Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Investigation of Key Mechanisms for Liquid Length Fluctuations in Transient Vaporizing Diesel Sprays
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.