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Viewing 1 to 30 of 48
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3788
Corey M. Strimer, Nigel N. Clark, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam, Gregory Thompson
On-board emissions measurement for heavy-duty vehicles has taken on greater significance because new standards now address in-use emissions levels in the USA. Emissions compliance must be shown in a “Not-to-exceed” (NTE) zone that excludes engine operation at low power. An over-the-road 1996 Peterbilt tractor was instrumented with the West Virginia University Mobile Emissions Measurement System (MEMS). The researchers determined how often the truck entered the NTE, and the emissions from the vehicle, as it was driven over different routes and at different test weights (20,740 lb, 34,640 lb, 61,520 lb, and 79,700 lb) The MEMS interfaced with the truck ECU, while also measuring exhaust flowrate, and concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the exhaust. The four test routes that were employed included varying terrain types in order to simulate a wide range of on-road driving conditions. One route (called the Bruceton route) included a sustained hill climb.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2140
Csaba Tóth-Nagy, Nigel N. Clark
This study summarizes the work that has been done on the linear engine since it's invention. It attempts to highlight some of the major technologies, designs, and old and recent developments in the long history of the linear engine. In this paper, linear engines are grouped and studied from different standpoints such as internal or external combustion, 2-stroke vs. 4-stroke, number and arrangement of pistons, fuel type, the type of the machine the linear engine drives, depth of investigation, and the complexity of modeling the linear engine. This paper concludes that although simulation of the linear engine has been done with varying complexity and accuracy by several research groups and prototypes have run showing experimental results that predict higher efficiency for the linear engine than that of conventional engines, much work has to be done before the linear engine becomes commercially available.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2144
Chamila A. Tissera, Matt M. Swartz, Emre Tatli, Ramprabhu Vellaisamy, Nigel N. Clark, Gregory J. Thompson, Richard J. Atkinson
Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps in NOX reduction. The first step adsorbs NOX from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. The final step passes the desorbed NOX gas into the intake air stream and feeds into the engine. A percentage of the NOX is expected to be decomposed during the combustion process. The motivation for this research was to clarify the reduction of NOX from large stationary engines. The objective of this paper is to report the NOX decomposition phenomenon during the combustion process from three test engines. The results will be used to develop an optimal system for the conversion of NOX with a NOX adsorbtion system. A 1993 Cummins L10G natural gas engine, a 1992 Detroit Diesel series 60 engine and a 13hp Honda gasoline engine were used in the experiments. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was injected into the engine intake to mimic the NOX stream from the desorption process.
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2153
Shuhong Xu, Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam, W. Scott Wayne
The Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) measures captured particle mass continuously on a small filter held on an oscillating element. In addition to traditional filter-based particulate matter (PM) measurement, a TEOM was used to characterize PM from the dilute exhaust of trucks examined in two phases (Phase 1.5 and Phase 2) of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Inventory Project E-55/E-59. Test schedules employed were the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) test schedule that consists of four modes (Idle, Creep, Transient and Cruise), the HHDDT Short (HHDDT_S) which represents high-speed freeway operation, and the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). TEOM results were on average 6% lower than those from traditional particulate filter weighing. Data (in units of g/cycle) were examined by plotting cycle-averaged TEOM mass against filter mass. Regression (R2) values for these plots were from 0.88 to 0.99.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1887
W. Scott Wayne, Ralph D. Nine, Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam, Paul Moynihan, Thomas Balon, Marty Chiaramonte, Michael Prostakov
Diesel particulate matter emissions, because they do not disperse as readily gaseous emissions, have a very localized effect and eventually settle to the ground not far from where they were emitted. One subset of heavy-duty diesel vehicles that warrant further attention for controlling particulate emissions matter is sanitation trucks. Cummins Inc. and West Virginia University investigated particulate emissions reduction technologies for New York City Department of Sanitation refuse trucks under the EPA Consent Decree program. Regulated emissions were measured on four retrofitted sanitation trucks with and without the DPF installed. Cummins engines powered all of the retrofitted trucks. The Engelhard DPX reduced PM emissions by 97% and 84% on the New York Garbage Truck Cycle (NYGTC) and Orange County Refuse Truck Cycle (OCRTC) respectively. The Johnson-Matthey CRT system reduced PM emissions by 81% and 87% over the NYGTC and OCRTC respectively.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1901
