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Viewing 1 to 30 of 285
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0054
James Szybist, Steven Davis, John Thomas, Brian C. Kaul
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust after the catalyst system as the heat source, although applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three way catalyst. The generator was characterized at over a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map, and also at selected transient conditions. Detailed performance results are presented.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0183
Jinlong Liu, James Szybist, Cosmin Dumitrescu
Modern 3D CFD IC engine simulations are extremely complex for the regular user due to the use of complex phenomenological sub-models with solution-adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening, and improved chemistry solvers. This study used ANSYS® Forte, Version 17.2, an IC engine CFD software package, to investigate two tuning constants that influence flame propagation in 3D CFD SI engine simulations: the stretch factor coefficient, C_ms and the flame development coefficient, C_m2. After identifying several C_m2-C_ms pairs that matched experimental data at one operating conditions, simulation results showed that except for HC emissions, the engine models that used different C_m2-C_ms sets predicted similar combustion performance, when the spark timing, engine load, and engine speed were changed from the operating condition used to validate the CFD simulation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0803
Lu Huang, Xiaoming Chen, Dunji Yu, Yan Chen, Ke An, Mingchao Guo
Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-0946
Vitaly Prikhodko, Josh Pihl, Todd Toops, James Parks
A prototype three-way catalyst (TWC) with NOX storage component was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly-rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. Adding a NOX storage component to a TWC provides two benefits in the context of a passive SCR system: (1) enabling longer lean operation by storing NOX upstream and preserving NH3 inventory on the downstream SCR catalyst; and (2) increasing the quantity and rate of NH3 production during rich operation.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1264
Josh Pihl, John Thomas, Sreshtha Sinha Majumdar, Shean Huff, Brian West, Todd Toops
The U.S. Department of Energy funded Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) aims to simultaneously transform both transportation fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. Researchers from across the DOE national laboratory system are working within Co-Optima to develop merit functions for evaluating the impact of fuel formulations on the performance of advanced engines. The merit functions relate overall engine efficiency to specific measurable fuel properties and will serve as key tools in the fuel/engine co-optimization process. This work focused on developing a term for the Co-Optima light-duty boosted spark ignition (SI) engine merit function that captures the effects of fuel composition on emissions control system performance and overall engine efficiency.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1260
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Andrew Herman, Vitaly Prikhodko, James Parks, John Storey
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself.
2018-04-03
Technical Paper
2018-01-1125
Joseph Drallmeier, Martin Wissink, Scott Curran, Robert Wagner
Low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies present a means of reducing soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions while simultaneously increasing efficiency relative to conventional combustion modes. By sufficiently premixing fuel and air before combustion, LTC strategies avoid high fuel-to-air equivalence ratios that lead to soot production. Dilution of the mixture lowers the combustion temperatures to reduce NOx production and offers thermodynamic advantages for improved efficiency. However, issues such as high heat release rates (HRRs), incomplete combustion, and difficulty in controlling the timing of combustion arise with low equivalence ratios and combustion temperatures. Ignition delay (the time until the start of combustion) is a way to quantify the time available for fuel and air to mix inside the cylinder before combustion. Previous studies have used ignition delay to explain trends seen in LTC such as combustion stability and HRRs.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0061
James P. Szybist, Scott W. Wagnon, Derek Splitter, William J. Pitz, Marco Mehl
Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions [1]. In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0088
Gregory Roberts, Christine Mounaim Rousselle, Mark Musculus, Martin Wissink, Scott Curran, Ethan Eagle
Abstract Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.
