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Viewing 1 to 30 of 108026
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0157
Hari Prasad Konka, Anand Kumar Ramachandran, Shireesh Pankaj, Prasath Ganesan, Parimal Maity
Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0326
Michael Wohlthan, Gerhard Pirker, Igor Sauperl, Andreas Wimmer, Wolfram Rossegger, Norbert Buch
Experimental investigations on an engine test bed represent a significant cost in engine development. To reduce development time on the test bed and related costs, it is necessary to check the quality of measurements automatically whenever possible directly on the test bed to allow early detection of errors. An error diagnosis system should provide information about the presence, cause and magnitude of an error. The main challenge in developing such a system is to detect the error quickly and reliably, yet only errors that have actually occurred should be detected. Thus, a major attribute towards the user acceptance is an explicit predominance of correct findings. Only then the user will maintain a positive attitude towards this tool and sense a clear advantage and support. Investigations on a test bed have shown that the best results can be obtained with a combination of physical methods and statistical methods for error recognition.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0339
Jagankumar Mari, Egalaivan Srinivasan
In heavy commercial vehicle segment in India, driver comfort and feel was largely ignored for long time. With the fierce competition in the recent years and buyer's market trend, has led the designers of heavy truck to focus more on the finer aspects of Attribute refinements. This paper discusses the outcome of steering comfort and feel development in a 12 Ton Truck Steering comfort and feel is defined by parameters like steering effort, manoeuvrability, on-centre feel & response, cornering feel & response, Torque dead band, return ability etc. and is influenced by a long list of components and systems in the truck. The components include Steering gear, linkage geometry, axle geometry, tire etc. This study focuses on the influences of jacking torque and king in friction on the on-centre performance.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0352
Karthik Shanmugam
This paper discusses the novel communication network and components that describe modular wireless vehicle sensor network architecture with focus on security, reliability, openness and usability. In the past decade the cars have evolved from mechanical devices into very complex electro-mechanical systems. Modern cars has plethora of sensors and actuators often connected to the nearest ECU over point to point connections. Making these sensors and actuators wireless greatly simplifies the vehicle network architecture and takes the load off the traditional CAN bus. The proposed architecture uses IPv6 Over Low Power Networks (6LoWPAN) and MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT) as the building blocks to define the modular in-vehicle wireless sensor network. The 6LoWPAN is the protocol layer for the low power sensor networks defined in RFC4944 by IETF.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0274
Kaarthic Kaundabalaraman
Proper suitability of Bolt preload is a pre-requisite whenever we go for component design change. In this paper we have considered Connecting rod bolt for our analysis, where the design pre-requisite was whether same tightening specification could be carried forward from Normal to Fracture split type. The work focuses on comparison of bolt design parameters, Inertia force, Contact pressure & bearing pressure calculation. RFF factor was used as a parameter to check for the suitability with respect to Engine max permissible speed. A systematic approach, considering guidelines from VDI Standard was used for carrying out related analysis. For improving the quality of judgment, FEA tools along with durability testing was carried out at ARAI. Since the conclusion results were in correlation with the theoretical, in-house software was developed using these equations in the form of Excel macros.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0265
Anoop Chawla, Sukhraj Singh, Sachiv Paruchuri, Aditya Chhabra
The generation of anatomically correct postures of finite element based Human Body Models (HBM) is indispensable for injury prediction in passive safety analysis. HBMs are often underutilized in industrial R&D since these are typically available only in one posture and do not represent the variability in the human postures in an actual vehicle environment. The work presented in the paper is part of a number of tools being developed for this purpose under a European Union project - Piper. It uses a computer graphic based method for positioning an HBM in the desired posture. In the past the technique has been used for repositioning the knee and pelvic joints of the HBM. The technique has been extended to other joints of the HBM. It ensures that the result is anatomically correct while maintaining its mesh quality. Further, the method needs minimal subjective intervention. In the method, a set of contours are first defined on the given model surface.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0355
Lokesh Soni
With the increase in number of vehicles and amount of traffic, safety has come out to be a big concern in vehicle’s dynamic stability. There are certain system’s limits beyond which if vehicle is pushed it may become unstable. One of the major areas of research in vehicle dynamics control has been Yaw-rate Control of vehicle. With this situations like vehicle spinning, oversteer, understeer etc. can be addressed. The challenge for the next generations of vehicle control is the integration of the available actuators into a unique holistic control concept. This paper presents the driver reference generator developed for the Integrated Vehicle Dynamics Control concept. The driver reference generator processes the driver inputs to determine the target vehicle behaviour. The generation of reference behaviour is a key factor for the integrated control design. The driver reference generation is validated on the XUV5OO vehicle.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0348
