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Viewing 1 to 30 of 66
2017-09-19
Technical Paper
2017-01-2061
Andrea Cravana, Gerardo Manfreda, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Robert Carrese, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
2017-01-10
Technical Paper
2017-26-0067
Durgada Sankesh, Petros Lappas
Abstract Significant research has been made on traditional pre-mixed charge Spark-Ignition Natural-Gas engines which have seen widespread usage across the automotive sector. Many researchers including those in industry are now exploring the Direct-Injection concept for Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition engines. Direct-Injection has significant performance benefits over port-fuel injection, primarily due to increased volumetric efficiency as a result of injecting the fuel after intake valve closure. This could lead to enhanced driving performance over port-fuel injection comparable to gasoline engines. Furthermore, Direct-Injection with increased compression ratio in conjunction with downsizing concepts has the potential to increase thermal efficiency while exhibiting significantly lower CO2 emissions.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9076
Sylvester Abanteriba, Ulas Yildirim, Renee Webster, David Evans, Paul Rawson
Abstract Aviation turbine fuel and diesel fuel were blended with synthetic paraffins produced via two pathways and the combustion properties measured. Both aviation and diesel fuel containing synthetics produced from the fermentation of sugars, had a linear response to blending with decreasing ignition delay times from 5.05 - 3.52 ms for F-34 and 3.84 - 3.52 ms for F-76. For the same fuels blended with synthetics produced from the fermentation of alcohols, ignition delay times were increased out to 18.66 ms. The derived cetane number of the blends followed an inversely similar trend. Additionally, simulated distillation using ASTM D2887 at high synthetic paraffinic kerosene blend ratios resulted in the recovery temperatures being incorrectly reported. In this case, higher recovery volumes were at lower temperatures than earlier recovery points i.e. T90< T50, for SIP-SPK.
2016-10-24
Journal Article
2016-01-9076.01
Sylvester Abanteriba, Ulas Yildirim, Renee Webster, David Evans, Paul Rawson
Erratum published to correct author listing
2016-09-27
Journal Article
2016-01-8030
Dai Quoc Vo, Hormoz Marzbani, Mohammad Fard, Reza N. Jazar
Abstract As long as a tire steers about a titled kingpin pivot, the point coming in contact with the road moves along its perimeter. This movement affects the determination of kingpin moments caused by the tire forces, especially for large steering angles. The movement, however, has been neglected in the literature on the steerable-tire-kinematics-related topics. In this investigation, the homogeneous transformation is employed to develop a kinematic model of a steering tire in which the instantaneous ground-contact point on the tire is considered. The moments about the kingpin axis caused by tire forces are then computed based on the kinematics. A four-wheel-car model is constructed for determining the kingpin moment of steering system during the low-speed cornering maneuver. The result shows that the displacement of the ground-contact point along the tire perimeter is significant for large steering angles.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0842
Joshua Lacey, Farzad Poursadegh, Michael Brear, Phred Petersen, Charles Lakey, Steve Ryan, Brendan Butcher
Abstract The focus of internal combustion (IC) engine research is the improvement of fuel economy and the reduction of the tailpipe emissions of CO2 and other regulated pollutants. Promising solutions to this challenge include the use of both direct-injection (DI) and alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study uses Mie-scattering and schlieren imaging to resolve the liquid and vapor phases of propane and iso-octane, which serve as surrogates for LPG and gasoline respectively. These fuels are imaged in a constant volume chamber at conditions that are relevant to both naturally aspirated and boosted, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. It is observed that propane and iso-octane have different spray behaviors across these conditions. Iso-octane is subject to conventional spray breakup and evaporation in nearly all cases, while propane is heavily flash-boiling throughout the GDI operating map.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2571
