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Viewing 1 to 30 of 138
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
N. Ryan Walker, Adam B. Dempsey, Michael J. Andrie, Rolf D. Reitz
Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown to be capable of providing improved engine efficiencies coupled with the benefit of low emissions via in-cylinder fuel blending. Much of the previous body of work has studied the benefits of RCCI operation using high injection pressures (e.g., 500 bar or greater) with common rail injection (CRI) hardware. However, low-pressure fueling technology is capable of providing significant cost savings. Due to the broad market adoption of gasoline direct injection (GDI) fueling systems, a market-type prototype GDI injector was selected for this study. Single-cylinder light-duty engine experiments were undertaken to examine the performance and emissions characteristics of the RCCI combustion strategy with low-pressure GDI technology and compared against high injection pressure RCCI operation. Gasoline and diesel were used as the low-reactivity and high-reactivity fuels, respectively. GDI injection pressures range from 150 to 200 bar, while the CRI pressures range from 250 to 500 bar.
Technical Paper
2013-04-08
Anand Krishnasamy, Rolf D. Reitz, Werner Willems, Eric Kurtz
Diesel fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbons. Since modeling their combustion characteristics with the inclusion of all hydrocarbon species is not feasible, a hybrid surrogate model approach is used in the present work to represent the physical and chemical properties of three different diesel fuels by using up to 13 and 4 separate hydrocarbon species, respectively. The surrogates are arrived at by matching their distillation profiles and important properties with the real fuel, while the chemistry surrogates are arrived at by using a Group Chemistry Representation (GCR) method wherein the hydrocarbon species in the physical property surrogates are grouped based on their chemical classes, and the chemistry of each class is represented by using up to two hydrocarbon species. The developed surrogate models were applied to predict conventional and low temperature combustion (LTC) characteristics of the three fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine using the KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN code incorporated with a “MultiChem” mechanism having 120 species and 459 reactions.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Bao-Lin Wang, Michael J. Bergin, Benjamin R. Petersen, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow. The flow field generated by the generalized RNG closure model was compared to particle image velocimetry (PIV) velocity measurements from an optically accessible General Motors Company 1.9L HSDI engine equipped with helical and tangential intake ports.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Hu Wang, Rolf D. Reitz, Mingfa Yao
This paper describes numerical simulations that compare the performance of two combustion CFD models against experimental data, and evaluates the effects of combustion and spray model constants on the predicted combustion and emissions under various operating conditions. The combustion models include a Characteristic Time Combustion (CTC) model and CHEMKIN with reduced chemistry models integrated in the KIVA-3Vr2 CFD code. The diesel spray process was modeled using an updated version of the KH-RT spray model that features a gas jet submodel to help reduce numerical grid dependencies, and the effects of both the spray and combustion model constants on combustion and emissions were evaluated. In addition, the performance of two soot models was compared, namely a two-step soot model, and a more detailed model that considers soot formation from PAH precursors. Experimental data from four different diesel engines under different operating conditions were used to establish and validate the computation cases.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Adam B. Dempsey, Bao-Lin Wang, Rolf D. Reitz, Benjamin Petersen, Dipankar Sahoo, Paul C. Miles
In a recent experimental study the in-cylinder spatial distribution of mixture equivalence ratio was quantified under non-combusting conditions by planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of a fuel tracer (toluene). The measurements were made in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, light-duty diesel engine at conditions matched to an early-injection low-temperature combustion mode. A fuel amount corresponding to a low load (3.0 bar indicated mean effective pressure) operating condition was introduced with a single injection at -23.6° ATDC. The data were acquired during the mixture preparation period from near the start of injection (-22.5° ATDC) until the crank angle where the start of high-temperature heat release normally occurs (-5° ATDC). In the present study the measured in-cylinder images are compared with a fully resolved three-dimensional CFD model, namely KIVA3V-RANS simulations. The impacts of computational grid resolution and of the flow initialization method are discussed as they pertain to the mixture preparation process.
Technical Paper
2012-04-16
Derek E. Nieman, Adam B. Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz
Many recent studies have shown that the Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy can achieve high efficiency with low emissions. However, it has also been revealed that RCCI combustion is difficult at high loads due to its premixed nature. To operate at moderate to high loads with gasoline/diesel dual fuel, high amounts of EGR or an ultra low compression ratio have shown to be required. Considering that both of these approaches inherently lower thermodynamic efficiency, in this study natural gas was utilized as a replacement for gasoline as the low-reactivity fuel. Due to the lower reactivity (i.e., higher octane number) of natural gas compared to gasoline, it was hypothesized to be a better fuel for RCCI combustion, in which a large reactivity gradient between the two fuels is beneficial in controlling the maximum pressure rise rate. The multi-dimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, was used in conjunction with the CHEMKIN chemistry tool and a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to perform optimization for a wide range of engine operating conditions.