2017-08-11
Journal Article
2017-01-9379
John Thomas, Shean Huff, Brian West, Paul Chambon
Abstract Aggressive driving is an important topic for many reasons, one of which is higher energy used per unit distance traveled, potentially accompanied by an elevated production of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Examining a large data set of self-reported fuel economy (FE) values revealed that the dispersion of FE values is quite large and is larger for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) than for conventional gasoline vehicles. This occurred despite the fact that the city and highway FE ratings for HEVs are generally much closer in value than for conventional gasoline vehicles. A study was undertaken to better understand this and better quantify the effects of aggressive driving, including reviewing past aggressive driving studies, developing and exercising a new vehicle energy model, and conducting a related experimental investigation.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0183
Mingyu Wang, Timothy Craig, Edward Wolfe, Tim J LaClair, Zhiming Gao, Michael Levin, Danrich Demitroff, Furqan Shaikh
Abstract It is widely recognized in the automotive industry that, in very cold climatic conditions, the driving range of an Electric Vehicle (EV) can be reduced by 50% or more. In an effort to minimize the EV range penalty, a novel thermal energy storage system has been designed to provide cabin heating in EVs and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) by using an advanced phase change material (PCM). This system is known as the Electrical PCM-based Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) [1, 2]. When the EV is connected to the electric grid to charge its traction battery, the ePATHS system is also “charged” with thermal energy. The stored heat is subsequently deployed for cabin comfort heating during driving, for example during commuting to and from work. The ePATHS system, especially the PCM heat exchanger component, has gone through substantial redesign in order to meet functionality and commercialization requirements.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0681
Gurneesh S. Jatana, Brian C. Kaul
Abstract Use of dilution with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) offers substantial efficiency gains in spark ignition (SI) engines, especially when boosting and downsizing are employed. However, the onset of instabilities in engine operation, due to misfires and partial burns, limits the dilution levels. Active controls can be employed to improve engine stability during high dilution operation, with spark and fueling being the main control parameters available for cycle-to-cycle control implementation. This paper aims to understand the sensitivity of the combustion process to changes in fueling under dilute operation achieved with both excess air (lean operation) and EGR. Sinusoidal perturbations were introduced into the injected fuel quantity, and the sensitivity to these perturbations was characterized using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis of the cycle cumulative heat release data.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0688
Derek Splitter, Brian Kaul, James Szybist, Gurneesh Jatana
Abstract This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0747
John Storey, Samuel Lewis, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, Raynella Connatser, Jong Lee, Tom Tzanetakis, Kukwon Cho, Matthew Lorey, Mark Sellnau
Abstract Low temperature combustion engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited by the fuel properties. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON 92 E10) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80 E0), were compared on Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEPg) to medium load conditions (1500 rpm/6 bar and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEPg). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts, between which was located the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet. Samples were taken at engine-out, between the catalysts, and at tailpipe locations.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-1605
Paul Chambon, Dean Deter, David Smith, Grant Bauman
Abstract Electric drives, whether in battery electric vehicles (BEVs) or various other applications, are an important part of modern transportation. Traditionally, physics-based models based on steady-state mapping of electric drives have been used to evaluate their behavior under transient conditions. Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) testing seeks to provide a more accurate representation of a component’s behavior under transient load conditions that are more representative of real world conditions it will operate under, without requiring a full vehicle installation. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed such a HIL test platform capable of subjecting electric drives to both conventional steady-state test procedures as well as transient experiments such as vehicle drive cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0988
Michael Cunningham, Mi-Young Kim, Venkata Lakkireddy, William Partridge
Abstract Measuring axial exhaust species concentration distributions within a wall-flow aftertreatment device provides unique and significant insights regarding the performance of complex devices like the SCR-on-filter. In this particular study, a less complex aftertreatment configuration which includes a DOC followed by two uncoated partial flow filters (PFF) was used to demonstrate the potential and challenges. The PFF design in this study was a particulate filter with alternating open and plugged channels. A SpaciMS [1] instrument was used to measure the axial NO2 profiles within adjacent open and plugged channels of each filter element during an extended passive regeneration event using a full-scale engine and catalyst system. By estimating the mass flow through the open and plugged channels, the axial soot load profile history could be assessed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1000
Jong Lee, Yu Zhang, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver, Melanie Moses-DeBusk, John Storey, William Partridge, Michael Lance
Abstract Greenhouse gas regulations and global economic growth are expected to drive a future demand shift towards diesel fuel in the transportation sector. This may create a market opportunity for cost-effective fuels in the light distillate range if they can be burned as efficiently and cleanly as diesel fuel. In this study, the emission performance of a low cetane number, low research octane number naphtha (CN 34, RON 56) was examined on a production 6-cylinder heavy-duty on-highway truck engine and aftertreatment system. Using only production hardware, both the engine-out and tailpipe emissions were examined during the heavy-duty emission testing cycles using naphtha and ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels. Without any modifications to the hardware and software, the tailpipe emissions were comparable when using either naphtha or ULSD on the heavy duty test cycles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0887
Dairene Uy, George Pranis, Anthony Morelli, Arup Gangopadhyay, Alexander Michlberger, Nicholas Secue, Mike Kinzel, Tina Adams, Kevin Streck, Michael Lance, Andrew Wereszczak
Abstract Deposit formation within turbocharger compressor housings can lead to compressor efficiency degradation. This loss of turbo efficiency may degrade fuel economy and increase CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in deposit formation, five different lubricants were run in a fired engine test while monitoring turbocharger compressor efficiency over time. Base stock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and back plate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-1666
David Weiss, Orlando Rios
Abstract Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 315°C.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0824
Daniel J. Duke, Charles E.A. Finney, Alan Kastengren, Katarzyna Matusik, Nicolas Sovis, Louis Santodonato, Hassina Bilheux, David Schmidt, Christopher Powell, Todd Toops
Abstract Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. The pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offs in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0950
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Andrew Herman, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, James Parks, John Storey
Abstract The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0897
Gregory Pannone, Brian Betz, Michael Reale, John Thomas
Abstract1
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0802
Michael D. Kass, Brian H. West
Abstract The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure elastomers with promising bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Thirty-four candidate fuels were evaluated in this study including multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The elastomer materials were fluorocarbon, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene (SBR), neoprene, polyurethane and silicone. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their measured volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels. The alcohols showed probable compatibility with fluorocarbon and polyurethane, but are not likely to be compatible at low blend levels with NBR and SBR.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0772
ShyamSundar Pasunurthi, Ravichandra Jupudi, Sameera Wijeyakulasuriya, Sreenivasa Rao Gubba, Hong Im, Mohammed Jaasim Mubarak Ali, Roy Primus, Adam Klingbeil, Charles Finney
Abstract The standard capability of engine experimental studies is that ensemble averaged quantities like in-cylinder pressure from multiple cycles and emissions are reported and the cycle to cycle variation (CCV) of indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) is captured from many consecutive combustion cycles for each test condition. However, obtaining 3D spatial distribution of all the relevant quantities such as fuel-air mixing, temperature, turbulence levels and emissions from such experiments is a challenging task. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of engine flow and combustion can be used effectively to visualize such 3D spatial distributions. A dual fuel engine is considered in the current study, with manifold injected natural gas (NG) and direct injected diesel pilot for ignition.