Cornelis Bil, Man Chiu Fung, Sherman C.P. Cheung, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract This paper introduces the Seabus SB-8, a new Wing-In-Ground-Effect (WIGE) craft designed for 8 - 10 passengers. The craft will be used for fast transportation across Port Phillip Bay in Melbourne, Australia. With a cruise speed of about 140 km/hr, it can cross the bay in 30 min as compared to 75 min for land transportation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted on the design to determine aerodynamic properties at various angles of attack and operating heights. The influence of ground effect was also determined as well as the effect of Centre of Gravity (CG) position on longitudinal stability. Using flow visualization areas of potential flow separation were identified and interactions of wake vortices with different parts of the aircraft were determined. Note that some aspects of the design are proprietary.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2455
Roshen Jay Jaswantlal, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Rafael Palacios
Abstract The implementation of Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provides a safe test-bed for analysis of improved performance, in the hope of certification of this technology on commercial aircraft in the future. The use of high resolution numerical methods (i.e. CFD) to capture the details of the effects of SJAs on flows and on the hosting lifting surface are computationally expensive and time-consuming, which renders them ineffective for use in real-time flow control implementations. Suitable alternatives include the use of Reduced Order Models (ROMs) to capture the lower resolution overall effects of the jets on the flow and the hosting structure. This research paper analyses the effects of SJAs on aircraft wings using a ROM for the purpose of determining the unsteady aerodynamic forces modified by the presence of the SJAs. The model developed is a 3D unsteady panel code where the jets are represented by source panels.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2453
Danilo Andreoli, Mario Cassaro, Manuela Battipede, Goodarz Ahmadi, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract Flow control over aerodynamic shapes in order to achieve performance enhancements has been a lively research area for last two decades. Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs) are devices able to interact actively with the flow around their hosting structure by providing ejection and suction of fluid from the enclosed cavity containing a piezo-electric oscillating membrane through dedicated orifices. The research presented in this paper concerns the implementation of zero-net-mass-flux SJAs airflow control system on a NACA0015, low aspect ratio wing section prototype. Two arrays with each 10 custom-made SJAs, installed at 10% and 65% of the chord length, make up the actuation system. The sensing system consists of eleven acoustic pressure transducers distributed in the wing upper surface and on the flap, an accelerometer placed in proximity of the wing c.g. and a six-axis force balance for integral load measurement.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2459
Francesco Cappello, Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Multi-Sensor Data Fusion (MSDF) techniques involving satellite and inertial-based sensors are widely adopted to improve the navigation solution of a number of mission- and safety-critical tasks. Such integrated Navigation and Guidance Systems (NGS) currently do not meet the required level of performance in all flight phases of small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). In this paper an innovative Square Root-Unscented Kalman Filter (SR-UKF) based NGS is presented and compared with a conventional UKF governed design. The presented system architectures adopt state-of-the-art information fusion approach based on a number of low-cost sensors including; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) based Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Vision Based Navigation (VBN) sensors.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2544
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Avionic system developers are currently working on innovative technologies that are required in view of the rapid expansion of global air transport and growing concerns for environmental sustainability of aviation sector. Novel Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) system designs are being developed in the CNS/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and Avionics (CNS+A) context for mission-and safety-critical applications. The introduction of dedicated software modules in Next Generation Flight Management Systems (NG-FMS), which are the primary providers of automated navigation and guidance services in manned aircraft and Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), has the potential to enable the significant advances brought in by time and trajectory based operations. High-integrity, high-reliability and all-weather services are required in the context of four dimensional Trajectory Based Operations / Intent Based Operations (TBO/IBO).