Renny Mathew
On board diagnosis of pre-supply fuel pump control Module with MOSFET’s “Rds_on” as diagnosis element Renny Mathew Senior Hardware Engineer Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solution ABSTRACT In automotive, on-board diagnosis does the self-diagnosis and the fault reporting. It provides the required level of robustness to the control electronics. The amount of diagnostic information available via OBD as always varied widely depends on the category of vehicle and its usage. Pre supply fuel pump comes with the common rail system it pumps the fuel from fuel tank to the high pressure pump inlet. This paper discuss about the on board diagnosis provided in a pump driver module which has two power transistors used as switching elements for motor control and “Rds_on” of these transistors as the fault diagnosis element. It operates in dual frequency and variable duty cycles, and provide maximum possible diagnostic coverage in all operating modes.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0230
Timothy Dallmann, Zhenying Shao, Aparna Menon, Anup Bandivadekar
Diesel engines used in non-road vehicles and equipment are a significant source of pollutant emissions that contribute to poor air quality, negative human health impacts, and climate change. Efforts to mitigate the emissions impact of these sources, such as regulatory control programs, have played a key role in air quality management strategies around the world, and have helped to spur the development of advanced engine and emission control technologies. As non-road engine emissions control programs are developed in a growing number of countries around the world, it is instructive to look at the development of programs in two of the regions that have progressed furthest in controlling emissions from non-road engines, the United States (U.S.) and European Union (EU).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0358
Jonathan Neudorfer, Siva Sankar Armugham, Mathews Peter, Naresh Mandipalli, Karthikeyan Ramachandran, Christian Bertsch, Isidro Corral
As automobiles become increasingly smarter, the need to understand within the automotive software the physical behavior of its parts is growing as well. The laws of physics governing such behavior are mostly formulated as differential equations, which today are usually obtained from various modeling tools. For the solution of such equations, the tools offer several solvers to satisfy the requirements of different problems. E.g. simple and fast explicit low order solvers for non-stiff problems and more complex implicit solvers for stiff problems. Though the modeling and code generation features as available in such tools are desirable for embedded automotive software, they cannot be used directly due to special restrictions with respect to hard realtime constraints. One such restriction is the organization of automotive software in components complying with the AUTOSAR standard which is not widely supported by the modeling tools.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0315
Jyoti Kale, Satish Kumar, Pravin Lavangare, Anand Subramaniam
The Steering system is one of the most safety critical systems in an automobile. With time the durability, reliability, and the fine-tuning of the parameters involved in this subsystem have increased along with the competitiveness of the market. In a competitive market, accelerated testing is the key to shorter development cycles. It is observed that the majority of component manufacturers have a preference on vehicle level testing to achieve their development goals. The vehicle level trials are time consuming and lack the control and repeat ability of a lab environment. This paper describes the development of a steering test rig designed to simulate the disturbances experienced on road within a controlled laboratory environment. The five axis steering rig, would allow simulation of individual road wheel displacement along with steering wheel angle input, and lateral steering rack displacements. The rig also is designed to be adaptable to a range of vehicle categories.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0145
Benjamin Rodriguez Sharpe, Oscar Delgado, Mehul Garg
In India, commercial trucks and buses are responsible for approximately two-thirds of fuel use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the country’s transportation sector. As India considers various policy measures to reduce fuel consumption and GHGs from the on-road heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) fleet, one of the most critical elements of research is analyzing the technologies that can be applied to new vehicles for improving fuel efficiency. This analysis is a comprehensive assessment of the fuel-saving technologies and technology packages for three representative diesel HDV types in India: a 40-tonne gross vehicle weight (GVW) tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and a 16-tonne transit bus. These representative vehicle types are modeled after top-selling models in the Indian market based on sales data from fiscal year 2013-14.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0170
Pratik Pillai, Sivakumar Venugopal, Vijaysankar Gopalan