Nigel N. Clark, W. Scott Wayne, Ralph D. Nine, Thomas Buffamonte, Timothy Hall, Byron L. Rapp, Gregory Thompson, Donald W. Lyons
Few real-world data exist to describe the contribution of diesel vehicles to the emissions inventory, although it is widely acknowledged that diesel vehicles are a significant contributor to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in Southern California. New data were acquired during the Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study, designed to collect emissions data for source profiling of PM emissions from diesel- and gasoline-powered engines in the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin in 2001. Regulated gases, PM and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured from 34 diesel vehicles operating in the Southern California area. Two were transit buses, 16 were trucks over 33,000 lbs. in weight, 8 were 14,001 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. in weight and 8 were under 14,001 lbs. in weight. The vehicles were also grouped by model year for recruiting and data analysis.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1894
Mridul Gautam, Nigel N. Clark, Sandeep Mehta, James A. Boyce, Fred Rogers, Alan Gertler
In an effort to develop engine/vehicle test methods that will reflect real-world emission characteristics, West Virginia University (WVU) designed and conducted a study on a Class-8 tractor with an electronically controlled diesel engine that was mounted on a chassis dynamometer in the Old Dominion University Langley full-scale wind tunnel. With wind speeds set at 88 km/hr in the tunnel, and the tractor operating at 88 km/hr on the chassis dynamometer, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was employed for measuring PM size distributions and concentrations. The SMPS was housed in a container that was attached to a three-axis gantry in the wind tunnel. Background PM size-distributions were measured with another SMPS unit that was located upstream of the truck plume. Ambient temperatures were recorded at each of the sampling locations. The truck was also operated through transient tests with vehicle speeds varying from 65 to 88 km/hr, with a wind speed of 76 km/hr.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1895
Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam, James Boyce, Wenwei Xie, Sandeep Mehta, Ron Jarett, Byron Rapp
Concern over health effects associated with diesel exhaust and debate over the influence of high number counts of particles in diesel exhaust prompted research to develop a methodology for diesel particulate matter (PM) characterization. As part of this program, a tractor truck with an electronically managed diesel engine and a dynamometer were installed in the Old Dominion University (ODU) Langley full-scale wind tunnel. This arrangement permitted repeat measurements of diesel exhaust under realistic and reproducible conditions and permitted examination of the steady exhaust plume at multiple points. Background particle size distribution was characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition, a remote sampling system consisting of a SMPS, PM filter arrangement, and carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer, was attached to a roving gantry allowing for exhaust plume sampling in a three dimensional grid. Raw exhaust CO2 levels and truck performance data were also measured.
2000-10-16
Technical Paper
2000-01-2822
Mike Frailey, Paul Norton, Nigel N. Clark, Donald W. Lyons
Significant numbers of transit buses now operate on natural gas. With support of the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has evaluated the cost, performance, and emissions of alternative fuel buses around the country. In this study, three natural gas and three closely matched diesel buses were compared. The buses, built by World Trans, were 26′5″long and used 1997 Cummins B-series engines. Particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen emissions from the natural gas buses were significantly lower than those from the diesel buses. However, the diesel buses had lower operating costs and higher fuel efficiency than the natural gas buses.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3522
Talus Park, Richard J. Atkinson, Nigel N. Clark, Michael L. Traver, Christopher M. Atkinson
Dual fuel engines employing pilot diesel injection to ignite premixed natural gas provide an opportunity for liquid petroleum fuel replacement and for reduced emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). A Navistar T444E turbocharged V8 engine was converted to operate in dual fuel mode by metering the compressed natural gas (CNG) with an IMPCO Technologies, Inc. regulator and electronic valve while retaining the stock Navistar Hydraulically-Actuated Electronically-Controlled Unit Injection (HEUI) system for diesel pilot injection. A dedicated controller was designed and constructed to allow manual control of diesel fuel injection pulsewidth (FIPW), diesel injection advance (ADV), hydraulic injection control pressure (ICP) and natural gas mass flow. The controller employed two Microchip, Inc. PIC-based microcontrollers: one to perform initialization of a Silicon Systems, Inc. 67F867 engine interface peripheral, and the other to perform the runtime algorithms.
