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Viewing 1 to 30 of 102052
Technical Paper
2015-01-01
Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu, Edwin K.L. Tam
Life-cycle assessments (LCAs) conducted, to date, of the end-of-life phase of vehicles rely significantly on assumed values and extrapolations within models. The end phase of vehicles, however, has become all the more important as a consequence of increasing regulatory requirements on materials recovery, tightening disposal restrictions, and the rapid introduction of new materials and electronics, all potentially impacting a vehicle’s efficacy for achieving greater levels of sustainability. This article presents and discusses selected research results of a comprehensive gate-to-gate life-cycle-inventory (LCI) of end-of-life vehicle (ELV) dismantling and shredding processes, constructed through a comprehensive and detailed case study, and argues that managing and implementing creative dismantling practices can improve significantly the recovery of both reusable and recyclable materials from end-of-life vehicles. Although the amount of parts and materials recovered and directed for reuse, remanufacturing or recycling may be as much as 11.6% by weight of the ELVs entering a dismantling process [1], greater rates of reuse and/or recycling may be achieved by the strategic management of the ELVs entering the dismantling process according to age.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yudai Yamasaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Biomass resources have attracted attention for their ability to address global environmental problems and as a potentially clean source of energy. One method of using biomass resources is to supply gasified biomass, which is produced by either a thermochemical or a microbiological reaction, as a fuel for gas engines used in power generation. The problems with using gas fuels in a gas engine, especially syngas produced by a thermochemical reaction, are their lower heat content and the variation in the fuel components. In addition, the enthalpy of syngas has to be exploited to achieve a high thermal efficiency. If this gas is directly supplied to a spark-ignition (SI) engine, such high temperatures can cause knock. On the other hand, HCCI require a pre-mixture at a temperature of approximately 1000 K to achieve auto-ignition with hydrocarbon fuels. These aspects of HCCI engines avoid the knocking that occurs in SI engines using hot syngas. Ultra-lean combustion can be also realized with fuels with a low LHV that contain several non-combustible components, and the enthalpy of syngas contributes to realizing the high-temperature pre-mixture conditions enabling auto-ignition.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefan Krimplstätter, Franz Winkler, Roland Oswald, Roland Kirchberger
Graz University of technology has presented several applications of its 2-stroke LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology in the previous years (SAE Paper No´s.: 2005-32-0098, 2006-32-0065, 2008-32-0059, 2010-32-0019). In order to improve the competitiveness of the 2-stroke LPDI technology, an air cooled 50cm³ scooter application has been developed. All previous applications have been liquid cooled. The application demonstrates the EURO 4 (2017) ability of the technology and shows that the 2S-LPDI technology can also be applied to low cost air-cooled engines. Hence the complete scooter and moped fleet can be equipped with this technology in order to fulfil on the one hand the emission standards and on the other hand the COP (conformity of production) requirements of Euro 4 emission stage. The paper will present the Euro 4 results of the scooter and describe the very simple conversion process of the existing carburetor engine to the LPDI version. Euro 4 results can be achieved with conventional exhaust system architecture known form nowadays Euro 2 applications.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alexander K. Rowton, Joseph K. Ausserer, Keith D. Grinstead, Paul J. Litke, Marc D. Polanka
As internal combustion engines (ICEs) decrease in displacement, their cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio increases. Examining power output of ICEs with respect to cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio shows that there is a dramatic change in power scaling trends at approximately 1.5 cm-1. At this size, thermal quenching becomes the dominant thermal loss mechanism and performance and efficiency characteristics suffer. Furthermore, small ICEs (>1 cm-1) have limited technical performance data compared to ICEs in larger size classes. Therefore, it is critical to establish accurate performance figures for a family of geometrically similar engines in the size class of approximately 1.5 cm-1 in order to better predict and model the thermal losses as well as other phenomena that contribute to lower efficiencies in small ICEs. The engines considered in this scaling study were manufactured by 3W Modellmotoren, GmbH. In particular, they are the 3W-28i, 3W-55i, and 3W-85Xi which have a cylinder surface area to swept volume ratio of 1.81 cm-1, 1.46 cm-1, and 1.28 cm-1 respectively.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Joseph K. Ausserer, Alexander K. Rowton, Keith D. Grinstead, Paul J. Litke, Marc D. Polanka
In this work, in-cylinder pressure was measured in a 55 cc single cylinder, 4.4 kW, two stroke, spark ignition engine. Engines of this size are common in handheld power tools, hobbyist aircraft, and more recently, commercially developed remotely piloted aircraft operated by the government and military. Literature data on adapting performance measurements developed for larger engines to engines of this size is sparse. This work focuses on evaluating two different methods for measuring in-cylinder pressure, a critical parameter for combustion analysis, matching power plants to airframes, and engine optimization. In-cylinder pressure measurements were taken using two different pressure transducers to determine if the performance differences between the two transducers are discernible in a small, spark ignition engine. A Kistler brand measuring spark plug was compared to a Kistler brand flush mount high temperature pressure sensor. Both sensors employ a piezo-electric pressure sensing element and were designed to measure indicated mean effective pressure and to detect knock at high temperature engine conditions.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Brusiani, Gian Marco Bianchi, Cristian Catellani, Marco Ferrari, Paolo Verziagi, Dario Catanese
