. One way to characterize a fuel is to use the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT can be extracted from the pressure trace. Another potentially interesting parameter is the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) that is closely connected to the ignition properties of the fuel. A systematic study of fuels consisting of gasoline surrogate components of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, and ethanol was made. 21 fuels were prepared with RON values ranging from 67 to 97. Five different inlet air temperatures ranging from 50°C to 150°C were used to achieve different cylinder pressures and the compression ratio was changed accordingly to keep a constant combustion phasing, CA50, of 3 ± 1° after TDC.
Technical Paper
2012-09-24
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
This article deals with application of turbulent jet ignition technique to heavy duty multi-cylinder natural gas engine for mobile application. Pre-chamber spark plugs are identified as a promising means of achieving turbulent jet ignition as they require minimal engine modification with respect to component packaging in cylinder head and the ignition system. Detailed experiments were performed with a 6 cylinder 9.4 liter turbo-charged engine equipped with multi-point gas injection system to compare performance and emissions characteristics of operation with pre-chamber and conventional spark plug. The results indicate that ignition capability is significantly enhanced as flame development angle and combustion duration are reduced by upto 30 % compared to those with conventional spark plugs at certain operating points. Maximum possible dilution (limited by combustion stability index, Coefficient of Variation (COV) of Gross Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEPg)) with excess air and EGR were investigated experimentally at engine speed of 1500 rpm and 5, 12 and 18 bar IMEPg operating load and results indicate that the lean limit is extended by 0.8-1 Lambda unit and 5-8% EGR rate units.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Ulf Aronsson, Hadeel Solaka, Guillaume Lequien, Oivind Andersson, Bengt Johansson
Optical engines of Bowditch design may suffer from distortion of the in-cylinder volume trace due to mechanical deformation from inertial, pressure and thermal forces. Errors in heat release calculation associated with such deformation were investigated in detail. The deformations were quantified by measuring the squish height during operation using high speed video. Deformations of all-metal engines were also estimated for comparison. The volume change caused by deformations did not change the calculated load significantly but caused errors in the heat release calculations both for optical and all metal engines. The errors at a given operating condition are smaller for all-metal engines but the importance is not necessarily smaller, since these engines normally are operated at higher loads. The errors can be eliminated by a corrected in-cylinder volume equation and a subtraction of heat release from a motored case.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Patrick Borgqvist, Martin Tuner, Augusto Mello, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Partially premixed combustion has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective is to investigate the usefulness of negative valve overlap on a light duty diesel engine running with gasoline partially premixed combustion at low load operating conditions. The idea is to use negative valve overlap to trap hot residual gases to elevate the global in-cylinder temperature to promote auto-ignition of the high octane number fuel. This is of practical interest at low engine speed and load operating conditions because it can be assumed that the available boost is limited. The problem with NVO at low load operating conditions is that the exhaust gas temperature is low. While an increase of NVO potentially increases the in-cylinder temperature at intake valve closing, increasing NVO also increases the EGR fraction which lowers the global in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Clement Chartier, Johan Sjoholm, Elias Kristensson, Oivind Andersson, Mattias Richter, Bengt Johansson, Marcus Alden
Mixing in wall-jets was investigated in an optical heavy-duty diesel engine with several injector configurations and injection pressures. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was employed in non-reacting conditions in order to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratios in colliding wall-jets. A novel laser diagnostic technique, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI), was successfully implemented in an optical engine and permits to differentiate LIF signal from multiply scattered light. It was used to quantitatively measure local equivalence ratio in colliding wall-jets under non-reacting conditions. Mixing phenomena in wall-jets were analyzed by comparing the equivalence ratio in the free part of the jet with that in the recirculation zone where two wall-jets collide. These results were then compared to φ predictions for free-jets. It was found that under the conditions tested, increased injection pressure did not increase mixing in the wall-jets. Comparisons with free-jet predictions further indicated that mixing in wall-jets is less effective than in free-jets for identical conditions and downstream distances.