1999-05-03
Technical Paper
1999-01-1512
Paul Norton, Keith Vertin, Nigel N. Clark, Donald W. Lyons, Mridul Gautam, Stephen Goguen, James Eberhardt
Synthetic diesel fuel can be made from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, synthetic diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. Previous engine laboratory and field tests using a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer indicate that synthetic diesel fuel made using the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and can reduce exhaust emissions substantially. The objective of this study was a preliminary assessment of the emissions from older model transit operated on Mossgas synthetic diesel fuel. The study compared emissions from transit buses operating on Federal no. 2 Diesel fuel, Mossgas synthetic diesel (MGSD), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels.
1999-05-03
Technical Paper
1999-01-1467
Nigel N. Clark, James J. Daley, Ralph D. Nine, Christopher M. Atkinson
Speed-time and video data were logged for tractor-trailers performing local deliveries in Akron, OH. and Richmond, VA. in order to develop an emissions test schedule that represented real truck use. The data bank developed using these logging techniques was used to create a Yard cycle, a Freeway cycle and a City-Suburban cycle by the concatenation of microtrips. The City-Suburban driving cycle was converted to a driving route, in which the truck under test would perform at maximum acceleration during certain portions of the test schedule. This new route was used to characterize the emissions of a 1982 Ford tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 350 hp engine and a 1998 International tractor with a Cummins 14 liter, 435 hp engine. Emissions levels were found to be repeatable with one driver and the driver-to-driver variation of NOx was under 4%, although the driver-to-driver variations of CO and PM were higher.
1999-05-03
Technical Paper
1999-01-1469
Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam, Byron L. Rapp, Donald W. Lyons, Michael S. Graboski, Robert L. McCormick, Teresa L. Alleman, Paul Norton
Emissions of six 32 passenger transit buses were characterized using one of the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories, and the fixed base chassis dynamometer at the Colorado Institute for Fuels and High Altitude Engine Research (CIFER). Three of the buses were powered with 1997 ISB 5.9 liter Cummins diesel engines, and three were powered with the 1997 5.9 liter Cummins natural gas (NG) counterpart. The NG engines were LEV certified. Objectives were to contrast the emissions performance of the diesel and NG units, and to compare results from the two laboratories. Both laboratories found that oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter (PM) emissions were substantially lower for the natural gas buses than for the diesel buses.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0614
David L. McKain, Nigel N. Clark
When performing a transient test on a heavy-duty engine as outlined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), defined regression values of engine speed, torque and power must meet specific tolerances for the test to be considered valid. Regression of actual engine feedback data against target points from a schedule defined from an engine map is performed using the method of least squares to determine the slope, intercept, coefficient of regression and standard error of the estimate. To minimize the biasing effects of time lag between actual and schedule data, shifting of the data in the time domain prior to analysis and certain point deletions are permitted. There are presently no regression criteria available for heavy duty chassis testing. This leaves facilities performing these chassis tests with no suitable guidelines to validate individual tests. This study applies the regression analysis used in engine testing to chassis testing and examines the difficulties encountered.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0921
Christopher M. Atkinson, Sorin Petreanu, Nigel N. Clark, Richard J. Atkinson, Thomas I. McDaniel, Subhash Nandkumar, Parviz Famouri
Series hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require power-plants that can generate electrical energy without specifically requiring rotary input shaft motion. A small-bore working prototype of a two-stroke spark ignited linear engine-alternator combination has been designed, constructed and tested and has been found to produce as much as 316W of electrical energy. This engine consists of two opposed pistons (of 36 mm diameter) linked by a connecting rod with a permanent magnet alternator arranged on the reciprocating shaft. This paper presents the numerical modeling of the operation of the linear engine. The piston motion of the linear engine is not mechanically defined: it rather results from the balance of the in-cylinder pressures, inertia, friction, and the load applied to the shaft by the alternator, along with history effects from the previous cycle. The engine computational model combines dynamic and thermodynamic analyses.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-1117
Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson, Gregory J. Thompson, Ralph D. Nine
The effects of fuel composition on emissions levels from compression ignition engines can be profound, and this understanding has led to mandated reductions in both sulfur and aromatic content of automotive diesel fuels. A Navistar T444E (V8, 7.3 liter) engine was installed on an engine dynamometer and subjected to transient emissions measurement using a variety of fuels, namely federal low sulfur pump diesel; California pump diesel; Malaysian Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and aromatic content; various blends of soy-derived biodiesel; a Fischer-Tropsch fuel with very low sulfur and 10% aromatics; and the same Fischer-Tropsch fuel with 10% isobutanol by volume. The biodiesel blends showed their ability to reduce particulate matter, but at the expense of increasing oxides of nitrogen (NOx), following the simple argument that cetane enhancement led to earlier ignition. However, the Fischer-Tropsch fuels showed their ability to reduce all of the regulated emissions.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982456
Nigel N. Clark, Byron L. Rapp, Mridul Gautam, Wenguang Wang, Donald W. Lyons
New York City Department of Sanitation has operated natural gas fueled refuse haulers in a pilot study: a major goal of this study was to compare the emissions from these natural gas vehicles with their diesel counterparts. The vehicles were tandem axle trucks with GVW (gross vehicle weight) rating of 69,897 pounds. The primary use of these vehicles was for street collection and transporting the collected refuse to a landfill. West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories have been engaged in monitoring the tailpipe emissions from these trucks for seven-years. In the later years of testing the hydrocarbons were speciated for non-methane and methane components. Six of these vehicles employed the older technology (mechanical mixer) Cummins L-10 lean burn natural gas engines.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982692
Nigel N. Clark, Subhash Nandkumar, Parviz Famouri
Linear, crankless, internal combustion engines may find application in the generation of electrical power without the need to convert linear to rotary motion. The elimination of the connecting rod and crankshaft would significantly improve the efficiency of the engine and the reduced weight and cost is an added advantage. The case of two opposed cylinders, with two pistons linked by a solid rod, was considered for idealized modeling. The piston/rod assembly was considered to oscillate with only constant frictional drag. The Otto cycle was used to model efficiency, and this in turn determined compression ratio. Dimensionless groups governing the engine working were identified and used in formulating a description of the engine behavior. Two-stroke operation was assumed. Velocity and position can be related analytically to yield a phase plot.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982652
Ravishankar Ramamurthy, Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson, Donald W. Lyons
Heavy duty engine emissions represent a significant portion of the mobile source emissions inventory, especially with respect to oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. West Virginia University (WVU) has developed an extensive database of continuous transient gaseous emission levels from a wide range of heavy duty diesel vehicles in field operation. This database was built using the WVU Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emission Testing Laboratories. Transient driving cycles used to generate the continuous data were the Central Business District cycle (CBD), 5-peak WVU test cycle, WVU 5-mile route, and the New York City Bus cycle (NYCB). This paper discusses continuous emissions data from a transit bus and a tractor truck, each of them powered by a Detroit Diesel 6V-92 engine. Simple correlational models were developed to relate instantaneous emissions to instantaneous power at the drivewheels.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982533
W. Scott Wayne, Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson
Dedicated natural gas engines suffer the disadvantages of limited vehicle range and relatively few refueling stations. A vehicle capable of operating on either gasoline or natural gas allows alternative fuel usage without sacrificing vehicle range and mobility. However, the bi-fuel engine must be made to provide equal performance on both fuels. Although bi-fuel conversions have existed for a number of years, historically natural gas performance is degraded relative to gasoline due to reduced volumetric efficiency and lower power density of CNG. Much of the performance losses associated with CNG can be overcome by increasing the compression ratio. However, in a bi-fuel application, high compression ratios can result in severe engine knock during gasoline operation. Variable intake valve timing, increased exhaust gas recirculation and retarded ignition timing were explored as a means of controlling knock during gasoline operation of a bi-fuel engine.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982526