Most of the handheld application are equipped with a Two stroke SI engine. The advantage of this engine are known but one of the problem of this applications is to design air cooling system with high efficiency. One of the main problem to cool the two stroke engine for hand held applications like chainsaw, brush cutter, blower and so on is obtain compact design of the application but in the mean time to have the correct air flow in all conditions. This paper describes a CFD methodology to optimize the air flow around the two stroke engine and identify the potential improvement of this system to increase the cooling efficiency.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Sei Takahashi, Hideo Nakamura, Makoto Hasegawa
The International Standard ISO26262 “Road vehicles - Functional safety” was published in 2011. Safety is one of the key issues of future automobile development. System safety is achieved through a number of safety measures, which are implemented in a variety of technologies. ISO26262 provides an automotive-specific risk-based approach and uses ASILs to specify applicable requirements so as to avoid unreasonable residual risk. The International Standard ISO26262 divides the Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASIL) into four stages (from level A to D). In this paper we consider the suitable determination of the Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSIL) when the ISO26262 is applied to motorcycles. We will show that an unreasonable risk area for motorcycles becomes smaller when compared with that of an automobile for the following two reasons. (1) The seating capacity of a motorcycle is less than that of an automobile, and thus the damage from a motorcycle accident is also smaller than those of automobile accidents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kenichi Morimoto, Kenichi Tanaka
This study describes methods to explain the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. Statistical approaches were used presuming the analysis being based on the multibody dynamics simulation having a high degree of freedom to precisely simulate actual motorcycle. There are a number of past attempts to clarify the relationship between the motorcycle specifications and the shimmy phenomenon. One of such efforts is based on the equation of motion. Although such a method is suitable when simply analyzing motions in a fundamental structure, when the number of degrees of freedom is large, generally a practical method cannot be found because it is extremely difficult to deriver an equation of motion. In the meantime, although the author et al. have analyzed shimmy using such multibody dynamics simulation models, the findings are useful only for simulation of performance difference among a number of motorcycles. In this study, we conducted researches taking three steps; (1) extract factors significantly affecting shimmy from motorcycle specifications, (2) explain how a change of motorcycle specifications affects shimmy, and (3) measure performance of a number of motorcycles having various specification.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yoshimoto Matsuda
As for electric automobile, the mass production period has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for the electric motor cycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies’ releases. To study the feasibility of the electric MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers’ environments and evaluated them by the practical view points. The developed electric MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc inner combustion engine(ICE) MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, fever and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact. In addition, it is carried out the performance improvement by the heat management design of the motor to meet the practical use condition. From the usage points as MC, we developed the function of the 4-speeds dog gear MT and its electric control, reward ride function, the regenerative brake control, and the quick charge.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Hans-Juergen Schacht, Manuel Leibetseder, Niko Bretterklieber, Stephan Schmidt, Roland Kirchberger
Title: Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e class PHEV two-wheelers Authors: Schacht, Bretterklieber, Schmidt, Kirchberger Affiliation: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013 coming into force 2016 for type approval, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and thus costlier. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered be the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts are likely to appear on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-11-08 and 2012-10-23.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
In Europe the next level of emission regulation for motorcycles, Euro IV, is on the verge of introduction, followed by Euro V around 2021. Together with the new emission regulation the ECE R 40 testing cycle will become obsolete and the more realistic WMTC will be introduced. Current catalytic solutions consist of so called three way catalysts (TWC) that are able to reduce the emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons below the regulatory emission limit. These catalysts mostly contain platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) in different relations and concentrations. Another important component is the so-called oxygen storage material (OSC) that is compensating the fluctuations in lambda during acceleration and deceleration. Currently existing catalyst formulations must be modified to fulfil the more stringent emission limits with simultaneous consideration of a more realistic test cycle. In this paper we will present the modification of an existing Euro 3 catalytic formulation for a 690cc motorcycle.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Alessandro Franceschini, Emanuele Pellegrini, Raffaele Squarcini
