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Viewing 1 to 30 of 39
2017-10-08
Technical Paper
2017-01-2429
Felix Leach, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0046
Richard Stone, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart
Abstract The increased efficiency and specific output with Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines are well known, but so too are the higher levels of Particulate Matter emissions compared with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. To minimise Particulate Matter emissions, then it is necessary to understand and control the mixture preparation process, and important insights into GDI engine mixture preparation and combustion can be obtained from optical access engines. Such data is also crucial for validating models that predict flows, sprays and air fuel ratio distributions. The purpose of this paper is to review a number of optical techniques; the interpretation of the results is engine specific so will not be covered here. Mie scattering can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of the fuel spray and this can be followed with Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) for determining the air fuel ratio and temperature distributions.
2017-09-04
Technical Paper
2017-24-0075
Felix Leach, Riyaz Ismail, Martin Davy, Adam Weall, Brian Cooper
Abstract Modern diesel cars, fitted with state-of-the-art aftertreatment systems, have the capability to emit extremely low levels of pollutant species at the tailpipe. However, diesel aftertreatment systems can represent a significant cost, packaging and maintenance requirement. Reducing engine-out emissions in order to reduce the scale of the aftertreatment system is therefore a high priority research topic. Engine-out emissions from diesel engines are, to a significant degree, dependent on the detail of fuel/air interactions that occur in-cylinder, both during the injection and combustion events and also due to the induced air motion in and around the bowl prior to injection. In this paper the effect of two different piston bowl shapes are investigated.
2017-09-04
Journal Article
2017-24-0045
Blane Scott, Christopher Willman, Ben Williams, Paul Ewart, Richard Stone, David Richardson
Abstract In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation by measurement of the in-cylinder temperature distribution during the compression stroke. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0 % when the gas composition is well characterized and homogeneous; as the pressure increases the precision improves.
2017-03-28
Journal Article
2017-01-0185
Kesavan Ramakrishnan, Pietro Romanazzi, Damir Zarko, Giampiero Mastinu, David A. Howey, Alessio Miotto
Abstract In this paper, an improved analytical model accounting for thermal effects in the electromagnetic field solution as well as efficiency map calculation of an outer rotor surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine is described. The study refers in particular to an in-wheel motor designed for automotive electric powertrain. This high torque and low speed application pushes the electric machine close to its thermal boundary, which necessitates estimates of winding and magnet temperatures to update the winding resistance and magnet remanence in the efficiency calculation. An electromagnetic model based on conformal mapping is used to compute the field solution in the air gap. The slotted air-gap geometry is mapped to a simpler slotless shape, where the field solution can be obtained by solving Laplace's equation for scalar potential. The canonical slottless domain solution is mapped back to the original domain and verified with finite element model (FEM) results.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0063
John Botham, Gunwant Dhadyalla, Antony Powell, Peter Miller, Olivier Haas, David McGeoch, Arun Chakrapani Rao, Colin O'Halloran, Jaroslaw Kiec, Asif Farooq, Saman Poushpas, Nick Tudor
Abstract PICASSOS was a UK government funded programme to improve the ability of automotive supply chains to develop complex software-intensive systems with high safety assurance and at an acceptable cost. This was executed by a consortium of three universities and five companies including an automotive OEM and suppliers. Three major elements of the PICASSOS project were: use of automated model based verification technology utilising formal methods; application of this technology in the context of ISO 26262; and evaluation to measure the impact of this approach to inform key management decisions on the costs, benefits and risks of applying this technology on live projects. The project spanned system level design and software development. This was achieved by using a unified model based process incorporating SysML at the system level and using Simulink and Stateflow auto-coded into C at the software level.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0138
Chris Lim, Peter Ireland, Nicholas Collett
Abstract The analysis of thermal fields in the underhood region is complicated by the complex geometry and the influence of a multitude of different heat sources. This complexity means that running full CFD analyses to predict the thermal field in this region is both computationally expensive and time consuming. A method of predicting the thermal field using linear superposition has been developed in order to analyse the underhood region of a simplified Formula One race car, though the technique is applicable to all vehicles. The use of linear superposition allows accurate predictions of the thermal field within a complex geometry for varying boundary conditions with negligible computational costs once the initial characterisation CFD has been run. A quarter scale, rear end model of a Formula One race car with a simplified internal assembly is considered for analysis, though the technique can also be applied to commercial and industrial vehicles.