Paul Norton, Keith Vertin, Brent Bailey, Nigel N. Clark, Donald W. Lyons, Stephen Goguen, James Eberhardt
The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalytic conversion process can be used to synthesize diesel fuels from a variety of feedstocks, including coal, natural gas and biomass. Synthetic diesel fuels can have very low sulfur and aromatic content, and excellent autoignition characteristics. Moreover, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels may also be economically competitive with California diesel fuel if produced in large volumes. An overview of Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel production and engine emissions testing is presented. Previous engine laboratory tests indicate that F-T diesel is a promising alternative fuel because it can be used in unmodified diesel engines, and substantial exhaust emissions reductions can be realized. The authors have performed preliminary tests to assess the real-world performance of F-T diesel fuels in heavy-duty trucks. Seven White-GMC Class 8 trucks equipped with Caterpillar 10.3 liter engines were tested using F-T diesel fuel.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981395
Sumit Bhargava, Nigel N. Clark, M. Wayne Hildebrand
Lean-burn natural gas engines offer attractively low particulate matter emissions and enjoy higher efficiencies than their stoichiometric counterparts. However, even though oxides of nitrogen emissions can be reduced through operation at lambda ratios of greater than 1.3, catalysts cannot reduce the oxides of nitrogen emissions in the oxidizing exhaust environment. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) offers the potential to reduce engine out oxides of nitrogen emissions by reducing the flame temperature and oxygen partial pressure that encourages their formation during the combustion process. A comparative study involving a change in the nature of primary diluent (air replaced by EGR) in the intake of a Hercules, 3.7 liter, lean-burn natural gas engine has been undertaken in this research. The Hercules engine was equipped with a General Motors electronically controlled EGR valve for low EGR rates, and a slide valve, constructed in house, for high EGR rates.
1998-05-04
Technical Paper
981393
Nigel N. Clark, Donald W. Lyons, Byron L. Rapp, Mridul Gautam, Wenguang Wang, Paul Norton, Charles White, Kevin Chandler
Both field research and certification data show that the lean burn natural gas powered spark ignition engines offer particulate matter (PM) reduction with respect to equivalent diesel power plants. Concerns over PM inventory make these engines attractive despite the loss of fuel economy associated with throttled operation. Early versions of the Cummins L-10 natural gas engines employed a mixer to establish air/fuel ratio. Emissions measurements by the West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories on Cummins L-10 powered transit buses revealed the potential to offer low emissions of PM and oxides of nitrogen, (NOx) but variations in the mixture could cause emissions of NOx, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons to rise. This was readily corrected through mixer repair or readjustment. Newer versions of the L-10 engine employ a more sophisticated fueling scheme with feedback control from a wide range oxygen sensor.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980680
Robert R. Wimmer, James Fletcher, Nigel N. Clark, David L. McKain, Donald W. Lyons
The fuel cell bus program at Georgetown University (GU) has directed the operational development and testing of three hybrid fuel cell powered buses for transit operation. These are the world's first liquid-fueled, fuel cell powered road vehicles. This paper describes the emissions testing of one of these buses on a heavy duty chassis dynamometer at West Virginia University (WVU). The tested bus was driven by a 120 kW DC motor and utilized a 50 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) as an energy source with a 100 kW battery for supplemental power. A methanol/water fuel mixture was converted by a steam reformer to a hydrogen rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell stack. Emissions from the reformer, fuel cell stack and startup burner were monitored for both transient and steady-state operation.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980681
Brian E. Mace, Ralph D. Nine, Nigel N. Clark, Todd J. Vanyo, Vincent T. Remcho, Richard W. Morrison, Larry W. McLaughlin