Nowadays the challenge in design auxiliary device for automotive small engine is focused on the packaging reduction and on the increase of the performances. This requirements are in contrast to each other and in order to fulfil the project specifications, new and more refined design tools and procedures need to be developed. This paper presents a calculation loop developed by Pierburg Pump Technology Italy S.p.a. (PPT). It supports the design of a variable displacement oil pump component for engine applications. The work is focused on the fatigue life evaluation of a joint, which transmits the drive torque from the engine to the oil pump. The aim of the procedure is to calculate the onset of the surface fatigue phenomenon in the hexagonal joint which drives the oil pump, taking into account the axes misalignment and the flat to flat clearance. The study has involved several matters, experimental measures, CFD, MBA and FEM analyses. A calculation procedure has been set up in order to consider all the necessary loads applied on the joint.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Daniele Barbani, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
Motorcycle accidents are a serious road safety issue in the European Union (EU). Several projects to increase motorcycle safety were funded by the EU within the FP7 (Seventh Frame Program). Many others are likely to be funded within H2020 (Horizon 2020) as well as by national projects of each member state. In this context, numerical simulations play a strategic role since they can be a powerful tool to simplify, assist and speed up the work of the engineers. During the last years, the authors have presented the development and validation of FE models for complete crash test scenarios (i.e. motorcycle with an anthropometric test dummy that impacts against a car) and their use to evaluate head and neck injuries. During the validation phase the authors observed some variability in the results. While variability of the input parameters is a fact in real world crash test, the extent of the variability in the results has to be estimated and assessed in order to improve the design process of safety devices.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Maki Kawakoshi, Takashi Kobayashi, Makoto Hasegawa
Controllability (C) is the parameter that determines the Automotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL) of each hazardous event based on an international standard of electrical and/or electronic systems within road vehicles (ISO 26262). On application to motorcycles of ISO26262 that was intended only for passenger cars, it is considered that it is desirable to estimate the C class by subjective evaluation of expert riders. Expert riders are professional test riders, and they differ from ordinary riders. They can ride safely and evaluate the motorcycle performance stably even if the test condition is at the limit of vehicle performance. Expert riders evaluate motorcycle performance from the viewpoint of ordinary riders. However, riding maneuvers of ordinary riders have not been confirmed by objective data. For this reason, it is important to understand the basic characteristics of riding maneuvers of expert riders and of ordinary riders. This study seeks to confirm the compatibility between the riding maneuvers of expert riders and those of ordinary riders.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Kazuhiro Ito, Yoshitaka Tezuka, Atsushi Hoshino, Keita Sakurada
The frame body of a motorcycle is a core part that receives force from the road via the front and rear suspensions as well as holding heavy objects such as the engine. It is therefore important to finish fundamental design in the early stage of product development. Regarding the strength of frame body, if the load input to the frame body under the hardest condition like on rough roads can be estimated by simulation, an appropriate frame body design in the early stage of development would be possible. Some techniques have been recently introduced to estimate input loads and/or fatigue strength by the full vehicle simulation to analyze the automobile running on rough roads. In motorcycles, meanwhile, there are some cases with making on the test bench of strength and/or durability tests, and conversion of such tests to CAE simulation. However, there are only a few cases with estimating input loads when running on rough roads. One of the reasons is that it is difficult to accurately estimate suspension motions, especially the motions of telescopic front suspension taking into account the motion in the bending direction.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Federico Giovannini, Niccolò Baldanzini, Marco Pierini
The Powered Two-Wheelers (PTWs) control is more complex than any other road vehicle control, due to the implicit instability of those vehicles. Maneuvers such as braking or swerving, require additional driving abilities to prevent the vehicle from falling, in particular during emergency events, such as panic braking or last second swerving. Focusing on emergency braking maneuvers, in those situations the PTW control is very demanding due to the necessity to adjust the braking intensity in the best way. For standard PTWs, a common cause of accident is the loss of adherence and the consequent loss of stability due to emergency braking manoeuvers. It is worth noting that, for a PTW, the loss of stability means a high probability of fall, especially while cornering. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to propose and evaluate a fall detection algorithm for PTWs performing braking manoeuvers, developed to alert an advanced riding assistance system in order to produce proper counteractions against the imminent fall.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Salvatore Florio, Elena Rebesco, Pietro Scorletti, Daniele Terna
