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Viewing 1 to 30 of 363
2018-04-13
Journal Article
2018-01-9175
Surya Narayana Prasa Vegendla, Tanju Sofu, Rohit Saha, Long-Kung Hwang, Mahesh Madurai Kumar
A 3D CFD underhood thermal simulations are performed in two different vehicle platooning configurations; (i) single-lane and (ii) two-lane traffic conditions. The vehicle platooning consists of two identical vehicles, i.e. leading and trailing vehicle. In this work, heat exchangers are modeled by two different heat rejection rate models. In the first model, a constant heat rejection rates are considered as similar to no-traffic vehicle condition. In the other model, a varied heat rejection rates are implemented by considering an aerodynamic influence on fuel consumption rates. In a constant heat rejection rate model, the trailing vehicle thermal performance is significantly dropped in single-lane traffic due to reduced oncoming cold mass air flow velocities from leading vehicle. Also, the similar observations are found in two-lane traffic but at higher vehicle separation distances.
2018-04-13
Journal Article
2018-01-9076
Anne Marie Lewis, Gregory Keoleian, Jarod Kelly
Vehicle lightweighting and advanced powertrains, including hybrid electric systems and high efficiency engines, have the potential to increase fuel economy and decrease life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the energy and GHG impact over the entire vehicle life cycle is dependent on the energy and emissions required to produce lightweight materials and fuels. Recent work has used life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate diverse vehicles and fuels using a novel design harmonization technique. The current work describes this approach in further detail and provides an example of its application for a moderate lightweighting scenario for an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This type of apples-to-apples comparison is enabled by functional equivalency metrics, which are defined as part of the design harmonization technique and held constant across all vehicles.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0589
Daliang Shen, Dominik Karbowski
In this paper we present an optimal control algorithm for a connected and automated vehicle with a hybrid-electric powertrain for a cruising situation. Thanks to connectivity to the cloud and/or to infrastructure, speed limit and slope along the future route can be known with accuracy; this information can in turn be used to compute the control variable trajectory that will minimize energy consumption, without impacting travel time significantly. Because speed is affected by the choice of control variables (e.g. torque and gear), this concept can be applied in an automated driving scenario. In the first part of the paper, we provide an overview of theory used to solve this optimal control problem. We use quadratic models for the powertrain and apply the Pontryagin Minimum Principle, which reduces the problem to the minimization of a cost function with parameters called co-states.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0607
Namdoo Kim, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau
This paper presents a framework to simulate vehicle powertrains with human or a connected and automated driving in the same environment considering traffic light information, in order to develop control algorithm for a connected and automated vehicle. Connectivity and automation provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. In order to achieve this goal, the designers of control strategy need to simulate a wide range of driving situations that be able to interact with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a close-loop fashion. RoadRunner is a framework based on Autonomie software, which can simulate longitudinal movements of one or more user-defined vehicles along a user-defined route. In the first part of the paper, we provide an overview of framework on how it is organized and under what process.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0190
Ahmed Abdul Moiz, Pinaki Pal, Daniel Probst, Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Sibendu Som, Janardhan Kodavasal
A Machine Learning - Genetic Algorithm (MLGA) approach was developed to virtually discover optimum designs using training data generated from high-fidelity simulations. Machine learning (ML) presents a pathway to transform complex physical processes that occur in a combustion engine into compact informational processes. In the present work, a total of over 2000 sector-mesh computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a heavy-duty engine were performed. These were run concurrently on a supercomputer to reduce overall turnaround time. The engine being optimized was run on low-octane (RON70) gasoline fuel using a partially-premixed advanced combustion approach. A total of nine input parameters (or features) were varied, and the CFD simulation cases were generated by randomly sampling points from this nine-dimensional input space.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0187
Pinaki Pal, Christopher Kolodziej, Seungmok Choi, Alberto Broatch, Josep Gomez-Soriano, Yunchao Wu, Tianfeng Lu, Yee Chee See, Sibendu Som
Knock is a major bottleneck to achieving higher efficiency in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines. The recent trends of boosting, downsizing and downspeeding have exacerbated this issue by driving engines toward higher power density and higher load duty cycles. Apart from the engine operating conditions, fuel anti-knock quality is a major determinant of the knocking tendency in engines, as quantified by its octane number (ON). The ON of a fuel is based on an octane scale which is defined according to the standard octane rating methods for Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). These tests are performed in a single cylinder Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. In the present work, a virtual CFR engine model based on 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0198
Riccardo Scarcelli, Anqi Zhang, Thomas Wallner, Douglas Breden, Anand Karpatne, Laxminarayan Raja, Isaac Ekoto, Benjamin Wolk