Video
2011-10-28
SAE 2011 High Efficiency IC Engines Symposium - Session 1- Pathways to High Efficiency Presenter Rolf D. Reitz, Univ. of Wisconsin
Technical Paper
2011-09-11
Adam B. Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz
Many studies have demonstrated ability of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are numerous and range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. Both of the aforementioned techniques have relatively short combustion duration that results in very a rapid rate of heat release, and hence very rapid rates of pressure rise. This has been one of the major challenges for premixed, low temperature combustion at mid and high load. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been introduced recently, which is a dual fuel partially premixed combustion concept. In this strategy in-cylinder fuel blending is used to develop fuel reactivity gradients in the combustion chamber that result in a broad combustion event and reduced pressure rise rates.
Technical Paper
2011-08-30
Ettore Musu, Riccardo Rossi, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
This paper concerns an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fuelled engines. It was named Homogenous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC) and operates on the split-cycle principle. In previous papers the feasibility of this combustion concept was shown for light-duty diesel engines. This paper illustrates a CFD study concerning a heavy-duty version of the HCPC engine. The engine displaces 13 liters and develops 700 kW indicated power at 2200 rpm with 49% maximum indicated efficiency and clean combustion.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Bao-Lin Wang, Paul C. Miles, Rolf D. Reitz, Zhiyu Han, Benjamin Petersen
RNG k-ε closure turbulence dissipation equations are evaluated employing the CFD code KIVA-3V Release 2. The numerical evaluations start by considering simple jet flows, including incompressible air jets and compressible helium jets. The results show that the RNG closure turbulence model predicts lower jet tip penetration than the "standard" k-ε model, as well as being lower than experimental data. The reason is found to be that the turbulence kinetic energy is dissipated too slowly in the downstream region near the jet nozzle exit. In this case, the over-predicted R term in RNG model becomes a sink of dissipation in the ε-equation. As a second step, the RNG turbulence closure dissipation models are further tested in complex engine flows to compare against the measured evolution of turbulence kinetic energy, and an estimate of its dissipation rate, during both the compression and expansion processes. In this case the turbulence energy is also over-predicted, because the turbulence model is not sufficiently dissipative.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Adam B. Dempsey, Rolf D. Reitz
The potential of low temperature combustion to yield low NOx and soot while maintaining diesel-like thermal efficiencies has been demonstrated through countless studies. Methods of achieving low temperature combustion are just as numerous and they range from using high cetane number fuels, like diesel, with large amounts of exhaust gas recirculation, to completely premixing a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, and approaching an HCCI-like condition. The potential of operating a heavy-duty compression ignition engine fueled with conventional gasoline in a partially premixed combustion mode to have high thermal efficiency and low emissions has been demonstrated in this study. The objective of this work was to optimize the engine using computational tools. The KIVA3V-CHEMKIN code, a multi-dimensional engine CFD model was coupled to a Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II), which is a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Two engine operating conditions were investigated in this study, a mid-load and a high-load point, 11 bar and 21 bar IMEP, respectively.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Jessica L. Brakora, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz
Biodiesel-fueled engine simulations were performed using the KIVA3v-Release 2 code coupled with Chemkin-II for detailed chemistry. The model incorporates a reduced mechanism that was created from a methyl decanoate/methyl-9-decenoate mechanism developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A combination of Directed Relation Graph, chemical lumping, and limited reaction rate tuning was used to reduce the detailed mechanism from 3299 species and 10806 reactions to 77 species and 209 reactions. The mechanism was validated against its detailed counterpart and predicted accurate ignition delay times over a range of relevant operating conditions. The mechanism was then combined with the ERC PRF mechanism to include n-heptane as an additional fuel component. The biodiesel mechanism was applied in KIVA using a discrete multi-component model with accurate physical properties for the five common components of real biodiesel fuel. A mixture of methyl decanoate and methyl-9-decenoate was used as the biodiesel surrogate to account for both the saturated and unsaturated components found in real biodiesel fuels.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Karthik V. Puduppakkam, Long Liang, Chitralkumar V. Naik, Ellen Meeks, Sage L. Kokjohn, Rolf D. Reitz
A multi-component fuel model is used to represent gasoline in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a dual-fuel engine that combines premixed gasoline injection with diesel direct injection. The simulations employ detailed-kinetics mechanisms for both the gasoline and diesel surrogate fuels, through use of an advanced and efficient chemistry solver. The objective of this work is to elucidate kinetics effects of dual-fuel usage in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. The model is applied to simulate recent experiments on highly efficient RCCI engines. These engine experiments used a dual-fuel RCCI strategy with port-fuel-injection of gasoline and early-cycle, multiple injections of diesel fuel with a conventional diesel injector. The experiments showed that the US 2010 heavy-duty NO and soot emissions regulations were easily met without aftertreatment, while achieving greater than 50% net indicated thermal efficiency. However, as with other low-temperature combustion strategies, CO and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions must be controlled.