The small gasoline engines are widely used as prime movers in the urban areas. For this reason great efforts have been paid to improve their efficiency as well as to reduce the pollutant emissions. The direct injection allows to improve the engine efficiency; on the other hand, the GDI combustion produces larger particle emissions because of the non-uniform mixture preparation and piston wetting. The properties of fuels play an important role both on engine performance and pollutant emissions. In particular, great attention was paid to the octane number. In this sense, ethanol is becoming even more attractive for spark ignition fuels as more resistant to knock phenomena due to its higher octane number. Moreover, ethanol is also expected to play an important role in PM emission reduction. In this study was analyzed the effect of fuels with different RON and with ethanol content. The analysis was performed on a small GDI engine. It was investigated two operating condition representative of the typical EUDC.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kurzwart, Andreas Mayer, Pierre Comte
The progressing exhaust gas legislation for on- and off-road vehicles includes gradually the nanoparticle count limits. The invisible nanoparticles penetrate like a gas into the living organisms and cause several health hazards. The present paper shows some results of a modern chain saw with & without oxidation catalyst, with Alkylate fuel and with different lube oils. The measurements focused specially on particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry (PM), granulometry SMPS (PN) and differential analysis of filter residue. In this way the reduction potentials with application of the best material were indicated. It has been shown that the particle mass (PM) and the particle numbers (PN), which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, can attain quite high values, but can be considerably influenced by the lube oil quality and reduced with an oxidation catalyst.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Stefano Bernardi, Marco Ferrari, Dario Catanese
Many two stroke engines for hand-held applications are equipped with muffler that contain a catalyst in order to reduce exhaust gas emissions. However, one of the main problems, is to mantain the performances of the catalyst over time; this often leads to the adoption of systems with increased culling oversized issues related to weight , dimensions and temperature . One of the major causes of degradation of the catalyst is derived from elements of poison present in the oil mixture. This study showed the results obtained by comparing different types of oils of mixture, through durability tests carried out on an engine of a brush cutter .
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Juergen Tromayer, Gerd Neumann, Marcus Bonifer, Rainer Kiemel
Looking at upcoming emission legislations for two-wheelers, it is quite obvious that the fulfilment of these targets will become one of the biggest challenges within the engine development process. The gradual harmonization of emission limits for two-wheelers with existing automotive standards will subsequently lead to new approaches regarding mixture preparation and exhaust gas aftertreatment. Referring to these future scenarios, the authors want to demonstrate the possible achievements by the application of state of the art technology to a standard small capacity two-wheeler engine being representative for the current market situation. After choosing a suitable test carrier, which has already been equipped with EFI components including an oxygen sensor for λ=1 operation mode, a basic injection system calibration was used to optimize the combustion process. Based on this setup, a variable exhaust system was manufactured to be able to integrate different catalyst configurations. Thus, the possibility for investigations on the optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment was given.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akiko Tanaka, Ikue Sato
Southeast Asian Nations are large scale markets for motorcycles and the market size is still growing. Moreover, the volume of plastic parts used for those motorcycles is increasing with growing popularity of scooter-type motorcycles. Accordingly, decorative features applied for plastic coverings are increasingly important to enhance the attractiveness of exterior designs of those motorcycles. Under these circumstances, we had adopted the magnetically-formed decorative painting and applied to a mass-production motorcycle model sold in Thailand in 2008. The magnetically-formed decorative painting is the method in which the designed patterns are formed by painting the material that contains flakes movable along with the magnetic lines of force, while applying an auxiliary attachment to the backside of the parts for generating magnetic fields, such as magnetic sheet trimmed to fit the shape of ornamenting designs. The magnetically-formed decorative painting offers three-dimensional appearance even though its actual surface has no protuberances or dents.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Luigi Allocca, Alessandro Montanaro, Rita Di Gioia, Giovanni Bonandrini
In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. A customized sensing of the injector nose permitted the temperature control of the nozzle up to 90 °C while a remote-controlled thermostatic device allowed the fuel heating from ambient to 120 °C. An axially-disposed, 0.200 mm in diameter, single-hole injector has been used with l/d ratio equal to 1 and static flow@100 bar: 2.45 g/s, using iso-octane as mono-component fluid. A 1.0 ms duration single pulse strategy has been adopted at the injection pressure of 10 MPa. The spray evolved in a quiescent optically-accessible vessel pressurize at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 MPa at ambient temperature of the gas (N2).