Crevice Corrosion is one of the most damaging forms of material degradation. Crevice corrosion occurs when a wetted metallic surface is in close proximity to another surface. Almost in any engineered layout there are many instances in which two or more materials are, by design, in close proximity. The primary means of preventing crevice corrosion is careful design. Unfortunately, in most engineering layouts complete avoidance of crevices is not practical. In this study, the corrosion analysis consisted of parts like cast aluminium nipple and a rubber hose clamped over it which were part of the coolant circuit joint of an automobile engine. There was coolant leakage from the joint and bulging of the rubber hose attached to it. A number of failed aluminium nipples were studied for various metallurgical aspects like chemistry, hardness and microstructure and the results were found to be within acceptable limits.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0340
Sarang Bire, Prashant R Pawar, M Saraf
Air suspension systems been used specially in buses and trucks since the 1950s. Now a days these systems are used as a standard fitment and widely used to improve the ride comfort, handling stability and also serves as a medium for better cargo protection, with its feasibility of adjusting height and spring pressure according to the driving conditions and loading scenario as per driver's intent. These system are very well developed for Trucks and buses and have feasibility for adapting for wide range of configuration of suspension system and axle. At same time development of air suspension system for different category of vehicle other than this such as SUV or pickup trucks is not accelerated to extent expected. This work describe realistic approach for development of air suspension for pickup category of vehicle which takes into consideration integrated approach of on road testing and virtual MBD tools.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0137
Marco Schöggl, Ernst-Georg Lorinser
Introduction With the official publication of the "RDE package 1" on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event, on 20th April 2016, marks a milestone in the emission legislation for LDV and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced the planned introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 which also will include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification. The Challenge Leaving the well-conditioned surroundings of a test-bed, gaseous and particle measurement under real driving conditions reveals new challenges for particle emission test equipment such as vibrations, inclinations, accelerations as well as temperature and pressure drops. The severe driving situation in India as well as the rough road & ambient conditions will put an extra challenge for the calibration engineer.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0144
Dominik Lamotte, Peter Neumann, Klaus Schrewe
Local air pollution is responsible for health issues in many regions worldwide. By limitation the emissions of combustion engines the air quality will be improved. The emissions of commercial vehicles are currently limited in India by the BS IV legislation, NOx is limited to 3.5 g/kWh and particle mass to 0.03 g/kWh for transient emission cycles for onroad applications. By introducing the BS VI legislation in 2020 the NOx-emissions have to be further reduced by approx. 90 % and particle mass by approx. 90%. compared to the former BS IV regulation. To achieve this hard requirements regarding particle mass the integration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) to the aftertreatment system is mandatory. There is a need for regeneration of the collected soot from the DPF periodically. This could be achieved by an exhaust temperature of approx. 600 °C by converting additional injected fuel over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC).
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0165
Meenu Srivastava, Umesh Kumar Sinha, M Muniprakash, A J Steve Mithran, K.M. Pillai
Automobile component particularly the engine cylinder is subjected to continuous wear during the running of the automobile specifically the two wheelers. Aluminium alloys are the material of choice due to their high strength/weight ratio. As aluminium alloys have poor wear and corrosion resistance a uniform wear resistant coating is required on the bore of the internal combustion engine cylinder. There are several methods to produce composite coatings like chemical and physical vapour deposition, plasma spraying, metal infiltration, powder metallurgy etc. Ni-SiC coating commercially known as NIKASIL, is the most commercially used wear-resistant coating in automobile’s/aero IC engines. However, SiC tends to react with the nickel matrix at temperatures above 400 oC forming a brittle nickel silicide which deteriorates the performance of the coating. Also, the synthesis of SiC particles utilizes high energy.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0159
B Sakthivel, R Elayaraja, M Sivakumar, R Sridhar, J Suresh Kumar, B L Ganapati Subramaniyam
Solenoids are electro mechanical actuators used in automotive industries as flow control valve. Solenoids replace the conventional mechanical valve since it is having precise control and faster response. Solenoid is operated in either ON/OFF mode or Pulse Width Modulation. When operated in pulse width mode at a given frequency, the solenoid undergoes finite number of repeated operations. A normally closed solenoid contains two critical parts, one is the plunger which is the moving part and another is the valve case which is the static part. The plunger hits the valve case during repeated number of operations which undergo extreme wear. Since the functionality and performance of the solenoid rely mainly on the plunger and valve case, it is inevitable to have an optimum material selection in order to achieve higher durability. This paper illustrates the study of material selection for an Air control solenoid used for two wheeler application.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0168
Ajeet Babu P K, Jibin Babu, M R Saraf