While the spark-ignition (SI) engine technology migrates towards challenging combustion regimes (dilute and boosted operation), advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma have continued to receive significant attention from the automotive industry as a potential replacement for conventional spark-plugs. However there are no models currently that can describe the non-thermal plasma ignition process in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are widely used in the engine multi-dimensional modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the characteristics of the non-equilibrium plasma. A key challenge is represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle (milliseconds) simulation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0196
Noah Van Dam, Magnus Sjöberg, Sibendu Som
Large-eddy Simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate spray variability and its effect on cycle-to-cycle flow variability in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine under non-reacting conditions. Initial simulations were performed of an injector in a constant volume spray chamber. Detailed measurements of the spray including quantitative mixing data are used to validate a simulation spray set-up for the stepped-bore multi-hole gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector. A random seed perturbation methodology was used to generate shot-to-shot spray variability in the LES, and comparisons of both mean and standard deviations were made for quantities with sufficient experimental data. After validation, the same spray set-up was used to simulate the same injector in an optically accessible DISI engine.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0193
Alberto Broatch, Ricardo Novella, Josep Gomez-Soriano, Pinaki Pal, Sibendu Som
It is challenging to develop highly efficient and extremely clean engines, while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort and driveability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise represents about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The understanding of noise generation is intricate due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, current efforts are focused on developing efficient strategies to understand the combustion noise mechanisms in order to reduce engine noise while maintaining high efficiency and low pollutant emissions.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0277
Michele Battistoni, Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale, Marco Arienti, Katarzyna E. Matusik, Daniel J. Duke, Jhoan Giraldo, Jan Ilavsky, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell, Pedro Marti-Aldaravi
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition (SCC) enabled quantification of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size distributions in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 10 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) to Large-Eddy Simulation (LES), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0276
Le Zhao, Roberto Torelli, Xiucheng Zhu, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee, Sibendu Som, Riccardo Scarcelli, Mehdi Raessi
The necessity to study spray-wall interaction in internal combustion engines is driven by the evidence that fuel sprays impinge on chamber and piston surfaces resulting in the formation of wall films. This, in turn, may influence the air-fuel mixing and increase the hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. This work reports an experimental and numerical study on spray-wall impingement and liquid film formation in a constant volume combustion vessel. Diesel and n-heptane were selected as test fuels and injected from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector at pressures of 120, 150, and 180 MPa on a flat transparent window. Ambient and plate temperatures were set at 423 K, the fuel temperature at 363 K, and the ambient densities at 14.8, 22.8, and 30 kg/m3. Simultaneous Mie scattering and schlieren imaging were carried out in the experiment to visually track the spray-wall interaction process.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0385
Simeon Iliev
Active transmission warm-up systems are used by automotive manufacturers in effort to increase powertrain efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. These systems vary from one manufacturer to another, but their main goal is to capture waste heat from the powertrain and accelerate transmission fluid warm-up. In this study, the fuel consumption benefit from the active transmission warm-up system in a 2013 Ford Taurus 2.0L EcoBoost is quantified on a cold start UDDS drive cycle at ambient temperatures of -7 and 21°C. In addition to this, the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions impact on the EPA 5-cycle test, hot start HWY drive cycle, and a cold start, constant speed drive cycle is also quantified. An extra effort to determine the maximum possible benefit of active transmission warm-up is made by modifying the test vehicle to provide external heating to pre-heat and further accelerate the transmission fluid warm-up.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0409
Theodore Bohn
The National Electrical Code (NEC) part 625.41 allows the automatic load control systems for Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSEs) to dynamically define the number of electric vehicles charging on the same branch circuit such that more EVSEs can be connected than total branch ampacity by regulating load on each EVSE. This paper describes current implementations of EVSE automatic load control as well as limitations on the size and dynamics of the controlled group load(s). Implications of the CPUC based Vehicle Grid Integration (VGI) approach to formalizing requirements for communication to Electric Vehicles (PEVs), EVSEs, and utility constraints on automatic load control methods are also discussed. Experimental data is presented on developing and evaluating performance of EVSE load control systems using a purpose built network communication controlled PEV load emulator.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0423
Severin Kamguia Simeu, Namdoo Kim