2017-03-28
Technical Paper
2017-01-0515
Thomas De Cuyper, Stijn Broekaert, Duc-Khanh Nguyen, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract Engine optimization requires a good understanding of the in-cylinder heat transfer since it affects the power output, engine efficiency and emissions of the engine. However little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to its complexity. To aid the understanding of the heat transfer phenomena in a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, accurate measurements of the local instantaneous heat flux are wanted. An improved understanding will lead to better heat transfer modelling, which will improve the accuracy of current simulation software. In this research, prototype thin film gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors are used to capture the transient in-cylinder heat flux within a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. A two-zone temperature model is linked with the heat flux data. This allows the distinction between the convection coefficient in the unburned and burned zone.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0641
Thomas De Cuyper, Sam Bracke, Jolien Lavens, Stijn Broekaert, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract To optimize internal combustion engines (ICEs), a good understanding of engine operation is essential. The heat transfer from the working gases to the combustion chamber walls plays an important role, not only for the performance, but also for the emissions of the engine. Besides, thermal management of ICEs is becoming more and more important as an additional tool for optimizing efficiency and emission aftertreatment. In contrast little is known about the convective heat transfer inside the combustion chamber due to the complexity of the working processes. Heat transfer measurements inside the combustion chamber pose a challenge in instrumentation due to the harsh environment. Additionally, the heat loss in a spark ignition (SI) engine shows a high temporal and spatial variation. This poses certain requirements on the heat flux sensor. In this paper we examine the heat transfer in a production SI ICE through the use of Thin Film Gauge (TFG) heat flux sensors.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0700
Johannes Mutzke, Blane Scott, Richard Stone, John Williams
Abstract Knocking combustion places a major limit on the performance and efficiency of spark ignition engines. Spontaneous ignition of the unburned air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front leads to a rapid release of energy, which produces pressure waves that cause the engine structure to vibrate at its natural frequencies and produce an audible ‘pinging’ sound. In extreme cases of knock, increased temperatures and pressures in the cylinder can cause severe engine damage. Damage is thought to be caused by thermal strain effects that are directly related to the heat flux. Since it will be the maximum values that are potentially the most damaging, then the heat flux needs to be measured on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Previous work has correlated heat flux with the pressure fluctuations on an average basis, but the work here shows a correlation on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The in-cylinder pressure and surface temperature were measured using a pressure transducer and eroding-type thermocouple.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0817
Peter Fussey, David Limebeer
Abstract The introduction of transient test cycles and the focus on real world driving emissions has increased the importance of ensuring the NOx and soot emissions are controlled during transient manoeuvres. At the same time, there is a drive to reduce the number of calibration variables used by engine control strategies to reduce development effort and costs. In this paper, a control orientated combustion model, [1], and model predictive control strategy, [2], that were developed in simulation and reported in earlier papers, are applied to a Diesel engine and demonstrated in a test vehicle. The paper describes how the control approach developed in simulation was implemented in embedded hardware, using an FPGA to accelerate the emissions calculations. The development of the predictive controller includes the application of a simplified optimisation algorithm to enable a real-time calculation in the test vehicle.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-0991
Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images. Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1750
Stijn Broekaert, Thomas De Cuyper, Kam Chana, Michel De Paepe, Sebastian Verhelst
Abstract Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are a promising alternative to traditional spark- and compression-ignition engines, due to their high thermal efficiency and near-zero emissions of NOx and soot. Simulation software is an essential tool in the development and optimization of these engines. The heat transfer submodel used in simulation software has a large influence on the accuracy of the simulation results, due to its significant effect on the combustion. In this work several empirical heat transfer models are assessed on their ability to accurately predict the heat flux in a CFR engine during HCCI operation. Models are investigated that are developed for traditional spark- and compression-ignition engines such as those from Annand [1], Woschni [2] and Hohenberg [3] and also models developed for HCCI engines such as those from Chang et al. [4] and Hensel et al. [5].