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Akihiko Azetsu, Hiroomi Hagio
The objective of this study is to understand the fundamental spray combustion characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, mixed with diesel oil, called bio diesel fuel hereafter. To examine the phenomena in detail, diesel spray flame formed in a constant volume high pressure vessel was visualized and the flame temperature and the soot concentration were analyzed by two color method of luminous flame. The composition of combustion gas was measured by a Gas analyzer to quantify the concentration of NOx and CO. The ambient high-pressure and high-temperature conditions inside the constant volume vessel were achieved by the combustion of hydrogen in an enriched oxygen and air mixture. The composition of the mixture was such that the oxygen concentration after hydrogen combustion was approximately 21% by volume. Following hydrogen combustion, fuel was injected into the vessel at the time when the ambient pressure reached the expected value, and the spray combustion was then examined. The fuel injection system used in the present study is an electronically controlled accumulator type fuel injection system developed by the authors.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Eiji Kinoshita, Akira Itakura, Takeshi Otaka, Kenta Koide, Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Thet Myo
Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic alternative diesel fuel with a potential to reduce the life cycle CO2 emission. Biodiesel contains oxygen, therefore the smoke emissions is lower than that of the conventional diesel fuel. Several technical papers express that among the various kinds of biodiesel, coconut oil methyl ester (CME) has lower HC, CO, NOx and smoke emissions compared to other biodiesels, such as rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester because CME contains medium chain saturated FAME (methyl caprylate, methyl caprate) with lower boiling point and kinematic viscosity, compared to long chain saturated FAME (methyl laurate, methyl palmitate et al.) and the oxygen content of CME is about 4 mass% higher than that of other biodiesels. Generally biodiesel is made from vegetable oil and methanol by transesterification. However, biodiesel can be made by using other alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol which are bio-alcohols. Biodiesel made from bio-alcohol has higher lifecycle CO2 reduction compared with that from methanol.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Claudio Annicchiarico, Renzo Capitani
In a Formula SAE, as for almost all racecars, suppressing or limiting the differential action of the differential mechanism is the technique mostly adopted to improve the traction exiting the high lateral acceleration corners. The devices carrying out this function are usually called LSD, “Limited Slip Differentials”, which unbalance the traction force distribution, generating as a secondary effect a yaw torque acting on the vehicle. If the differential action is electronically controlled, this yaw torque can be used as a torque vectoring technique to affect the attitude of car. The yaw torque introduced by an electronically controlled LSD (also called SAD, “Semi-Active Differential”) could suddenly change from oversteering (i.e. pro-yaw) to understeering (i.e. anti-yaw), depending on the riding conditions. Therefore, controlling the vehicle attitude with a SAD could be quite tricky, and its effectiveness could be low if compared to the common torque vectoring systems, which usually act on the brake system of the car.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Jeff R. Wasil, Thomas Wallner
Biologically derived isobutanol, a four carbon alcohol, has an energy density closer to that of gasoline and has potential to be more compatible with existing engines and the current fuel distribution infrastructure than ethanol. When blended with gasoline at 16 vol% (iB16), it has identical energy and oxygen content of 10 vol% ethanol (E10). Engine dynamometer emissions tests were conducted on several open-loop electronic fuel-injected marine outboard engines of both two-stroke direct fuel injection and four-stroke designs using Indolene certification fuel (non-oxygenated), iB16 and E10 fuels. Total particulate emissions were quantified to determine the amount of elemental and organic carbon. Test results indicate a reduction in overall total particulate matter using iB16 and E10 fuels relative to indolene certification fuel. Gaseous and PM emissions suggest that iB16 could be promising for increasing the use of renewable fuels in recreational marine engines and fuel systems. (This research is funded by the U.S.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Eiji Kinoshita, Kazuyo Fushimi, Masayuki Yamada