Recreational marine engine operation effects water quality as well as air quality. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are discharged into the rivers, lakes, and estuaries used as recreational boating waters. In order to investigate the impact of recreational marine engine operation on water quality, a MerCruiser 3.0LX four-cylinder four-stroke inboard engine and a Mercury 650 two-cylinder two-stroke outboard engine were tested using EPA required certification procedures. Both engines were tested with exhaust gas/cooling water mixing (scrubbing) in the exhaust stream using both freshwater and saltwater. Additionally, the inboard engine was tested without exhaust scrubbing. Gaseous emissions (HC, NOX, CO, and CO2) from the engines were continuously measured using a constant volume sampling system. Both exhaust gas and cooling water samples were collected and speciated for hydrocarbon species present.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980407
David L. McKain, Nigel N. Clark, Thomas I. McDaniel, Jennifer A. Hoppie
Emissions testing of new heavy-duty engines is performed to ensure compliance with governmental emissions standards. This testing involves operating the engine through the heavy-duty engine transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP). While in-use engine emissions testing would be beneficial in aiding regions to meet standards dictated by the Clean Air Act, the process of removing the engine from the vehicle, fitting it to an engine dynamometer, testing, and refitting the engine in the chassis, combined with costs associated with removing the vehicle from service, is expensive. A procedure for engine emissions testing with the engine in the vehicle using a chassis dynamometer was developed to mimic the FTP. Data from two engines and vehicles (a 195 hp 1994 Navistar T 444E in a single axle straight truck and a 1995 370 hp Cummins N-14 in a tandem drive axle tractor) are presented as well as correlation between engine and chassis emissions tests.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980895
W. Scott Wayne, Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson
Until a proper fueling infrastructure is established, vehicles powered by natural gas must have bi-fuel capability in order to avoid a limited vehicle range. Although bi-fuel conversions of existing gasoline engines have existed for a number of years, these engines do not fully exploit the combustion and knock properties of both fuels. Much of the power loss resulting from operation of an existing gasoline engine on compressed natural gas (CNG) can be recovered by increasing the compression ratio, thereby exploiting the high knock resistance of natural gas. However, gasoline operation at elevated compression ratios results in severe engine knock. The use of variable intake valve timing in conjunction with ignition timing modulation and electronically controlled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated as a means of controlling knock when operating a bi-fuel engine on gasoline at elevated compression ratios.
1997-11-17
Technical Paper
973203
Nigel N. Clark, Mridul Gautam, Donald W. Lyons, Reda M. Bata, Wenguang Wang, Paul Norton, Kevin Chandler
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
1997-10-01
Technical Paper
972971
Ralph D. Nine, Nigel N. Clark, Brian E. Mace, Laila ElGazzar
A research program at West Virginia University sought to identify and quantify the individual hydrocarbon species present in alternative fuel exhaust. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been one of the most widely researched fuels proposed to replace liquid petroleum fuels. Regulated CNG non-methane hydrocarbon emissions are often lower than hydrocarbon emissions from conventional liquid fuels because of the absence of heavier hydrocarbons in the fuel. Reducing NOx and non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission levels reduces the ozone forming potential (OFP) of the exhaust gases. A Hercules GTA 3.7 liter medium duty CNG engine was operated at seven load and speed set points using local supply CNG gas. The engine was operated at several rated, intermediate and idle speed set points. The engine was operated while the air/fuel ratio value was varied.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960322
Nigel N. Clark, Christopher M. Atkinson, David L. McKain, Ralph D. Nine, Laila El-Gazzar
Growing concern over ground-level ozone and its role in smog formation has resulted in extensive investigation into identifying ozone sources. Motor vehicle exhaust, specifically oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons, have been identified as major ozone precursors in urban areas. Past research has concentrated on assessing the impact of emissions from gasoline fueled light duty vehicles. However, little work has been done on identifying ozone precursors from medium and heavy duty diesel fueled vehicles. This paper presents the results of testing performed on a Navistar T 444E 190 horsepower diesel engine which is certified as a light/heavy-duty emissions classification and is used in medium duty trucks up to 11,800 kg (26,000 lb) GVW. Regulated emissions and speciated hydrocarbon emissions were collected using a filter, bag and Tenax adsorption cartridges for both steady state and transient engine operation.
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