2016-10-17
Journal Article
2016-01-2322
Michael Lance, Andrew Wereszczak, Todd J. Toops, Richard Ancimer, Hongmei An, Junhui Li, Leigh Rogoski, Petr Sindler, Aaron Williams, Adam Ragatz, Robert L. McCormick
Abstract For renewable fuels to displace petroleum, they must be compatible with emissions control devices. Pure biodiesel contains up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg metals, which have the potential to degrade diesel emissions control systems. This study aims to address these concerns, identify deactivation mechanisms, and determine if a lower limit is needed. Accelerated aging of a production exhaust system was conducted on an engine test stand over 1001 h using 20% biodiesel blended into ultra-low sulfur diesel (B20) doped with 14 ppm Na. This Na level is equivalent to exposure to Na at the uppermost expected B100 value in a B20 blend for the system full-useful life. During the study, NOx emissions exceeded the engine certification limit of 0.33 g/bhp-hr before the 435,000-mile requirement.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0934
Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, James E. Parks, Josh A. Pihl, Todd J. Toops
Abstract Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0937
James E. Parks, John M. E. Storey, Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Melanie M. Debusk, Samuel A. Lewis
Abstract New regulations requiring increases in vehicle fuel economy are challenging automotive manufacturers to identify fuel-efficient engines for future vehicles. Lean gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines offer significant increases in fuel efficiency over the more common stoichiometric GDI engines already in the marketplace. However, particulate matter (PM) emissions from lean GDI engines, particularly during stratified combustion modes, are problematic for lean GDI technology to meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 and other future emission regulations. As such, the control of lean GDI PM with wall-flow filters, referred to as gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology, is of interest. Since lean GDI PM chemistry and morphology differ from diesel PM (where more filtration experience exists), the functionality of GPFs needs to be studied to determine the operating conditions suitable for efficient PM removal.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0918
Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Leslie Bromberg, Vitaly Prikhodko, John Storey, James Parks
Abstract Radio frequency (RF)-based sensors provide a direct measure of the particulate filter loading state. In contrast to particulate matter (PM) sensors, which monitor the concentration of PM in the exhaust gas stream for on-board diagnostics purposes, RF sensors have historically been applied to monitor and control the particulate filter regeneration process. This work developed an RF-based particulate filter control system utilizing both conventional and fast response RF sensors, and evaluated the feasibility of applying fast-response RF sensors to provide a real-time measurement of engine-out PM emissions. Testing with a light-duty diesel engine equipped with fast response RF sensors investigated the potential to utilize the particulate filter itself as an engine-out soot sensor.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0909
John Thomas
Abstract A major driving force for change in light-duty vehicle design and technology is the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) joint final rules concerning Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for model years 2017 (MY17) through 2025 (MY25) passenger cars and light trucks. The chief goal of this current study is to compare the already rapid pace of fuel economy improvement and technological change over the previous decade to the required rate of change to meet regulations over the next decade. EPA and NHTSA comparisons of the model year 2005 (MY05) US light-duty vehicle fleet to the model year 2015 (MY15) fleet shows improved fuel economy (FE) of approximately 26% using the same FE estimating method mandated for CAFE regulations. Future predictions by EPA and NHTSA concerning ensemble fleet fuel economy are examined as an indicator of required vehicle rate-of-change.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0897
Dairene Uy, John Storey, C. Scott Sluder, Teresa Barone, Sam Lewis, Mark Jagner
Abstract The recirculation of gases from the crankcase and valvetrain can potentially lead to the entrainment of lubricant in the form of aerosols or mists. As boost pressures increase, the blow-by flow through both the crankcase and the valve cover increases. The resulting lubricant can then become part of the intake charge, potentially leading to fouling of intake components such as the intercooler and the turbocharger. The entrained aerosol which can contain the lubricant and soot may or may not have the same composition as the bulk lubricant. The complex aerodynamic processes that lead to entrainment can strip out heavy components or volatilize light components. Similarly, the physical size and numbers of aerosol particles can be dependent upon the lubricant formulation and engine speed and load. For instance, high rpm and load may increase not only the flow of gases but the amount of lubricant aerosol.
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