2015-09-15
Journal Article
2015-01-2538
Yixiang Lim, Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract Contrails and aircraft-induced cirrus clouds are reputed being the largest components of aviation-induced global warming, even greater than carbon dioxide (CO2) exhaust emissions by aircraft. This article presents a contrail model algorithm specifically developed to be integrated within a multi-objective flight trajectory optimization software framework. The purpose of the algorithm is to supply to the optimizer a measure of the estimated radiative forcing from the contrails generated by the aircraft while flying a specific trajectory. In order to determine the precise measure, a comprehensive model is employed exploiting the Schmidt-Appleman criterion and ice-supersaturation regions. Additional parameters such as the solar zenith angle, contrail lifetime and spread are also considered.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2462
Claudia Bruni, Enrico Cestino, Giacomo Frulla, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The innovative highly flexible wings made of extremely light structures, yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non- structural weights, requires significant effort in structural simulations. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate nonlinear structural schemes combined with reduced order models capable of predicting accurately their aero-structural behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam-wise scheme, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are expanded up to the third order and can be used to explore the effect of static deflection imposed by external trim, the effect of gust loads and the one of nonlinear aerodynamic stall.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2471
Alessandro Ceruti, Simone Curatolo, Alessandro Bevilacqua, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The maturity reached in the development of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) systems is making them more and more attractive for a vast number of civil missions. Clearly, the introduction of UAVs in the civil airspace requiring practical and effective regulation is one of the most critical issues being currently discussed. As several civil air authorities report in their regulations “Sense and Avoid” or “Detect and Avoid” capabilities are critical to the successful integration of UAV into the civil airspace. One possible approach to achieve this capability, specifically for operations beyond the Line-of-Sight, would be to equip air vehicles with a vision-based system using cameras to monitor the surrounding air space and to classify other air vehicles flying in close proximity. This paper presents an image-based application for the supervised classification of air vehicles.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2469
Reece Clothier, Brendan Williams, Achim Washington
Abstract One of the primary hazards associated with the operation of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) is the controlled or uncontrolled impact of the UA with terrain or objects on the terrain (e.g., people or structures). National Aviation Authorities (NAAs) have the responsibility of ensuring that the risks associated with this hazard are managed to an acceptable level. The NAA can mandate a range of technical (e.g., design standards) and operational (e.g., restrictions on flight) regulatory requirements. However, work to develop these regulations for UA is ongoing. Underpinning this rule-making process is a safety case showing how the regulatory requirements put in place ensure that the UA operation is acceptably safe for the given application and environment.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2456
Roberto Sabatini, Terry Moore, Chris Hill, Subramanian Ramasamy
Abstract Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) can support the development of low-cost and high performance navigation and guidance architectures for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) and, in conjunction with suitable data link technologies, the provision of Automated Dependent Surveillance (ADS) functionalities for cooperative Sense-and-Avoid (SAA). In non-cooperative SAA, the adoption of GNSS can also provide the key positioning and, in some cases, attitude data (using multiple antennas) required for automated collision avoidance. A key limitation of GNSS for both cooperative (ADS) and non-cooperative applications is represented by the achievable levels of integrity. Therefore, an Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) solution is proposed to support the development of an Integrity-Augmented SAA (IAS) architecture suitable for both cooperative and non-cooperative scenarios.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2460
Melissa Arras, Giuliano Coppotelli, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Antonio Simone Mezzapesa
Abstract In this paper the finite element model of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is updated by using experimental data coming from a standard ground vibration test in order to improve the numerical-experimental correlation. A sensitivity-based updating methodology that iteratively minimizes a residual vector, defined on the modal parameters (e.g. natural frequencies and mode shapes), is considered to identify the unknown values of the updating parameters. The structure under investigation is the Clarkson University Golden Eagle UAV. An initial numerical model of the structure is obtained by assembling the individual components previously updated which included wings, fuselage, horizontal tail, vertical tails and tail booms. As a result the identification procedure shifts its focus on the joints between UAV elements which could not be modeled accurately in earlier investigations.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2475