Technical Paper
2012-09-10
Ashish Shah, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
This article deals with study of ionization current sensing technique's signal characteristics while operating with pre-chamber spark plug to achieve plasma jet ignition in a 6 cylinder 9 liter turbo-charged natural gas engine under EGR and excess air dilution. Unlike the signal with conventional spark plug which can be divided into distinct chemical and thermal ionization peaks, the signal with pre-chamber spark plug shows a much larger first peak and a negligible second peak thereafter. Many studies in past have found the time of second peak coinciding with the time of maximum cylinder pressure and this correlation has been used as an input to combustion control systems but the absence of second peak makes application of this concept difficult with pre-chamber spark plug. However, it has been observed that the first peak is very strong and does not deteriorate much even under lean operation and hence ion current signal integral can be used to calculate real time combustion stability parameters for combustion control systems.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Ida Truedsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson, William Cannella
Some fuels with the same research octane number (RON) have different HCCI engine performance. Therefore RON alone cannot be used for determining auto-ignition in HCCI combustion. The current research focuses on creating an HCCI fuel index suitable for comparing different fuels for HCCI operation. More thorough studies are needed to map the fuel effects. One way to characterize a fuel is by using the Auto-Ignition Temperature (AIT). The AIT and the amount of Low Temperature Heat Release (LTHR) together describe the auto-ignition properties of the fuel. Both can be extracted from the pressure trace. The assumption is that the pressure and temperature are known at inlet valve closing (IVC) and that the mass in the cylinder does not change after IVC. The purpose of this study was to map the AIT of different Primary Reference Fuels (PRF) for HCCI combustion at different cylinder pressures. Different pressure levels were achieved by changing inlet air temperatures in 5 steps from 50°C to 150°C.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Patrick Borgqvist, Per Tunestal, Bengt Johansson
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) has the potential of high efficiency and simultaneous low soot and NOx emissions. Running the engine in PPC mode with high octane number fuels has the advantage of a longer premix period of fuel and air which reduces soot emissions, even at higher loads. The problem is the ignitability at low load and idle operating conditions. The objective of this study is investigation of the low load limitations with gasoline fuels with octane numbers RON 69 and 87. Measurements with diesel fuel were also taken as reference. The experimental engine is a light duty diesel engine equipped with a fully flexible valve train system. Trapped hot residual gases using negative valve overlap (NVO) is the main parameter of interest to potentially increase the attainable operating region of high octane number gasoline fuels. Much lower soot is emitted with 69 and 87 RON gasoline compared to diesel at engine loads 1 bar IMEPgross to 3 bar IMEPgross but the combustion efficiency is significantly lower with gasoline at low load compared to diesel.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Hadeel Solaka, Ulf Aronsson, Martin Tuner, Bengt Johansson
The impact of ignition quality and chemical properties on engine performance and emissions during low load partially premixed combustion (PPC) in a light-duty diesel engine were investigated. Four fuels in the gasoline boiling range, together with Swedish diesel (MK1), were operated at loads between 2 and 8 bar IMEP g at 1500 rpm, with 50% heat released located at 6 crank angle degrees (CAD) after top dead center (TDC). A single injection strategy was used, wherein the start of injection (SOI) and the injection duration were adjusted to achieve desired loads with maintained CA50, as the injection pressure was kept constant at 1000 bar. The objective of this work was to examine the low-load limit for PPC at approximately 50% EGR and λ=1.5, since these levels had been suggested as optimal in earlier studies. The low-load limits with stable combustion were between 5 and 7 bar gross IMEP for the gasoline fuels, higher limit for higher RON values. MK1 had the lowest low-load limit, 3 bar gross IMEP.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Magnus Lewander, Bengt Johansson, Per Tunestål
Partially Premixed Combustion is a concept able to combine low smoke and NOx emissions with high combustion controllability and efficiency. It is of interest to be able to utilize PPC in a large operating region in order to meet the Euro VI emission legislation without relying on NOx aftertreatment. This paper investigates the differences in PPC characteristics for three fuels; Diesel Swedish Mk 1, Low Octane Gasoline (70 Octane) and US Standard Gasoline (87 Octane). Engine operating conditions, combustion characteristics, emissions and efficiency are in focus. The experiments were carried out at a range of operating points on a Volvo MD13 which is a six-cylinder heavy-duty engine. At each operating point three combinations of EGR level and λ-value were evaluated. 1. High EGR/High λ, 2. High EGR/Reduced λ, and 3. Reduced EGR/High λ. Further, for all these three conditions, four combustion timings were tested reaching from advanced combustion timing at 3 CAD ATDC to retarded combustion timing at 9 CAD ATDC.
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