Technical Paper
2011-04-12
Michael J. Tess, Chang-Wook Lee, Rolf D. Reitz
Several diffusion combustion scaling models were experimentally tested in two geometrically similar single-cylinder diesel engines with a bore diameter ratio of 1.7. Assuming that the engines have the same in-cylinder thermodynamic conditions and equivalence ratio, the combustion models primarily change the fuel injection pressure and engine speed in order to attain similar performance and emissions. The models tested include an extended scaling model, which scales diffusion flame lift-off length and jet spray penetration; a simple scaling model, which only scales spray penetration at equal mean piston speed; and a same speed scaling model, which holds crankshaft rotational velocity constant while also scaling spray penetration. Successfully scaling diffusion combustion proved difficult to accomplish because of apparent differences that remained in the fuel-air mixing and heat transfer processes. A computational investigation revealed that the larger nozzle diameter (relative to the ideal scaled value) used in the small engine experiments caused spray-wall impingement, which altered the mixing and subsequent combustion event.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Yue Wang, Hai-Wen Ge, Rolf D. Reitz
Resolution of droplet-scale processes occurring within engine sprays in multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is not possible because impractically refined numerical meshes or time steps would be required. As a result, simulations that use coarse meshes and large time steps suffer from inaccurate predictions of mass, momentum and energy transfer between the spray drops and the combustion chamber gas, or poor prediction of droplet breakup and collision and coalescence processes. Several new spray models have been proposed to address these deficiencies, including use of an unsteady gas jet model to improve momentum transfer predictions in under-resolved regions of the spray, a vapor particle model to minimize numerical diffusion effects, and a Radius of Influence drop collision model to ensure consistent collision computations on different meshes. The present work combines these models with improved KH-RT models to improve the consistency of drop breakup predictions.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Jessica L. Brakora, Rolf D. Reitz
A numerical study was performed to compare the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), collectively termed NOx, resulting from biodiesel and diesel combustion in an internal combustion engine. It has been shown that biodiesel tends to increase NOx compared to diesel, and to-date, there is no widely accepted explanation. Many factors can lead to increased NOx formation and it was of interest to determine if fuel chemistry plays a significant role. Therefore, in order to isolate the fuel chemistry from mixing processes typical in a compression ignition engine, sprays were not considered in the present investigation. The current study compares the NOx formation of surrogates for biodiesel (as represented by methyl butanoate and n-heptane) and diesel (n-heptane) under completely homogeneous conditions. Combustion of each fuel was simulated using the Senkin code for both an adiabatic, constant volume reactor, and an adiabatic, single-zone HCCI engine model. The fuel chemistry is represented using an updated version of a mechanism that combines reduced mechanisms for methyl butanoate and n-heptane.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Patrick B. Dunbeck, Rolf D. Reitz
An experimental study was conducted on an air cooled high-speed, direct-injection diesel generator that investigated the use of gasoline in a dual fuel PCCI strategy. The single-speed generator used in the study has an effective compression ratio of 17 and runs at 3600 rev/min. Varying amounts of gasoline were introduced into the combustion chamber through a port injection system. The generator uses an all-mechanical diesel fuel injection system that has a fixed injection timing. The experiments explored variable intake temperatures and fuel split quantities to investigate different combustion phasing regimes. Results from the study showed low combustion efficiency at low load. Low load operation was also characterized by high levels of HC and CO (in excess of 20 g/kwh and 50 g/kwh respectively). Operation at 75% load was more efficient, and displayed three different combustion regimes that are possible with PIG (port injected gasoline) dual fuel PCCI. At full load, PIG operation provided vast improvements in the emissions of soot.