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0924
Joseph Camm, Richard Stone, Martin Davy, David Richardson
Abstract A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered.
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2859
Oliver P. Taylor, Richard Pearson, Richard Stone, Phil Carden, Helen Ballard
Abstract Most major regional automotive markets have stringent legislative targets for vehicle greenhouse gas emissions or fuel economy enforced by fiscal penalties. Large improvements in vehicle efficiency on mandated test cycles have already taken place in some markets through the widespread adoption of technologies such as downsizing or dieselization. There is now increased focus on approaches which give smaller but significant incremental efficiency benefits such as reducing parasitic losses due to engine friction. Fuel economy improvements which achieve this through the development of advanced engine lubricants are very attractive to vehicle manufacturers due to their favorable cost-benefit ratio. For an engine with components which operate predominantly in the hydrodynamic lubrication regime, the most significant lubricant parameter which can be changed to improve the tribological performance of the system is the lubricant viscosity.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0436
Fan Xu, Richard Stone
The emission of nanoparticles from combustion engines has been shown to have a poorly understood impact on the atmospheric environment and human health, and legislation tends to err on the side of caution. Researchers have shown that Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines tend to emit large amounts of small-sized particles compared to diesel engines fitted with Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). As a result, the particulate number emission level of GDI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the likely EU6 emissions requirement. This paper presents size-resolved particle number emissions measurements from a spray-guided GDI engine and evaluates the performance of an Evaporation Tube (ET). The performance of an Evaporation Tube and hot air dilution system with a 7:1 dilution ratio has been studied, as the EU legislation uses these to exclude volatile particles.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1209
Joachim Demuynck, Michel De Paepe, Louis Sileghem, Jeroen Vancoillie, Sebastian Verhelst, Kam Chana
Models for the convective heat transfer from the combustion gases to the walls inside a spark ignition engine are an important keystone in the simulation tools which are being developed to aid engine optimization. The existing models have, however, been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen, one of the alternative fuels currently investigated. One possible explanation for this inaccuracy is that the models do not adequately capture the effect of the gas properties. These have never been varied in a wide range because air and ‘classical’ fossil fuels have similar values, but they are significantly different in the case of hydrogen. As a first step towards a fuel independent heat transfer model, we have investigated the effect of the gas properties on the heat flux in a spark ignition engine.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0603
Ben Twiney, Richard Stone, Xiangdong Chen, Gavin Edmunds
In-cylinder spray imaging by Mie scattering has been taken with frame rates up to 27,000 fps, along with high speed video photography of chemiluminescence and soot thermal radiation. Spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the presence of OH*, CH* and C2* emissions lines, and their magnitude relative compared to soot radiation. Filtering for CH* has been used with both the high speed video and a Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT). The PMT signals have been found to correlate with the rate of heat release derived from in-cylinder pressure measurements. A high power photographic strobe has been used to illuminate the fuel spray. Images show that the fuel spray can strike the ground strap of the spark plug, break up, and a fuel cloud then drifts over and under the strap through the spark plug gap. Tests have conducted at two different spark plug orientations using a single spark strategy.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0786