A new type of approval procedure for light duty vehicles, the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), developed by an initiative of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, will come into force by the end of 2017. The current European type-approval procedure for energy consumption and CO2 emissions of cars, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), includes a number of tolerances and flexibilities that no longer accurately reflect state-of-the-art technologies. Indeed, based on an analysis of real-world driving data from the German website spritmonitor.de, the ICCT concluded that the differences between official laboratory and real-world fuel consumption and CO2 values were around 7% in 2001. This discrepancy has been increasing continuously since then to around 30% in 2013 with notable differences found between individual manufacturers and vehicle models.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0314
Kaushik Saha, priyesh srivastava, Shaoping Quan, P. K. Senecal, Eric Pomraning, Sibendu Som
A numerical study has been carried out to assess the effects of needle movement and internal nozzle flow on spray formation for multi-hole Gasoline Direct Injection system (ECN Spray G). The coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation is dynamic in nature and simulations with pragmatic choice of spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to analyze the sprays in a GDI system. The dynamic coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation will be accompanied by a Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) approach. The liquid fuel will remain in the Eulerian framework while exiting the nozzle. Thereafter, depending on local instantaneous liquid concentration in a given cell and amount of liquid in the neighboring cells, part of the liquid mass will be transferred to Lagrangian framework in the form of Lagrangian parcels.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0297
David P. Markt, Roberto Torelli, Ashish Pathak, Mehdi Raessi, Sibendu Som, Riccardo Scarcelli, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
When modeling fuel injection in a Lagrangian framework the use of a spray-wall interaction sub-model is necessary to correctly assess the effects associated with spray impingement, which in turn may influence the air-fuel mixing and result in increased hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. One component of a spray-wall interaction model is the splashed mass fraction, the amount of mass that is ejected upon impingement. Most existing models are based on relatively large droplets (mm), while diesel sprays are of micron size. It is challenging experimentally to distinguish pre- from post-impinged droplets in diesel sprays, leading to difficulty in model validation. In this study one commonly used splashed mass model, proposed by O'Rourke and Amsden, was studied through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) using an in-house 3D multiphase flow solver, validated in previous studies.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0303
Roberto Torelli, Katarzyna E. Matusik, Kyle C. Nelli, Alan L. Kastengren, Kamel Fezzaa, Christopher F. Powell, Sibendu Som, Yuanjiang Pei, Tom Tzanetakis, Yu Zhang, Michael Traver, David J. Cleary
Cyclic variability in internal combustion engines arises from multiple concurrent sources, many of which remain to be fully understood and controlled. This variability can, in turn, affect the behavior of the engine resulting in undesirable deviations from the expected operating conditions and performance. Shot-to-shot variation during the fuel injection process is strongly suspected of being a source of cyclic variability. This study focuses on the shot-to-shot variability of injector needle motion and its influence on the internal nozzle flow behavior using diesel fuel. High-speed x-ray imaging techniques have been used to extract high-resolution injector geometry images of the sac, orifices, and needle tip that allowed the true dynamics of the needle motion to emerge. These measurements showed high repeatability in the needle lift profile across multiple injection events, while the needle radial displacement was characterized by a much higher degree of randomness.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0667
Eric Wood, Clement Rames, Eleftheria Kontou, Yutaka Motoaki, John Smart, Zhi Zhou
Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) are disrupting personal mobility by satisfying travel demand without the need of personally owned vehicles. Such services have potential to curb automobile ownership and use, decrease environmental externalities per household and contribute to increasing transit ridership. On the other hand, TNCs can potentially increase traffic, particularly during peak periods, and vehicle miles travelled, due to deadheading mileage for picking up or “searching” for customers. Electrification of TNC vehicles is considered as one avenue for mitigating the potentially negative energy and environmental outcomes of growth in the ride hailing industry. This paper deploys a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of electric vehicles within a TNC fleet using a large GPS dataset from Columbus, OH.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0649
Michael Duoba, Forrest Jehlik
As important to improving fuel economy as engine or drive train efficiency is lowering the overall vehicle driving losses. Accurate chassis dynamometer fuel economy test results rely on accurate road load determinations. Road load is currently determined (with some exceptions) from established coast down testing procedures. With new vehicle technologies and usage cases challenging these paradigms, experiments were conducted using axle torque sensors to address applicability to finding accurate vehicle road load determinations. Whereas coastdowns use vehicle deceleration to determine loads, steady-state testing has some advantages in validating road load for vehicles with unusual powertrain configurations with no mechanical neutral gear (namely plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles). Steady-state testing may also be the only way to directly evaluate vehicle loads during coordinated driving (platooning or automated cruise control).