Technical Paper
2010-04-12
Reed M. Hanson, Sage L. Kokjohn, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle, direct-injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at a medium engine load of 9 bar net IMEP and was also found to be effective to prevent excessive rates of pressure rise. Parameters used in the experiments were guided from the KIVA-CHEMKIN code with a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism including injection timings, fuel percentages, and intake valve closing (IVC) timings for dual-fuel PCCI combustion. The engine experiments were conducted with a conventional common rail injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) and demonstrated control and versatility of dual-fuel PCCI combustion with the proper fuel blend, SOI and IVC timings. For example, at the 9 bar operating point, NOx and soot were 0.012 g/kW-hr and 0.008 g/kW-hr, respectively.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Caroline L. Genzale, Rolf D. Reitz, Mark P. B. Musculus
The effects of spray targeting on mixing, combustion, and pollutant formation under a low-load, late-injection, low-temperature combustion (LTC) diesel operating condition are investigated by optical engine measurements and multi-dimensional modeling. Three common spray-targeting strategies are examined: conventional piston-bowl-wall targeting (152° included angle); narrow-angle floor targeting (124° included angle); and wide-angle piston-bowl-lip targeting (160° included angle). Planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics in a heavy-duty direct-injection optical diesel engine provide two-dimensional images of fuel-vapor, low-temperature ignition (H2CO), high-temperature ignition (OH) and soot-formation species (PAH) to characterize the LTC combustion process. Multidimensional simulations, which agree well with the optical engine measurements, provide a three-dimensional picture of the fuel-air mixing processes and quantitative analysis of the soot, UHC and CO formation and oxidation.
Technical Paper
2009-11-02
Sage L. Kokjohn, Reed M. Hanson, Derek A. Splitter, Rolf D. Reitz
This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively. Engine experiments using a dual-fuel PCCI strategy with port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle multiple injections of diesel fuel with a conventional diesel injector (i.e., wide angle and large nozzle hole) were performed.
Technical Paper
2009-06-15
Yusuke Imamori, Kenji Hiraoka, Shinsuke Murakami, Hiroyuki Endo, Christopher J. Rutland, Rolf D. Reitz
Two different types of mesh used for diesel combustion with the KIVA-4 code are compared. One is a well established conventional KIVA-3 type polar mesh. The other is a non-polar mesh with uniform size throughout the piston bowl so as to reduce the number of cells and to improve the quality of the cell shapes around the cylinder axis which can contain many fuel droplets that affect prediction accuracy and the computational time. This mesh is specialized for the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh. To prevent dramatic changes in spray penetration caused by the difference in cell size between the two types of mesh, a recently developed spray model which reduces mesh dependency of the droplet behavior has been implemented. For the ignition and combustion models, the Shell model and characteristic time combustion (CTC) model are employed. The calculated spatial distribution of droplets, fuel vapor and soot are compared against high-speed in-cylinder imaging obtained from an optical access diesel engine.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Isaac W. Ekoto, Will F. Colban, Paul C. Miles, Sungwook Park, David E. Foster, Rolf D. Reitz
Sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions are examined for a highly dilute (10% oxygen concentration), moderately boosted (1.5 bar), low load (3.0 bar IMEP) operating condition in a single-cylinder, light-duty, optically accessible diesel engine undergoing partially-premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC). The evolution of the in-cylinder spatial distribution of UHC is observed throughout the combustion event through measurement of liquid fuel distributions via elastic light scattering, vapor and liquid fuel distributions via laser-induced fluorescence, and velocity fields via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The measurements are complemented by and contrasted with the predictions of multi-dimensional simulations employing a realistic, though reduced, chemical mechanism to describe the combustion process. Homogeneous reactor simulations also employed to clarify the influence of chemistry (vs. mixing) on UHC oxidation, and to compare the behavior of the reduced chemical mechanism with a more detailed mechanism.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Shiyou Yang, Rolf D. Reitz
A continuous multi-component fuel evaporation model has been integrated with an improved G-equation combustion and detailed chemical kinetics model. The integrated code has been successfully used to simulate a gasoline direct injection engine. In the multi-component fuel model, the theory of continuous thermodynamics is used to model the properties and composition of multi-component fuels such as gasoline. In the improved G-equation combustion model a flamelet approach based on the G-equation is used that considers multi-component fuel effects. To precisely calculate the local and instantaneous residual which has a great effect on the laminar flame speed, a “transport equation residual” model is used. A Damkohler number criterion is used to determine the combustion mode in flame containing cells. To consider the change of local fuel vapor mixture composition, a “PRF adaptive” method is proposed that formulates a relationship between the fuel vapor mixture PRF number (or Octane number) and the fuel vapor mixture composition based on the mean molecular weight and variance of the fuel vapor mixture composition in each cell.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Hai-Wen Ge, Yu Shi, Rolf D. Reitz, David D. Wickman, Guangsheng Zhu, Houshun Zhang, Yury Kalish
A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency. Six individual optimizations were performed, with two of them performed for each of the three operating conditions (full load, mid-load, and low-load).