Francesco Cappello, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy
Abstract Accurate and robust tracking of objects is of growing interest amongst the computer vision scientific community. The ability of a multi-sensor system to detect and track objects, and accurately predict their future trajectory is critical in the context of mission- and safety-critical applications. Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) are currently not equipped to routinely access all classes of airspace since certified Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) systems are yet to be developed. Such capabilities can be achieved by incorporating both cooperative and non-cooperative DAA functions, as well as providing enhanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) services. DAA is highly dependent on the performance of CNS systems for Detection, Tacking and avoiding (DTA) tasks and maneuvers.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2473
Alessandro Ceruti, Alfredo Liverani, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2477
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini
Abstract This paper presents the conceptual design of a new low-cost measurement system for the determination of pollutant concentrations associated with aircraft operations. The proposed system employs Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and passive electro-optics equipment installed in two non-collocated components. The source component consists of a tuneable small-size and low-cost/weight LIDAR emitter, which can be installed either on airborne or ground-based autonomous vehicles, or in fixed surface installations. The sensor component includes a target surface calibrated for reflectance and passive electro-optics equipment calibrated for radiance, both installed on an adjustable support. The proposed bistatic system determines the column-averaged molecular and aerosol pollutant concentrations along the LIDAR beam by measuring the cumulative absorption and scattering phenomena along the optical slant range.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2577
Alessandro Ceruti, Piergiovanni Marzocca, Vitaly Voloshin
Abstract The aim of this paper is to develop a new concept of unconventional airship based on morphing a lenticular shape while preserving the volumetric dimension. Lenticular shape is known to have relatively poor aerodynamic characteristics. It is also well known to have poor static and dynamic stability after the certain critical speed. The new shape presented in this paper is obtained by extending one and reducing the other direction of the original lenticular shape. The volume is kept constant through the morphing process. To improve the airship performance, four steps of morphing, starting from the lenticular shape, were obtained and compared in terms of aerodynamic characteristics, including drag, lift and pitching moment, and stability characteristics for two different operational scenarios. The comparison of the stability was carried out based on necessary deflection angle of the part of tail surface.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2470
Subramanian Ramasamy, Roberto Sabatini, Alessandro Gardi
Abstract A unified approach to cooperative and non-cooperative Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) is a key enabler for Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) to safely and routinely access all classes of airspace. In this paper state-of-the-art cooperative and non-cooperative DAA sensor/system technologies for manned aircraft and RPAS are reviewed and the associated multi-sensor data fusion techniques are discussed. A DAA system architecture is presented based on Boolean Decision Logics (BDL) for selecting non-cooperative and cooperative sensors/systems including both passive and active Forward Looking Sensors (FLS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B). After elaborating the DAA system processes, the key mathematical models associated with both non-cooperative and cooperative DAA functions are presented.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2539
Alessandro Gardi, Roberto Sabatini, Subramanian Ramasamy, Matthew Marino, Trevor Kistan
Abstract As part of the current initiatives aimed at enhancing safety, efficiency and environmental sustainability of aviation, a significant improvement in the efficiency of aircraft operations is currently pursued. Innovative Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies and operational concepts are being developed to achieve the ambitious goals for efficiency and environmental sustainability set by national and international aviation organizations. These technological and operational innovations will be ultimately enabled by the introduction of novel CNS/ATM and Avionics (CNS+A) systems, featuring higher levels of automation. A core feature of such systems consists in the real-time multi-objective optimization of flight trajectories, incorporating all the operational, economic and environmental aspects of the aircraft mission.