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0848
Seungmok Choi, Christopher Kolodziej, Thomas Wallner, Alexander Hoth
CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interests in engine downsizing and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, discussions about new metric to evaluate fuel anti-knock characteristics using the CFR engine are underway. To take into account additional factors, such as fuel heat of vaporization (HoV) and laminar flame speed (LFS), and understand their impacts on knocking, it is essential to estimate accurate in-cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR engine is modelled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model is validated for different fuels and engine conditions. The finite element cylinder model is applied to better estimate heat transfer and cylinder wall temperatures of the cast iron chamber of CFR engine under continuous knocking operation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1192
Adam Duran, Ke Li, John kresse, Kenneth Kelly, Ram Vijayagopal
When developing and designing new technology for integrated vehicle systems deployment, standard cycles have long existed for chassis dynamometer testing and tuning of the system. However to this day, with recent developments and advancements in PHEV/BEV vehicle technology, no true “work day” cycles exists with which to tune and measure energy storage control and thermal management systems. To address this issues and in support of development of a range extended pickup and delivery class 6 commercial vehicle, NREL researchers in collaboration with Cummins and Argonne National Laboratory analyzed only 78,000 days of operational data captured from more than 260 vehicles operating across the United States. In total, over 2.5 million miles of real world vehicle operation were condensed into a pair of duty cycles, an 80 mile and an 100 mile cycle representative of the daily operation of US class 3-6 commercial pickup and delivery trucks.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0321
Ram Vijayagopal, Aymeric Rousseau, Alexandre Vallet
Electrified powertrains are gaining acceptance on the light duty vehicles, but their impact of medium and heavy duty vehicles are not well understood. There are several prototyping efforts funded by US DOE in demonstrating the benefits in certain vehicle segments, but a larger study including several types of trucks is needed to understand the impact of specific powertrain technologies. This study proposes the use of a fleet of 13 different vehicles from various class, vocation combinations. This will cover over 50% of the type of medium and heavy duty vehicles on US roads. The vehicles that enjoy the market share in each category is taken as the baseline. Their fuel consumption and performance is simulated in Autonomie. Equivalent vehicles with electrified powertrains are designed with the underlying principle of not compromising on cargo or performance. Several performance characteristics were identified for benchmarking based on the feedback from the industry.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0210
Toby Rockstroh, Christopher P. Kolodziej, Mads C. Jespersen, S. Scott Goldsborough, Thomas Wallner
Of late there has been a resurgence in knock studies investigating parameters that quantify knock in both standardized platforms and modern spark-ignition engines. However, it is still unclear how metrics such as knock rating, knock onset and knock intensity are related, and how fuels behave according to these metrics across a range of conditions. As part of an ongoing study, a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was modified to allow mild levels of intake air boosting while staying true to its intended purpose of being the standard device for ASTM-specified knock rating, or octane number tests. The engine was equipped with in-cylinder pressure transducers to enable both, logging of standard knock meter read-out, as well as state-of-the-art indicated data.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1251
S. Scott Goldsborough, Aleksandr fridlyand, Richard West, Matthew McNenly, Marco Mehl, William J. Pitz
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations however are not free from error, and the interpretation of model results must be considered in the context of uncertainties within the chemical kinetic mechanism. Uncertainties arise due to structural considerations (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as incomplete descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. This study focuses on the latter. Recently, progress has been made toward developing a framework to facilitate uncertainty quantification for a detailed, transportation-relevant fuel model.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1368
Forrest Jehlik, Netsanet Chevers, Matthew Moniot, Yuanpei Song, Hidekazu Hirabayashi, Masahiro Nomura, Eric Wood
The 2012-2025 National fuel economy and greenhouse standards define the regulations for Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) which must be met by automobile manufacturers. Automobile manufacturer fleet CAFE is determined via a combination of on- and off-cycle methods. On-cycle certification is determined from weighted test results over EPA’s test cycles. Starting in 2017, manufacturers may supplement on cycle results with off-cycle credits. Off cycle credits may be applied for fuel saving items and technologies whose real-world benefit is not captured by on-cycle testing. There are multiple means to obtain off cycle credits; selection from a pre-defined menu, testing by 5 cycle procedures, or testing via an alternate method. For many technologies, the alternate method testing may provide the best estimate of the true fuel savings.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0420
Jongryeol JEONG, Sungwook Choi, Namdoo Kim, Heeyun Lee, Kevin Stutenberg, Aymeric Rousseau
This paper presents the validation of an entire vehicle model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016, of which system is the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system is operated in five operation modes including two electric vehicle (EV) modes and three extended-range modes. The model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of the Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). First, the components of the vehicle such as engine, motor, battery, wheel and chassis were modeled including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, the engine efficiency changes depending on the coolant temperature or chassis’ different heating or air conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature are applied.
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2302
Tobias Knorsch, Dmitrii Mamaikin, Philippe Leick, Philipp Rogler, Jin Wang, Zhilong Li, Michael Wensing
Abstract The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0178
Katarzyna E. Matusik, Daniel J. Duke, Alan L. Kastengren, Christopher F. Powell
Abstract The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0101
Pedro Marti-Aldaravi, Kaushik Saha, Jaime Gimeno, Sibendu Som
Abstract Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0157
Forrest Jehlik, Simeon Iliev, Eric Wood, Jeff Gonder
Abstract This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a highly instrumented 2011 Ford Fusion (Taurus and Fusion). The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the instrumented Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions.
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