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Benjamin A. Cantrell, Hai-Wen Ge, Rolf D. Reitz, Christopher J. Rutland
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell. Recently developed spray models have been included in the KIVA code to reduce the dependency of the mesh size on the spray processes.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Hai-Wen Ge, Yu Shi, Rolf D. Reitz, David D. Wickman, Werner Willems
A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V release 2 code was used to optimize the piston bowl geometry, spray targeting, and swirl ratio levels of a high speed direct injected (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger cars. Three modes, which represent full-, mid-, and low-loads, were optimized separately. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. High throughput computing was conducted using the CONDOR software. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters, including open and reentrant bowl designs. A series of new spray models featuring reduced mesh dependency were also integrated into the code. A characteristic-time combustion (CTC) model was used for the initial optimization for time savings. Model validation was performed by comparison with experiments for the baseline engine at full-, mid-, and low-load operating conditions. In addition, computations were made with a detailed chemistry combustion model to further validate the simulation results.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Yu Shi, Sage L. Kokjohn, Hai-Wen Ge, Rolf D. Reitz
This paper presents three approaches that can be used for efficient multidimensional simulations of HCCI and DI engine combustion. The first approach uses a newly developed Adaptive Multi-grid Chemistry (AMC) model. The AMC model allows a fine mesh to be used to provide adequate resolution for the spray simulation, while dramatically reducing the number of cells that need to be computed by the chemistry solver. The model has been implemented into the KIVA3v2-CHEMKIN code and it was found that computer time was reduced by a factor of ten for HCCI cases and a factor of three to four for DI cases without losing prediction accuracy. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from a Honda engine operated with n-heptane under HCCI conditions for which directly measured in-cylinder temperature and H2O mole fraction data are available. The second approach to improve efficiency uses a recently developed a set of spray models which reduce numerical grid size dependencies; thus enabling the simulation of DI combustion on relatively coarse meshes to save computing time.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Luke R. Staples, Rolf D. Reitz, Carl Hergart
With recent increases in global fuel prices there has become a growing interest in expanding the use of diesel engines in the transportation industry. However, new engine development is costly and time intensive, requiring many hours of expensive engine tests. The ability to accurately predict an engine's performance based on existing models would reduce the expense involved in creating a new engine of different size. In the present study experimental results from two single-cylinder direct injection diesel engines were used to examine previously developed engine scaling models. The first scaling model was based on an equal spray penetration correlation. The second model considered both equal spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The engines used were a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine with a 2.44L displacement and a light-duty GM engine with a 0.48L displacement. Several modifications were performed to the Caterpillar engine before testing in order to be consistent with the scaling models.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Sage L. Kokjohn, Thaddeus A. Swor, Michael J. Andrie, Rolf D. Reitz
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been shown as a promising technique for simultaneous NOx and soot reduction while maintaining diesel-like efficiency. Although HCCI has been shown to yield very low emissions levels, spray-wall impingement and high pressure rise rates can be problematic due to the early injection timings necessary for certain HCCI operations. To address spray-wall impingement, an Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) was employed. This strategy uses multiple pulses at both low and high injection pressures to prepare an optimal in-cylinder mixture. A unique Variable Pressure Pulse (VPP) was developed to investigate the AIS concept experimentally. The VPP has the capability of delivering multiple injections at both low and high injection pressures (∼100 bar and ∼1000 bar respectively) through a single injector in the same engine cycle. Comparisons were made between model predictions and engine experiments using the VPP system. The models were able to adequately capture the emissions and performances trends observed in the experiments.
Technical Paper
2009-04-20
Ettore Musu, Roberto Gentili, Rolf D. Reitz
This paper concerns a study of an innovative concept to control HCCI combustion in diesel-fueled engines. The concept consists in forming a pre-compressed homogeneous charge outside the cylinder and in gradually admitting it into the cylinder during the combustion process. This new combustion concept has been called Homogeneous Charge Progressive Combustion (HCPC). CFD analysis was conducted to understand the feasibility of the HCPC concept and to identify the parameters that control and influence this novel HCCI combustion. A CFD code with detailed kinetic chemistry (AVL FIRE) was used in the study. Results in terms of pressure, heat release rate, temperature, and emissions production are presented that demonstrate the validity of the HCPC combustion concept.
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