Forging is a metal forming process involving shaping of metal by the application of compressive forces using hammer or press. Forging load of equipment is an important function of forging process and the prediction of the same is essential for selection of appropriate equipments. In this study a hot forging material i.e 42CrMo4 steel is selected which is used in automotive components like axle, connecting rod. Hot forging experiments at 7500C are carried out on cylindrical specimens of aspect ratio 0.75 and 1.5 with true height strain application (ln ho/hf) of 0.2 and 0.6. Forging load for the experiments is calculated using slab and upper bound deformation models as well as metal forming simulation using FORGE software. The upper bound models with 30% deviation from the simulation results are found to be more accurate compared to the slab models.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0173
Surbhi Bhagwat, Vinod Kumar Mannaru
Forging is one of the traditional bulk metal forming processes used extensively in the automotive industry. Forging has a distinct advantage versus other metal manufacturing processes in terms of strength, grain orientation, reliability, near net shape with lower material utilization, and machining requirements leading to cost effectiveness, etc. Today, the automotive industry is going through the critical phase of reducing component costs through material reduction and tool consumption reduction (forging and machining tools). With this challenge, process modeling is gaining more momentum in the industry to optimize blank size and improve the tool life with required part quality, while also evaluating press tonnage requirements for effective equipment usage.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0175
Muhammad Ali Siddiqui, Hein Koelman, Prashant Sharad Shembekar
Composite manufacturing in the automotive industry is striving for short cycle times to be competitive with conventional manufacturing methods, while enabling significant weight reductions. High Pressure Resin Transfer Molding (HP-RTM) is becoming one of the processes of choice for composite applications due to its ability to enable high speed part production. In this regard, researchers need to offer differentiated ultra-fast curing resin systems for carbon fiber composites for automotive structural and non-structural applications to enable Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to meet their large volume lightweight targets in concert with present day low-carbon footprint legislations. In order to expand applications for composites in the automotive industry it is necessary to optimize all aspects of the production cycle using predictive modeling.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0181
Manish Vyas, Mark Pratley
There is an increased use of elastomers in the automotive industry for sealing, noise isolation, load dampening, insulation, etc., because of their key properties of elasticity and resilience. Eaton uses elastomers in its Supercharger application for dampening the torque fluctuation from the engine, thereby reducing the noise. Finite element modeling of elastomers is challenging because of its non-linear behavior in different loading directions. It also undergoes very large elemental deformation (~100-200%), which results in additional complexities in getting numerical convergence. Finally, it also exhibits viscoelastic and Mullins effects. The present study deals with the characterization of elastomers for its modeling in commercial finite element software packages and verification of some predicted design parameters with physical testing.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0188
Prasad Yadav, Harshal Bankar, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Diesel powered electric generators are used in a variety of applications, such as emergency back-up power, temporary primary power at industrial facilities, etc. As regulatory and customer requirements demand quieter designs, special attention is given to the design of acoustic enclosures to balance the need of noise control with other performance criteria like ventilation and physical protection. In the present work, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) approach augmented by experimental inputs is used to carry out Vibro-acoustic analysis of an enclosure for higher capacity Diesel generator set. The exterior sound radiated from an enclosed generator is predicted and further enclosure is optimized for an improved sound-suppression. The airborne sources such as engine, alternator, radiator fan and exhaust are modelled explicitly using experimental noise source characterisation. Structure borne inputs are also captured in the test for improving modelling accuracy.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0185
Ramkumar Rajamanickam, Rajendra Shinde, Gaurav Shinde, Manasi Joshi, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Tire cavity noise is one of the main road noise issues that contribute significantly to noise at vehicle interior. It is very difficult to improve tyre cavity noise as cavity pressure acts as an exciting force and its low damping and high gain characteristics dominate the vibrations of both suspension and body. Precise measurement of this noise in real systems becomes more important besides theoretical calculations to understand the source and critical transmission paths that reaches the receiver. In this study, a tyre cavity microphone (TCM) fitted inside the tyre on wheel rim is used to identify the tyre cavity resonant mode frequencies distinguished from close proximity noise frequencies. Noise Transfer Function (NTF) study is carried out by exciting the tyre using an electro-magnetic shaker and measuring the cavity response using TCM and structural response using accelerometers.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0189
Keshav Mutalik, Atul A Gaikwad, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth, Shriniwas Chivate