Biodiesel (BDF), a transesterified fuel made from vegetable oils, is a renewable energy resource and offers potential reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, and a number of studies have been conducted in diesel engines with BDFs as diesel fuel substitutes. With environmental protection in mind, it may be expected that compared with ordinary diesel operation BDFs will result in PM reductions at high load operation as well as lower HC and CO emissions because of the oxygenated fuel characteristics. The properties of BDF are close to those of gas oil and practical applications in automobiles are increasing globally. As vegetable oil contains different kinds of fatty acids, they will contain different components of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formed in the transesterification. The aim of the present study is to clarify how the kinds of FAME influence smoke emissions and soot formation characteristics. The study employed two experimental determinations: diesel engine combustion and suspended single droplet combustion, and used eight kinds of FAME and diesel fuel blends with 20:80 and 80:20 mass ratios.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Francesco Catapano, Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco, Marcello Fiaccavento, Francesco Giari, Antonio Marchetti
This paper deals with the investigation of anomalous phenomena during the cranking phase of a spark ignition small engine, in particular backfire. The growing interest of this abnormal combustion is due to the use of fuels with different chemical-physical properties with respect to gasoline, that can affect especially the cranking phase of the engine. In this work the influence of the composition of the fuel on backfire was studied. In particular the investigation was focused on the presence of ethanol in the fuel. The experimental activity was carried out in an optically accessible engine derived from a 4-stroke spark ignition engine for two-wheel application. The test bench was instrumented and adapted in order to simulate the engine conditions similar to the ones that lead to the anomalous auto-ignition in the intake duct during the reverse rotation of the engine. Two different test procedures have been developed with the aim of promoting the auto-ignition at the intake. All the major engine parameters were measured, such as the in-cylinder pressure, the pressure at the exhaust and at the intake; in order to characterize the engine condition and to monitor the auto-ignition.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Matthew Smeeth
Rolling contact fatigue is a particular type of fatigue that occurs in heavily loaded, non-conformal contacts, such as gears and rolling element bearings. It is primarily a failure mode associated with repeated cyclic loading that generates high local Hertzian pressures, leading to local plastic deformation and substantial surface or sub surface stress. This in turn leads to crack formation and propagation. In some instances this results in sudden and often critical mechanical failure of contacting parts. This failure mode can, to a certain degree, be controlled by the appropriate choice of lubricant; in terms of both the physical and chemical properties of the films formed at the surface. A three contact disc machine has been used to examine the rolling contact fatigue of motorcycle lubricants in such heavily loaded contacts. Three counterface test rings of equal diameter (54mm) are mounted 120° apart with a smaller (12mm diameter) test roller in the centre. Using this configuration, a large number of contact cycles are possible in a short period of time (up to one million per hour), which greatly accelerates the testing test.
Technical Paper
2014-11-11
Mikael Bergman, Magnus Bergwall, Thomas Elm, Sascha Louring, Lars Nielsen
Abstract: Husqvarna as a member of group of European SMEs, surface coating technology providers and engine manufacturers - wish to develop and demonstrate a second-to-none advanced low-friction coating tailored for engine applications. Contrary to existing approaches this is based on a holistic approach combining coating technologies, substrate alloys and well known large-scale second-to-none production technologies. The implementation of the AdEC project will significantly contribute to upgrading state-of-the-art surface technologies and improve existing advanced coating processes through investigation within the field of material science, especially in the area of complex materials focusing on Ni-Co based dispersion coatings containing a mixture of nano-diamonds and hexa-boron nitride (BN). The latest development in use of advanced coating materials was introduced when NSU invented the wankel engine in the late 60s. For that purpose an electrochemical deposit coating (Nikasil) was invented.
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