Mike Braisher, Richard Stone, Phil Price
In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0793
Longfei Chen, Mike Braisher, Alison Crossley, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
Particulate Matter (PM) legislation for gasoline engines and the introduction of gasoline/ethanol blends, make it important to know the effect of fuel composition on PM emissions. Tests have been conducted with fuels of known composition in both a single-cylinder engine and V8 engine with a three-way catalyst. The V8 engine used an unleaded gasoline (PURA) with known composition and distillation characteristics as a base fuel and with 10% by volume ethanol. The single-cylinder engine used a 65% iso-octane - 35% toluene mixture as its base fuel. The engines had essentially the same combustion system, with a centrally mounted 6-hole spray-guided direct injection system. Particle size distributions were recorded and these have also been converted to mass distributions. Filter samples were taken for thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to give composition information. Both engines were operated at 1500 rpm under part load.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0074
S. Chuepeng, H. M. Xu, A. Tsolakis, M. L. Wyszynski, P. Price, R. Stone, J. C. Hartland, J. Qiao
Increasing biodiesel content in mineral diesel is being promoted considerably for road transportation in Europe. With positive benefits in terms of net CO2 emissions, biofuels with compatible properties to those of conventional diesel are increasingly being used in combustion engines. In comparison to standard diesel fuel, the near zero sulphur content and low levels of aromatic compounds in biodiesel fuel can have a profound effect not only on combustion characteristics but on engine-out emissions as well. This paper presents analysis of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a turbo-charged, common rail direct injection (DI) V6 Jaguar engine operating with an RME (rapeseed methyl ester) biodiesel blended with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) fuel (B30 - 30% of RME by volume). Three different engine load and speed conditions were selected for the test and no modifications were made to the engine hardware or engine management system (EMS) calibration.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0469
Xiaowei Wang, Philip Price, Richard Stone, Dave Richardson
The burn rate and the instantaneous in-cylinder heat transfer have been studied experimentally in a spray-guided direct-injection spark-ignition engine with three different fuels: gasoline, iso-octane and toluene. The effects of the ignition timing, air fuel ratio, fuel injection timing and injection strategy (direct injection or port injection) on the burn rate and the in-cylinder heat transfer have been experimentally investigated at a standard mapping point (1500 rpm and 0.521 bar MAP) with the three different fuels. The burn rate analysis was deduced from the in-cylinder pressure measurement. A two-dimensional heat conduction model of the thermocouple was used to calculate the heat flux from the measured surface temperature. An engine thermodynamic simulation code was used to predict the gas-to-wall heat transfer.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1073
Ben Williams, Paul Ewart, Richard Stone, Hongrui Ma, Harold Walmsley, Roger Cracknell, Robert Stevens, David Richardson, Jun Qiao, Stan Wallace
Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence has been widely accepted and applied to measurements of fuel concentration distributions in IC engines. The need for such measurements has increased with the introduction of Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engines, where it is critical to understand the influence of mixture inhomogeneity on ignition and subsequent combustion, and in particular the implications for cyclic variability. The apparent simplicity of PLIF has led to misunderstanding of the technique when applied to quantitative measurements of fuel distributions. This paper presents a series of engineering methods for optimizing, calibrating and referencing, which together demonstrate a quantitative measure of fuel concentration with an absolute accuracy of 10%. PLIF is widely used with single component fuels as carriers for the fluorescent tracers.