Parameters such as lower noise levels, quietness, etc of a vehicle has no longer remained the only driving features since the automobile buyer is greatly influenced by the perception of the sound. In a scenario like this, the sound quality becomes of great importance especially for smaller diesel powertrains as they are more annoying than their gasoline counterparts. Present work describes the methodology to formulate the equation for annoyance/pleasantness for the diesel powertrains used in Indian passenger cars. The single value of sound quality rating index derived by this work is greatly helpful for powertrain level sound quality target setting and benchmarking purposes. It is significant from the literature that much of the work is done on in cabin noise and powertrain noise at vehicle level but not much is reported on powertrain at test bed level.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0206
Muthukumar Arunachalam, Sankarasubramanian Thirukkotti, S Arunkumar, Abdul Haiyum
Modern day’s customer awareness on noise and comfort are extremely increasing which demands OEM manufacturers to focus on NVH attributes and to meet environmental legislative requirements. Noise generation mechanism in air intake system (AIS) is the one of the major source for noise concerns and it occurs mainly due to air column oscillation by sharp pressure pulse from opening and closing of valves in the engine cylinders. Air intake system designer has immense challenges to attenuate engine noise by using multiple of resonators for tuning the desired broad band frequencies and to choose the optimum number of resonators during design stage. The placement of resonator is also key challenge task on the both clean duct and dirty sides for better noise reduction from air intake system. Transmission loss is the property of acoustic system to evaluate the NVH performance of air induction system at system level design development stage.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0081
Karthikeyan Nagarajan
In autonomous car development, a realistic driver model is needed to simulate driver behavior of system vehicle and also other vehicles in the traffic simulation environment. The important constraint in developing such models is that the simulation should run in real time reducing computational overheads. In this paper, the proposed driver model comprises of (1) Self-Learning Model Reference Fuzzy longitudinal and lateral controller is designed to develop a basic path following model. This model can adapt to any vehicle parameter variations and also simulated road conditions. The basic driving action is governed by set of fuzzy rules. The driver adapting capabilities to different vehicles or environmental changes are realized using simple self-learning algorithm. This algorithm evaluates the current driver controller performance against closed loop desired reference model and alters the scaling factors of fuzzy variables.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0086
Sanjai Sureshkumar, Subhashree Rajagopal, Anand Subramaniam, Ganesh Nagarajan, Karthik Nagarajan
Abstract With Increasing environmental concerns and high fuel prices, the automotive industry is shifting its focus to electric vehicles (EVs). Electric motor being the heart of an electric vehicle, faces a major design challenge to have optimum performance and structural strength at an affordable cost. Synchronous reluctance motor offers higher power density at low cost since the rotor is free from permanent magnets or field excitation. However, torque fluctuations at low speed is a major concern. This is amended by altering the width of the barriers to improve the saliency ratio which aids in better electromagnetic performance. But, on contrary, the barrier width adjustment has an impact on structural integrity of the motor, eventually affecting the electromagnetic performance. Hence, a tradeoff between the performance and structural strength is necessary to make it more practical for the application.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0219
S Nataraja Moorthy, Manchi Rao, Prasath Raghavendran
Globally the customers are demanding more powerful yet silent vehicles to enhance their daily commuting and goods transportation needs. The current trend in the design is to enhance the engine power without major change in the physical configurations of the engine systems. Increasing the power and torque of the powertrain will have an undesirable and adverse effect on NVH levels. In this research work, a light weight rear wheel drive vehicle was investigated from torsional vibration perspective. The vehicle is powered by a two cylinder engine with turbo charger. The power and torque of the vehicle was increased approximately two times with the help of turbocharger which resulted in increasing the powertrain torsional vibration. This increased vibration was further amplified through inevitable driveline resonances which causes severe vibration at the passenger seat location and steering. Also, the noise levels are above the comfortable zone.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0264
Prashant Pawar, Alen Jose, Hitesh B Chaudhari, Simhachalam Juttu, Nagesh Harishchandra Walke, Neelkanth V Marathe
Virtual modelling of engine and predicting the performance and emissions is now becoming an essential step in engine development for off-road application due to the flexibility in adjusting the combustion parameters and shorter development times. This paper presents an approach where the test bed calibration time is reduced using virtual techniques, such as 1D thermodynamic simulation and 3D CFD combustion simulation for 4 cylinders TCIC engine complying with Stage IIIA emission norms. 1D thermodynamic simulation has played an important role in the early stage development of an engine for selection of engine sub systems like turbocharger, manifolds, EGR system, valve timings etc. The application of 1D Simulation tool for combustion system development and emission predictions, focusing on NOx for off road multi-cylinder Mechanical injection diesel engine is discussed.
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