2015-09-15
Technical Paper
2015-01-2578
Alessandro Ceruti, Piergiovanni Marzocca
Abstract The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1132
Jiaxing Zhan, Mohammad Fard
Abstract The self-locking gear has great potential application in controlling the position stability of gearbox, which is a critical requirement in some precision machineries and instruments. This study provides important knowledge about the dynamic performance of self-locking gear pairs. An analytical model of variation ratio of contact length (VRCL) was established. The tooth root stress, bearing force, and axial acceleration of three self-locking gear pairs are investigated by using transient dynamic finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA results presented the influences of VRCL on the meshing performance of self-locking gear pairs. The obtained results provide significant knowledge for predicting the dynamic performance of self-locking gear pairs, optimizing their design parameters, and diagnosing possible design errors in self-locking gear pair design.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0938
Prashanth Karra, Thomas Rogers, Petros Lappas
Abstract The air entrainment process of a compressed natural gas transient fuel jet was investigated in a constant-volume chamber using Schlieren and particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. A new method of calculating air entrainment around a gaseous fuel jet is proposed using Schlieren and PIV imaging techniques. This method offers an alternative to calculation of an alternative to calculation of entrainment using LIF technique in gaseous fuel jets. Several Jet-ambient pressure ratios were tested. In each test, nitrogen was used to fill the chamber as an air surrogate before the jet of natural gas was injected. Schlieren high speed videography and PIV experiments were performed at the same conditions. Schlieren mask images were used to accurately identify the jet boundary which was then superimposed onto a PIV image. Vectors adjacent to the Schlieren mask in the PIV image were used to calculate the spatial distribution of the air entrainment at the jet boundary.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1418
Shane Richardson, Nikola Josevski, Andreas Sandvik, Tandy Pok, Tia Lange Orton, Blake Winter, Xu Wang
Abstract Pedestrian throw distance can be used to evaluate vehicle impact speed for wrap or forward projection type pedestrian collisions. There have been multiple papers demonstrating relationships between the impact speed of a vehicle and the subsequent pedestrian throw distance. In the majority of instances, the scenarios evaluated focused on the central width of the vehicle impacting the pedestrian. However, based on investigated pedestrian collisions, the location where the pedestrian has engaged with the vehicle can and does significantly influence the throw distance (and projection) and subsequent impact speed analysis. PC-Crash was used to simulate multiple pedestrian impacts at varying speeds and vehicle impact locations, creating pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots. This paper presents the pedestrian throw distance impact speed contour plots for a range of nine vehicle types.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0066
Luke Spiteri, Stephen Daynes, Simon Watkins
Abstract A morphing ram-air intake, capable of deploying from a flat, closed surface to an open state is investigated. Via geometric and material optimisation, an origami-inspired folding structure is developed to exhibit bi-stable behaviour. An iterative finite element design process was conducted, noting the effects of the critical design properties of geometry, bending stiffness and material strain limits on bi-stability and the achievable geometric shape change. As a first step, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer materials are proposed while increased stiffness by fibre reinforcements are considered at a later design stage and evaluated under aerodynamic loading. The bi-stable structure is capable of remaining in either open or closed stable configurations without sustained actuation. The ability to retract the intake when not required has the potential to reduce drag. It is envisioned that such a concept may be readily adopted within automotive and aerospace applications.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0046
Zhengqing Liu, Mohammad Fard, Reza Jazar
Abstract Characterizing the acoustic properties of sound-absorbing materials is costly and time consuming. The acoustic material database helps the automotive designers design their interior trims in accordance with target level for interior noise. In this paper, a two-microphone impedance tube was used to measure the normal sound absorption coefficient. The main parameters that are used in the theoretical model for interior noise level assessment are investigated. These parameters include thickness, airflow resistivity, porosity, tortuosity, viscous and thermal characteristics length. The measured results have been validated by the theoretical models. The validation of normal sound absorption coefficient was found to be in agreement with its corresponding measurement data. Finally, the sensitivity of the sound absorption coefficient which is related to the physical properties mentioned above is further analyzed.
2015-03-10
Technical Paper
2015-01-0067
Dai Q Vo, Reza N. Jazar, Mohammad Fard
Abstract A variation in the camber of an automotive wheel is desired to compensate a side-slip force change owing to normal load transfer when the car is cornering. The camber of a steered wheel can be varied by adjusting caster or lean angle which are the representations of steering axis orientation. Thus, a smart camber can be created by a variable caster or lean angle. Choosing which parameter among the two angles to be variable is very important and dependent on its different effects. Here, homogeneous transformation is employed to establish camber as a function of caster, lean angle, and steering angle in the general case. A comparison between caster and lean angle based on different criteria is then made. The comparison shows that a variable caster is much better and more feasible than a variable lean angle in generating a smart camber.
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