2007-07-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-1931
Philip Price, Richard Stone, Dave OudeNijeweme, Xiangdong Chen
Spray guided Direct Injection Gasoline Engines are a key enabler to reducing CO2 emissions and improving the fuel economy of light duty vehicles. Particulate emissions from these engines have been shown to be lower than from first generation direct injection gasoline engines, but they may still be significantly higher than port fuel injected engines due to the reduced time available for mixture preparation and increased incidence of fuel impingement on the piston crown and combustion chamber surfaces. These factors are particularly severe in the period following a cold start. Both nuclei and accumulation mode particle size and number concentration were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer. These data are reported for different coolant temperature intervals during the warm-up period. The bulk composition was determined using thermo-gravimetric analysis, and PM mass fractions are given for different volatility ranges and for elemental carbon.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0209
Philip Price, Richard Stone, Jacek Misztal, Hongming Xu, Miroslaw Wyszynski, Trevor Wilson, Jun Qiao
Particulate Emissions from Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion are routinely assumed to be negligible. It is shown here that this is not the case when HCCI combustion is implemented in a direct injection gasoline engine. The conditions needed to sustain HCCI operation were realized using the negative valve overlap method for trapping high levels of residual exhaust gases in the cylinder. Measurements of emitted particle number concentration and electrical mobility diameter were made with a Cambustion DMS500 over the HCCI operating range possible with this hardware. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were also measured. These data are presented and compared with similar measurements made under conventional spark ignition (SI) operation in the same engine. Under both SI and HCCI operation, a significant accumulation mode was detected with particle equivalent diameters between 80 and 100 nm.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0472
Philip Price, Ben Twiney, Richard Stone, Kenneth Kar, Harold Walmsley
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1077
Philip Price, Richard Stone, Tony Collier, Marcus Davies, Volker Scheer
A Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS500), Dekati Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI), TSI Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and AVL Photo-Acoustic Soot Sensor (PASS) were compared for measurements of emitted Particulate Matter (PM) from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) vehicle on the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and at steady speed operating points. The exhaust was diluted in a Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) before being measured. Transient size spectral data from the DMS500 and ELPI is presented. PM Number rate and total PM number emissions are presented for the DMS500, ELPI and CPC. The DMS500 and ELPI data are post-processed for PM mass, and presented with data from the PASS. The instrument responses were correlated against each other. Qualitative agreement was generally found between all instruments. The agreement was closer for PM mass measurements than for measurements of PM number.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1045
Xiaowei Wang, Richard Stone, Robert Stevens, Yoshi Arita, David Buttsworth
A two-dimensional finite element model has been used to analyze the unsteady heat conduction behavior of an eroding type of surface thermocouple. The impulse response of the thermocouple was analyzed by using both a one-dimensional solution and a two-dimensional model. The experimental impulse response of the thermocouple was investigated by a laser impulse excitation experiment to validate the modeling results. The modeling results showed that there was a significant difference between the two-dimensional modeling and the one-dimensional analytical solution, especially before 1 ms. The two-dimensional modeling result is closer to the laser impulse experiment result, which implies the existence of a multi-dimensional effect on the transient heat conduction within the eroding thermocouple.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1197
Kenneth Kar, Akshya Swain, Robert Raine, Stephen Roberts, Richard Stone
Exhaust gas temperatures in a 1.4 L, sparked ignition engine have been measured using fine wire thermocouples at different loads and speeds. However the thermocouples are not fast enough to resolve the rapid change in exhaust temperature. This paper discusses a new thermocouple compensation technique to resolve the cycle-by-cycle variations in exhaust temperature by segmentation. Simulation results show that the technique can find the lower time constants during blowdown, reducing the bias from 28 to 4%. Several estimators and model structures have been compared. The best one is the difference equation-least squares technique, which has the combined error between -4.4 to 7.6% at 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The compensated temperatures have been compared against combustion parameters on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The results show that the cycle-by-cycle variations of the exhaust temperatures and combustion are correlated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1263
Philip Price, Richard Stone, Tony Collier, Marcus Davies
A Spray Guided Direct Injection (SGDI) engine has been shown to emit less Particulate Matter (PM) than a first generation (wall guided) Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. The reduction is attributed to the reduced incidence of fuel-wall impingement and higher fuel injection pressure. The extent to which this is true was investigated by comparison between single cylinder SGDI and DISI engines. Both engines were also operated with conventional port injection to provide a baseline. Feedgas PM number concentration and size spectra were measured using a Cambustion differential mobility spectrometer for the fuels iso-octane and toluene with a range of Air-Fuel Ratios (AFRs), ignition and injection timings.
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